Exam Code: CSQA Practice test 2023 by Killexams.com team
CSQA Certified Software Quality Analyst (CSQA)

Acquiring the designation of Certified Software Quality Analyst (CSQA) indicates a professional level of competence in the principles and practices of quality assurance in the IT profession. CSQAs become members of a recognized professional group and receive recognition of their competence by business and professional associates, potentially more rapid career advancement, and greater acceptance in the role as advisor to management.

With the move to Pearson VUE Testing Centers as its partner for the administration of certification examinations worldwide there will no longer be a fixed schedule posted with dates / locations as in previous year.
Exams are offered daily at Pearson VUE Testing Centers and seats for the exams are based on availability at each site which depends on when you are planning to schedule an exam. The farther out you attempt to schedule an test the better the chances are of finding a seat so plan accordingly.
As a general rule most Pearson VUE Testing Centers are open Monday – Friday, however in some locations that may vary. The majority of test centers are open in the morning and late afternoon and a handful have opted to stay open on the weekends.

- Quality Principles and Concepts
- Quality Leadership
- Quality Baselines (Assessments and Models)
- Quality Assurance
- Quality Planning
- Define, Build, Implement and Excellerate Work Processes
- Quality Control Practices
- Metrics and Measurement
- Internal Control and Security
- Outsourcing, COTS and Contracting Quality

Knowledge Category 1 ~ Quality Principles and Concepts
Before an organization can begin to assess the quality of its products and services, and identify opportunities for improvement, it first must have a working knowledge of quality principles and basic concepts. This category will test the CSQA candidates ability to understand these principles.

Knowledge Category 2 ~ Quality Leadership The most important prerequisites for successful implementation of any major quality initiative are leadership and commitment from executive management. Management must create a work environment supportive of quality initiatives. It is managements responsibility to establish strategic objectives and build an infrastructure that is aligned to those objectives. This category will cover the management processes used to establish the foundation of a quality-managed environment, as well as commitment, new behaviors, building the infrastructure, techniques, approaches and communications.

Knowledge Category 3 ~ Quality Baselines (Assessments and Models)
Organizations need to establish baselines of performance for quality, productivity and customer satisfaction. These baselines are used to document improvements by showing changes from a baseline. In order to establish a baseline, a model and/or goal must be established for use in measuring against to determine the baseline.

Knowledge Category 4 ~ Quality Assurance
Quality Assurance is a professional competency whose focus is directed at critical processes used to build products and services. The profession is charged with the responsibility for tactical process improvement initiatives that are strategically aligned to the goals of the organization. This category will address the understanding and application of quality assurance practices in support of the strategic quality direction of the organization.

Knowledge Category 5 ~ Quality Planning
Executive management establishes the vision and strategic goals. Planning is the process that describes how those strategic goals will be accomplished. Quality planning should be integrated into the IT plan so that they become a single plan. In simplistic terms, the IT plan represents the producer and the quality plan represents the customer.

Knowledge Category 6 ~ Define, Build, Implement and Excellerate Work Processes
This category will test the candidates understanding of process components, how to define a process, and how to continuously Excellerate process capability.

Knowledge Category 7 ~ Quality Control Practices
Quality control practices should occur during product development, product acquisition, product construction at the end of development/acquisition and throughout product change and operation. During development, the quality control process is frequently called verification and at the conclusion of development, it is called validation. This category will address the various types of controls and when they are best used in the process.

Knowledge Category 8 ~ Metrics and Measurement
This category addresses measurement concepts, the use of measurement in a software development environment, variation, process capability, risk management, the ways measurement can be used, and how to implement an effective measurement program.

Knowledge Category 9 ~ Internal Control and Security
Privacy laws and increased accessibility to data have necessitated increased security. Accounting scandals and governmental regulation such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act have placed increased importance on building and maintaining adequate systems of internal control. The quality assurance function can contribute to meeting those objectives by assuring that IT has adequate processes governing internal control and security.

Knowledge Category 10 ~ Outsourcing, COTS and Contracting Quality
Organizations can assign software development work responsibilities to outside organizations through purchasing software or contracting services; but they cannot assign the responsibility for quality. Quality of software remains an internal IT responsibility regardless of who builds the software. The quality professionals need to assure that those quality responsibilities are fulfilled through appropriate processes for acquiring purchased software and contracting for software services.

Certified Software Quality Analyst (CSQA)
Quality-Assurance Certified reality
Killexams : Quality-Assurance Certified reality - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CSQA Search results Killexams : Quality-Assurance Certified reality - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CSQA https://killexams.com/exam_list/Quality-Assurance Killexams : How Virtual Reality for Teachers Can Excellerate Quality of Education

NORTHAMPTON, MA / ACCESSWIRE / January 25, 2023 / Qualcomm

Originally published by Ericsson

As someone who was born and raised in Manila, I still sometimes get surprised that it's a place of striking contrasts: high-rise, high-tech skyscrapers built right next to lower-income communities; the sprawling campuses of international schools that sit within a stone's throw of more humble public schools.

At Ericsson, we see the same contrast when it comes to access to digital connectivity, tools, and skills. It is easy to assume that most people have internet access. But the reality is that, according to the ITU's latest State of Broadband report, an estimated 2.7 billion of us do not have access to that connectivity.

We kept this in mind when we were thinking about creating a virtual reality-based teacher training project for selected public-school teachers in Manila, as well as for teachers-in-training who are studying at the Philippine Normal University.

A part of Ericsson's Connect To Learn initiative, the upskilling of teachers using VR is carried out alongside collaborators Qualcomm® Wireless Reach™ and Smart Communications Inc. (Smart), as well as the Philippine Normal University and Muntinlupa Department of Education.

Continue studying here.

View additional multimedia and more ESG storytelling from Qualcomm on 3blmedia.com.

Contact Info:
Spokesperson: Qualcomm
Website: https://www.3blmedia.com/profiles/qualcomm
Email: info@3blmedia.com

SOURCE: Qualcomm

View source version on accesswire.com:

Wed, 25 Jan 2023 06:03:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://finance.yahoo.com/news/virtual-reality-teachers-improve-quality-193000578.html
Killexams : Virtual Reality Can Help Excellerate the Quality of Real-World Relationships

The researchers explored if exposure to a weakened threat to the relationship, in the form of flirting with a virtual character, would help immunize people against real-world temptations that could threaten the security of their romantic relationship in three trials. In this context, it is predicted that exposure to a weaker threat will make people conscious of their commitments to their existing partners and prepare them to deal with a more significant threat to their relationship. As a result, the researchers expected that exposure to a seductive virtual avatar would raise people's drive to safeguard their current connection, resulting in increased desire for their current partner and perception of alternative partners as less sexually appealing.

In all three tests, participants in monogamous relationships put on virtual reality (VR) glasses and 'visited' a bar to test the research hypothesis. They talked with a virtual bartender who was the same gender as their spouse. In the experimental condition, the bartender avatar flirted with the subjects, while in the control condition, he acted neutrally towards them. Following that, each participant met with a real person. At the end of the session, participants were asked to report their feelings and impressions, both during the virtual bartender conversation and the real-world engagement.


In the first experiment, an attractive interviewer immediately after the interaction with the virtual bartender queried the participants about their thoughts on numerous interpersonal issues. The interviewer followed a script, asking questions like, 'Should people play 'hard-to-get' during the beginning of a relationship?' The interviewers had been trained in advance to be friendly and interested in the participants. At the end of the interview, the participants rated the interviewer's sexual attractiveness. According to the findings, after flirting with the virtual bartender, participants regarded the real interviewer as less sexually appealing than those who had a preliminary interaction with a neutral virtual bartender.

The researchers wanted to see if participants who had interacted with the flirty virtual bartender would not only regard a real person as less sexually desirable but would also decrease their actual interaction with them. For that purpose, after the virtual contact, the participants encountered an attractive stranger who sought their assistance. The experiment focused on assisting since it is a more respectable way of expressing interest in a potential partner than apparent flirtation, especially when participants are in a monogamous relationship.

Specifically, the participants encountered an attractive individual (of the same gender as the participant's partner) who they mistook for another participant but were a member of the research team. The participant and a member of the research team were asked to sit side by side and construct two five-story pyramids out of plastic cups. When the 'collaborator' finished erecting the pyramid's third storey, he knocked it over, purportedly by mistake, exclaiming, 'Oh! I'm such a clumsy person! Could you kindly assist me in rebuilding my pyramid?' A member of the research team measured the amount of time the participants spent assisting to rebuild the pyramid with a stopwatch tucked in their pocket.

Participants who had a preliminary interaction with the sexy virtual bartender spent less time assisting those who had a preliminary interaction with the neutral bartender avatar, as the researchers expected.

The third experiment invited participants to the laboratory with their partners. The couples were divided into separate rooms, with one interacting with the virtual bartender and the other watching a neutral movie. Following the virtual contact, the participants were reunited with their partners and invited to share the pleasurable and irritating parts of their sex life with them. At the end of the session, the participants rated their level of sexual desire for their partner and others.

The results showed that individuals who had a preliminary interaction with the flirty virtual bartender had more sexual desire for their spouse and less sexual interest in other persons than those who had a preliminary interaction with the neutral virtual bartender.

Prof. Gurit Birnbaum, Baruch Ivcher School of Psychology, Reichman University said, "The findings of the three studies indicate that it is possible to inoculate people and make them more resistant to threats to their romantic relationship. It is the first study in the world to illustrate how a virtual reality interaction can Excellerate real-world relationships. The study shows that a weakened virtual threat, which by definition cannot directly harm the relationship, allows people in a monogamous relationship to prepare ahead of time to deal more effectively with significant threats in the real world. In this way, virtual reality interactions may contribute to people's ability to maintain stable and satisfying relationships with their actual partners."

Source: Medindia

Wed, 01 Feb 2023 23:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.medindia.net/news/lifestyleandwellness/virtual-reality-can-help-improve-the-quality-of-real-world-relationships-210333-1.htm
Killexams : Agree Realty: Perfect Macro Setup For This High-Quality Retail REIT
Selecting excellent quality to increase customer satisfaction. Quality assurance management and control for products or services. Concept with QA manager"s hand turning knob.


In a January 20th article, I argued that "Disinflation and Falling Interest Rates Should Drive Strong Performance" of net lease REITs in 2023.

Net leases typically feature long terms of 10-20 years, and rent is contractually fixed either at a flat

Thu, 02 Feb 2023 23:33:00 -0600 en text/html https://seekingalpha.com/article/4574891-agree-realty-perfect-macro-setup-for-this-high-quality-retail-reit
Killexams : RQI Cohen&Steers Quality Income Realty Fund

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Killexams : Cohen & Steers Quality Income Realty Fund, Inc. (RQI) Notification of Sources of Distribution Under Section 19(a)

NEW YORK, Jan. 30, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- This press release provides shareholders of Cohen & Steers Quality Income Realty Fund, Inc. (NYSE: RQI) (the "Fund") with information regarding the sources of the distribution to be paid on January 31, 2023 and cumulative distributions paid fiscal year-to-date.

In December 2012, the Fund implemented a managed distribution policy in accordance with exemptive relief issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission. The managed distribution policy seeks to deliver the Fund's long-term total return potential through regular monthly distributions declared at a fixed rate per common share. The policy gives the Fund greater flexibility to realize long-term capital gains throughout the year and to distribute those gains on a regular monthly basis to shareholders. The Board of Directors of the Fund may amend, terminate or suspend the managed distribution policy at any time, which could have an adverse effect on the market price of the Fund's shares.

The Fund's monthly distributions may include long-term capital gains, short-term capital gains, net investment income and/or return of capital for federal income tax purposes. Return of capital includes distributions paid by the Fund in excess of its net investment income and net realized capital gains and such excess is distributed from the Fund's assets. A return of capital is not taxable; rather, it reduces a shareholder's tax basis in his or her shares of the Fund. In addition, distributions from the Fund's investments in real estate investment trusts (REITs) may later be characterized as capital gains and/or a return of capital, depending on the character of the dividends reported to the Fund after year end by REITs held by the Fund. The amount of monthly distributions may vary depending on a number of factors, including changes in portfolio and market conditions.

At the time of each monthly distribution, information will be posted to cohenandsteers.com and mailed to shareholders in a concurrent notice. However, this information may change at the end of the year because the final tax characteristics of the Fund's distributions cannot be determined with certainty until after the end of the calendar year. Final tax characteristics of all of the Fund's distributions will be provided on Form 1099-DIV, which is mailed after the close of the calendar year.

The following table sets forth the estimated amounts of the current distribution and the cumulative distributions paid this fiscal year-to-date from the sources indicated. All amounts are expressed per common share.


January 2023


January 31, 2023*


Per Share Amount

% of Current Distribution

Per Share Amount

% of 2023 Distributions

Net Investment Income


0.00 %


0.00 %

Net Realized Short-Term Capital Gains


0.00 %


0.00 %

Net Realized Long-Term Capital Gains


100.00 %


100.00 %

Return of Capital (or other Capital Source)


0.00 %


0.00 %

Total Current Distribution


100.00 %


100.00 %

You should not draw any conclusions about the Fund's investment performance from the amount of this distribution or from the terms of the Fund's managed distribution policy. The amounts and sources of distributions reported in this Notice are only estimates, are likely to change over time, and are not being provided for tax reporting purposes. The actual amounts and sources of the amounts for accounting and tax reporting purposes will depend upon the Fund's investment experience during the remainder of its fiscal year and may be subject to changes based on tax regulations. The amounts and sources of distributions year-to-date may be subject to additional adjustments.


The Fund's Year-to-date Cumulative Total Return for fiscal year 2022 (January 1, 2022 through December 31, 2022) is set forth below. Shareholders should take note of the relationship between the Year-to-date Cumulative Total Return with the Fund's Cumulative Distribution Rate for 2022. In addition, the Fund's Average Annual Total Return for the five-year period ending December 31, 2022 is set forth below. Shareholders should note the relationship between the Average Annual Total Return with the Fund's Current Annualized Distribution Rate for 2022. The performance and distribution rate information disclosed in the table is based on the Fund's net asset value per share (NAV). The Fund's NAV is calculated as the total market value of all the securities and other assets held by the Fund minus the total liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding. While NAV performance may be indicative of the Fund's investment performance, it does not measure the value of a shareholder's individual investment in the Fund. The value of a shareholder's investment in the Fund is determined by the Fund's market price, which is based on the supply and demand for the Fund's shares in the open market.

Fund Performance and Distribution Rate Information:

Year-to-date January 1, 2022 to December 31, 2022

Year-to-date Cumulative Total Return1

-26.83 %

Cumulative Distribution Rate2

0.65 %

Five-year period ending December 31, 2022

Average Annual Total Return3

5.90 %

Current Annualized Distribution Rate4

7.83 %


Year-to-date Cumulative Total Return is the percentage change in the Fund's NAV over the year-to-date time period including distributions paid and assuming reinvestment of those distributions.


Cumulative Distribution Rate for the Fund's current fiscal period (January 1, 2023 through January 31, 2023) measured on the dollar value of distributions in the year-to-date period as a percentage of the Fund's NAV as of December 31, 2022.


Average Annual Total Return represents the compound average of the Annual NAV Total Returns of the Fund for the five-year period ending December 31, 2022. Annual NAV Total Return is the percentage change in the Fund's NAV over a year including distributions paid and assuming reinvestment of those distributions.


The Current Annualized Distribution Rate is based on the current regular monthly distribution rate of $0.080 per share annualized as a percentage of the Fund's NAV as of December 31, 2022.

Investors should consider the investment objectives, risks, charges and expense of the Fund carefully before investing. You can obtain the Fund's most exact periodic reports, when available, and other regulatory filings by contacting your financial advisor or visiting cohenandsteers.com. These reports and other filings can be found on the Securities and Exchange Commission's EDGAR Database. You should read these reports and other filings carefully before investing.

Shareholders should not use the information provided here in preparing their tax returns. Shareholders will receive a Form 1099-DIV for the calendar year indicating how to report Fund distributions for federal income tax purposes.

Website: https://www.cohenandsteers.com
Symbol: (NYSE: CNS)

About Cohen & Steers. Cohen & Steers is a leading global investment manager specializing in real assets and alternative income, including real estate, preferred securities, infrastructure, resource equities, commodities, as well as multi-strategy solutions. Founded in 1986, the firm is headquartered in New York City, with offices in London, Dublin, Hong Kong, and Tokyo.

Forward-Looking Statements
This press release and other statements that Cohen & Steers may make may contain forward looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which reflect the company's current views with respect to, among other things, its operations and financial performance. You can identify these forward-looking statements by the use of words such as "outlook," "believes," "expects," "potential," "continues," "may," "will," "should," "seeks," "approximately," "predicts," "intends," "plans," "estimates," "anticipates," or the negative versions of these words or other comparable words. Such forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties.

Accordingly, there are or will be important factors that could cause actual outcomes or results to differ materially from those indicated in these statements. The company undertakes no obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.


View original content:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/cohen--steers-quality-income-realty-fund-inc-rqi-notification-of-sources-of-distribution-under-section-19a-301733962.html

SOURCE Cohen & Steers

Mon, 30 Jan 2023 22:20:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://finance.yahoo.com/news/cohen-steers-quality-income-realty-221700739.html
Killexams : Apple Reality Pro: everything we know about Apple’s VR headset

In exact months, rumors about Apple working on a top-secret headset project have reached a fever pitch. But at the same time, the chatter has become increasingly convoluted — Apple is reportedly planning to use mixed reality (MR) rather than solely augmented reality (AR) or VR, but how exactly that will work is unknown. What will the device look like? And what features will it have?

That is where this roundup comes in. We combed through the rumors and reports to find all the latest key information, then combined it in one convenient location. Here is everything we know about Apple’s upcoming mixed-reality headset, including price, features, and more.

Price and release date

Apple analyst Ming-Chi Kuo originally suggested a January 2023 announcement date, with a shipping date coming in the second quarter of 2023. However, that January date has come and gone with no news. Elsewhere, Kuo has said that a development toolkit could make its way to interested parties two to four weeks after the reveal event.

In late 2022 and early 2023, a consensus begun to form around the idea that Apple’s headset will launch at a special event in spring 2023. Only a handful of devices are expected at the show, but the mixed-reality headset was strongly rumored to be the headline attraction.

However, the idea was thrown into disarray when Bloomberg reporter Mark Gurman claimed his sources had told him that Apple had pushed back the release date from April to June due to various hardware and software issues. If true, it’s just the latest in a long line of delays to have apparently beset the device.

New story: Apple has postponed the planned introduction of its mixed-reality headset from around April to June at the annual WWDC conference, the latest setback for Apple’s next major device. https://t.co/B9Z822eiWV

— Mark Gurman (@markgurman) February 15, 2023

The June date makes sense, though, because it would allow Apple to launch the device at its Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC). That would deliver the company the perfect stage to get developers up to speed on the new device, which is allegedly going to run on a new operating system that developers will need to get used to.

Whatever the actual launch date, we’re talking about the first headset launched by Apple. The company is also rumored to be working on multiple devices, including a more affordable version that will follow the initial product. After that, Apple could launch a set of AR glasses that look more innocuous than a full-on headset. There’s no release date for those yet, though, and they could be a long way from launch.

As for the price, Kuo initially suggested a much lower price of $1,000. This puts the headset in consumer territory and what we would expect from Apple: expensive, but still considered mainstream and consumer-focused. However, in August 2022, Kuo then upped that prediction to $2,000, and Mark Gurman cited a similar figure.

That might have been an underestimate, though. The Information has offered details claiming the headset will cost $3,000. That would put it in the company of Microsoft’s $3,500 HoloLens 2, but with a price that high, it would likely be restricted to use by developers and professionals. That seems a little out of character for Apple. However, a January 2022 report from Display Supply Chain Consultants (DSCC) also claimed the price tag would be “several thousand dollars,” and later reporting from Gurman has backed up that $3,000 price. Leakers and reporters seem to have settled on that amount, making it an expensive first effort from Apple.

Interestingly, a report from Gurman in January 2023 stated that, despite the high price, Apple would actually lose money on each headset. That’s an indication of how much high-tech wizardry is packed into the device, and also suggests Apple is banking on its first-generation headset getting people in the door and paving the way for later products. With a $3,000 asking price, though, it could be a hard sell.

What’s in a name?

Apple VR Headset Concept by Antonio De Rosa
Apple VR Headset Concept Antonio De Rosa

Ever since the first Apple headset rumors started to leak on the internet, people have been speculating about what the device might be called. Some early contenders have come and gone, but an answer appears to be getting closer.

The first widely promoted name was Apple Glass. This was mooted by leaker Jon Prosser in a YouTube video from mid-2020 after he claimed to have seen a prototype of the device. However, this name was shot down by Gurman, who expressed his doubt that Apple would name a product after the flop that was Google Glass. Fair point.

Gurman himself proposed a number of options Apple might go with, including Apple Vision, Apple Reality, Apple Sight, and Apple Lens.

In late August 2022, Apple filed trademarks for the names “Reality Pro,” “Reality One,” and “Reality Processor.” Gurman believes Reality Pro is the name Apple will use for its first headset, and that name indicates it will be a high-end device, perhaps one to rival Meta’s upcoming Quest Pro.

After that, Gurman believes a more affordable headset will launch without a few of the headline features of the Reality Pro. That pared-back device might take the name Reality One. Apple has previously used the “One” name, such as with the Apple One subscription service.

We don’t yet have a name for the AR glasses Apple is supposedly working on, but we’re sure a name will leak out soon enough. Perhaps it already has — Apple Lens seems like a strong contender to us.

A wraparound design and tons of cameras

What can you expect Apple’s mixed-reality headset to look like? Well, seeing as it combines AR and VR, chances are it will be a full wraparound set to keep you immersed while using its virtual reality features. Anything that lets you see your surroundings — like Microsoft’s HoloLens 2 or the Magic Leap 1 — would take you out of the virtual world you are experiencing. Rumors also suggest Apple’s device will be totally wireless to deliver you the freedom to move without being yanked back by cables — another immersion-breaker.

Then there is the augmented reality side. To make this happen, the headset is going to require cameras to capture the outside world and feed it back to you. According to a report from The Information in early 2021, there will be up to a dozen cameras and lidar sensors mounted on the device, the latter of which Apple has already incorporated into devices like the iPhone 12 Pro and iPad Pro to help with augmented reality processing. However, a newer report from The Information in May 2022 asserted that there would actually be 14 cameras on the device — something that the outlet claimed again in an October 2022 report, which added that the headset would have two downward-facing cameras to record a user’s legs.

The May report from The Information also contained an interesting tidbit on the headset’s body: it could use straps that look awfully like those on the Apple Watch Sport Band. It is not the first time we have seen one Apple device take design cues from another — the AirPods Max headphones borrow the HomePod Mini’s fabric mesh and the Apple Watch’s Digital Crown, for example. In October 2022, The Information claimed the headset would resemble “a pair of ski goggles” and be made primarily from “mesh fabrics, aluminum, and glass.” The report added that the headset conceals its cameras noticeably better than the Meta Quest Pro.

Kuo, however, contends there will be 15 cameras — eight for AR, one for environmental detection, and six for “innovative biometrics.” Kuo backed this up with a further report in April that reiterated the claim of 15 cameras. It is possible both versions exist as prototypes, with Apple to decide which to settle on in the future. Whichever claim ends up being correct, it is evident Apple is taking the camera situation on its headset seriously.

Light as a feather

Apple's rumored virtual reality headset.

What about the actual body of the device? This is an interesting one, as it could be a real differentiator — and advantage — for Apple. A report from Kuo in March 2021 claimed the entire headset could weigh as little as 150 grams (0.33 pounds), which is about half the weight of many rival devices. The $1,000 Valve Index VR headset would weigh more than five times what Apple’s headset weighs if Kuo is correct, and Apple’s device would also weigh significantly less than the 722g Meta Quest Pro. Aiding that low-bulk goal would be the use of lightweight fabric instead of heavy plastic in the frame.

The Information claimed in May 2022 that Apple’s former design guru Jony Ive has been brought in as a consultant for the headset. Given Ive’s penchant for incredibly thin and light devices, we wouldn’t be surprised if the rumors that the headset will be super-lightweight prove to be correct.

When Gurman published a detailed exposé of the Reality Pro in January 2023, he claimed the device would be made from aluminum, glass, and cushions, and will be “reminiscent of Apple’s $550 AirPods Max headphones.” Gurman also stated that the device’s battery would be separate from the headset itself, with users tethering it to the Reality Pro and stashing it in a pocket. That will apparently help bring down the weight of the headset, and could also offset any concerns of having a warm battery lodged onto your head.

A 4K feast for your eyes

Apple VR headset patent drawing.

It is not just the exterior of Apple’s headset that sounds promising, as the interior could come with some eye-opening features, too — quite literally in the case of the display resolution. Reporter Gurman has claimed the device’s resolution will be 4K per eye, giving a huge level of detail. For comparison, the HTC Vive Cosmos Elite comes with a 1440 x 1700 resolution per eye. What’s more, according to The Elec, Apple has increased its pixels-per-inch goal for each eyepiece, up from 2,800 pixels per inch to a huge 3,500 ppi. That could bring unrivaled clarity to the headset’s creations.

A January 2022 report from industry analysts at DSCC backs up that idea, claiming that the front-facing lenses could have a 4000 x 4000 resolution. The report adds other enticing details, including that the front panels will be micro-LED displays, while Apple will add a third panel for peripheral vision. This will be an AMOLED display and run at a lower resolution than the micro-LED screens, which could help create an immersive, all-encompassing experience that keeps your peripheral vision slightly blurred to help you focus on what’s ahead of you.

Apple is said to be gunning for high-quality visuals in other ways, with Kuo alleging that the headset might come with iris recognition based on the tech his sources tell him is in the device (such as the cameras used for “innovative biometrics” mentioned earlier). Iris recognition could be used to authenticate you for Apple Pay, says Kuo, or to unlock your accounts, enabling you to perform these tasks without having to take off the headset to enter a password on your iPhone.

I didn’t cover this in my original story about the Apple Reality Pro headset trademarks, but Apple has registered for an additional name: Optica. I’d imagine this is some feature surrounding the device’s interchangeable prescription optics system. https://t.co/ZUcSwjFNXa

— Mark Gurman (@markgurman) September 4, 2022

Kuo has also suggested in a tweet that the headset might smoothly switch between AR and VR modes, creating an “innovative experience” that could become “one of [the] key selling points of Apple’s headset.” That’s something Gurman agrees with, as he claims the Reality Pro will use a toggle like the Apple Watch’s Digital Crown to switch between AR and VR. That could deliver it a distinct advantage over rival headsets that are limited to either AR or VR or cannot switch as seamlessly between them.

We mentioned earlier how Apple has been trademarking various names relating to its headset. One more name claimed by the company is “Optica,” which Gurman speculates could refer to “some feature surrounding the device’s interchangeable prescription optics system.” A more exact report from Gurman claims Apple will offer custom prescription lenses that will fit into the device’s enclosure. Since we doubt a pair of glasses could fit under the headset, that’s great news for anyone who uses eyewear daily.

One thing we have not seen much news on is the refresh rate and field of view that will be used in the headset’s displays. The refresh rate will need to be high enough that lag and motion sickness are kept to an absolute minimum, and rival headsets typically aim for 90Hz or higher. We will have to wait and see what Apple opts for here.

While the visuals could be stunning, Gurman believes you’ll need to wear a pair of AirPods if you want to enjoy spatial audio. Reality Pro will have its own speakers, he says, but they will apparently be limited in their abilities.

Powered by an Apple Silicon chip

Apple M1 Pro logo.

Powering all this tech would be a pair of custom-designed Apple Silicon chips. The main CPU will be one of Apple’s “most advanced and powerful” processors, according to Gurman, who believes this could be an M2 chip with 16GB of RAM. Apple’s ARM-based chip architecture is incredibly efficient — so much so that the M1 MacBook Air does not even need a fan — which makes it ideal for a compact device like a mixed-reality headset, where keeping things cool is essential (for both you and the chip). However, while Gurman previously claimed the headset itself might not need a fan, he changed tack in January 2023, saying it would likely come equipped with one.

According to Kuo, the dual-chip setup would consist of one made with a 4-nanometer process and another on a 5-nanometer process. Kuo says the former would offer the main computing power, while the latter would manage the device’s sensors. The combined power output would require one of Apple’s 96-watt adapters, Kuo believes — the same adapter as the one that juices up the MacBook Pro, which could be a potential indicator of the headset’s power.

Apple M1 Pro and Max logos.

The idea of two chips powering the headset has been backed up by reporter Gurman on several occasions. Gurman has claimed one of the two chips would be “on par with the M1 Pro in the MacBook Pro.” The secondary chip — apparently called the Reality Processor — will handle the headset’s graphics. Gurman says the chip combination could make the headset rather warm, so the battery has been shifted to an external unit that fits in your pocket to help offload some of the heat.

Kuo has also claimed that the headset will boast Wi-Fi 6E rather than the Wi-Fi 6 found in the current iPhone 14 lineup. This opens up a new 6GHz band, granting you lower latency and faster data rates. Considering the demanding nature of mixed-reality content, we think this claim makes a lot of sense.

However, despite all the power the headset might be loaded up with, sources The Information has spoken to claim the device will not focus on gaming (something the sources have criticized). According to The Information’s report, gaming is “a category of software that appeals to early adopters, which was important to the success of the iPhone and has been a big priority for Meta’s VR group,” so making a headset that does not put much of a focus on gaming might seem odd. Then again, given how Apple has never really fully embraced gaming with its other devices, it’s perhaps not entirely surprising.

Hand-tracking and eye-tracking

An Apple patent showing two Apple Watches being used to enable gesture control on a VR headset.

The headset’s vast camera array could allow for eye- and hand-tracking features. Apple has already patented ideas for these control methods in the past, both for the Mac and for a mixed-reality headset. Adding to that, The Information states Apple is aiming to use hand-tracking and a “clothespin-like finger clip” as input devices and is not looking to include gaming controllers with the headset. That idea has been backed up by a recent Apple patent that describes finger-mounted devices that could detect movement and provide haptic feedback. With that in mind, do not be surprised if Apple promotes the hand-tracking capabilities of its MR headset.

There’s another possibility. Apple recently uncovered a patent filed by the Cupertino giant that outlines how a pair of Apple Watches — one worn on each wrist — could be used to enable gesture controls on the headset. With two Apple Watches, a user could potentially use the palm of one hand as a trackpad of sorts and a finger on the other hand as a mouse, letting you interact with your virtual world. This being just a patent, though, there’s no ensure Apple is doing anything other than exploring ideas here — but it’s still intriguing.

Ultimately, though, we think this system is unlikely to be the one Apple goes for, at least at first. A single Apple Watch is not a cheap purchase, and buying two could add several hundred dollars to an already-expensive headset. There’s been very little to indicate that Apple is working on controllers for its headset, so we’re expecting the first-generation model will use its onboard cameras for gesture controls with your hands.

A report from Gurman seems to contradict both ideas (the clothespin-like clip and the Apple Watches). Gurman believes the headset will not require any kind of physical device to be worn on a user’s hands. Instead, eye-tracking sensors and hand-tracking cameras will detect what you are looking at on-screen, then allow you to open an app by simply pinching your forefinger and thumb together.

What seems more certain is the presence of eye-tracking capabilities, and a report from The Information in October 2022 added further details on this. Citing two anonymous individuals who apparently used to work on the device, the report states that eye-tracking would allow users to log in to accounts and make payments, with the eye verification allowing multiple people to use the same headset. Tracking users’ vision would also let the headset reduce graphical fidelity in peripheral vision, thus saving battery life.

An outward-facing display would show the user’s facial expressions to other people, but this would also save battery life by having a low refresh rate, according to The Information.

What about the operating system?

With all these advanced features reportedly in the works, Apple’s headset is going to need a powerful operating system to bring everything together. Gurman has commented it could be called “rOS,” with the “r” being short for “reality.” Since then, a number of tweets have surfaced apparently revealing the name “realityOS” in Apple’s code. Given Apple’s propensity to use full words in its OS naming schemes — think WatchOS, iPadOS, and MacOS — realityOS could be a good bet for the final name of the system.

In a tweet from early February, iOS developer Matthew Davis revealed a seemingly official Apple GitHub page that apparently accidentally revealed the name realityOS. Some of the comments in the code seem to make reference to iOS executables using realityOS libraries, which could hint at some form of interactivity between the two operating systems.

However, it seems Apple might have changed its mind about that realityOS name. According to Gurman, Apple is now calling the system “xrOS” internally. Gurman also claims Apple has patented the name using a shell corporation, which might suggest that it will use that operating system name publicly as well as internally — and that it could be gearing up for an imminent product launch.

iPad Pro 2020 Widgets
Andy Boxall/DigitalTrends

Details on how the operating system will actually work had been scarce, until Gurman’s report in January 2023. There, the reporter outlined that xrOS would be an “ambitious attempt to create a 3D version of the iPhone’s operating system.” That means apps like Safari and Mail will exist in the Reality Pro’s three-dimensional environment. There will also be an app store and compatibility with Apple’s services, such as Apple Music and Apple TV+.

Those apps will be contained on a home screen much like that seen in iOS and iPadOS, with a grid of apps and widgets that can be reordered by the user. To input text, you’ll be able to use Siri voice commands or type using an Apple device (like an iPhone) or an external keyboard. Gurman said Apple is working on allowing you to type in midair using a virtual keyboard, but that this probably won’t be ready by the time the Reality Pro launches.

In one-on-one FaceTime calls, each caller’s face and body will be realistically rendered, according to Gurman, providing they’re both using a Reality Pro headset. In calls attended by more people, though, Memoji will be used, as the processing power required to portray everyone realistically will be too great.

Finally, Gurman’s report claims you might even be able to use the headset as an external monitor for a Mac. That will let you sit at a desk and use your Mac’s keyboard and mouse, all while viewing content through the headset.

Apple mixed-reality headset: Our wish list

Apple VR Headset Concept by Antonio De Rosa
Antonio De Rosa

It already looks like Apple is outfitting its headset with a ton of great features, but there are still a few extras we would love to see. At the top of the list is great battery life — after all, what is the point of having an excellent device to play with if it dies after a few minutes? Fortunately, the processor choice spells good news in this department, as Apple’s custom chip has led to incredible battery life in its MacBooks. That might be countered by the super-high resolution the headset is apparently going to use, but we have our fingers crossed.

The word is that Apple is developing a special operating system dubbed xrOS that will drive the headset. Apps and games will need to run on this system, but we are hoping that, due to the common Apple Silicon architecture in both the headset and Apple’s other devices, some degree of cross-compatibility will be available.

For instance, it would be great if the headset can recognize if you are playing a game on your Apple TV or your Mac, for example, and then mirror the content onto the headset with added mixed-reality goodness (provided the game is VR-compatible, of course). It would be a shame if Apple limits the headset to only work with xrOS-compatible games and apps, as developers might be put off if they must build apps from scratch for the new operating system.

One final request concerns the headset’s control method. We do not know whether the device will come with handheld controllers or will rely entirely on gestures. If it is the former, one thing Apple really needs to incorporate is haptic feedback. This is already included to great effect in every MacBook and the Apple Watch, so Apple knows how to make the tech work. Gentle taps that are built into apps and games would be a great addition that does not break immersion.

We might get to see some of these features in action, if not in the first Apple VR headset, then in the second-generation model. Kuo claimed in late 2021 that Apple was working on a second-generation VR headset that would be lighter and faster than the original model, with better battery life too. The Elec followed that up in June 2022 by saying that LG Display was hoping to supply the main OLED panels for the second-generation device, adding further evidence that Apple is already thinking ahead to its follow-up headset.

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