- Support fearless journalism
- Read The Daily Express online, advert free
- Get super-fast page loading
CRNE VCE exam - Canadian Registered Nurse Examination Updated: 2023
|Just study these CRNE CRNE dumps Questions and Pass the real test|
Exam Code: CRNE Canadian Registered Nurse Examination VCE exam November 2023 by Killexams.com team|
CRNE Canadian Registered Nurse Examination
- Number of Questions: The Canadian Registered Nurse Examination (CRNE) consists of approximately 200 multiple-choice questions. The exact number may vary slightly depending on the specific version of the exam.
- Time: Candidates are typically given 4 hours to complete the CRNE. This time includes practicing instructions, reviewing questions, and selecting answers. It is important to manage time effectively to ensure all questions are answered within the allocated time.
The CRNE assesses the knowledge, skills, and competencies required to practice as a registered nurse in Canada. While the specific course outline may vary, the exam covers the following key areas:
1. Professional Practice:
- Ethical and legal responsibilities of registered nurses
- Professional standards and guidelines
- Collaborative practice and interprofessional relationships
2. Foundations of Practice:
- Nursing theories and models
- Nursing research and evidence-based practice
- Health promotion and disease prevention
3. Health Assessment and Communication:
- Health assessment techniques
- Communication and therapeutic relationships
- Documentation and reporting
4. Nursing Care Delivery:
- Nursing process and care planning
- Safety and risk management
- Quality improvement and patient safety
5. Health and Wellness:
- Physiology and pathophysiology
- Pharmacology and medication administration
- Health education and promotion
6. Family and Community Health:
- Family-centered care
- Community health nursing
- Population health and epidemiology
7. Professional Growth and Development:
- Continuing education and lifelong learning
- Leadership and management principles
- Professional organizations and resources
The objectives of the CRNE are to:
- Assess the candidate's knowledge and understanding of nursing theory, practice, and principles.
- Evaluate the candidate's ability to apply critical thinking and problem-solving skills in various nursing scenarios.
- Determine the candidate's competence in providing safe, ethical, and evidence-based nursing care.
- Certify that the candidate has the necessary knowledge and skills to practice as a registered nurse in Canada.
The CRNE syllabus covers the following topics:
1. Professional and Ethical Practice:
- Professional responsibilities and accountability
- Legal and ethical principles in nursing practice
- Nursing standards and regulations
2. Foundations of Nursing Practice:
- Theoretical foundations of nursing
- Nursing research and evidence-based practice
- Health promotion and disease prevention
3. Health Assessment and Communication:
- Health assessment techniques and skills
- Communication and therapeutic relationships
- Documentation and reporting
4. Nursing Care Delivery:
- Nursing process and care planning
- Safety and risk management
- Quality improvement and patient safety
5. Health and Wellness:
- Anatomy and physiology
- Pathophysiology of common health conditions
- Pharmacology and medication administration
6. Family and Community Health:
- Family-centered care and family dynamics
- Community health nursing principles
- Health promotion and disease prevention in communities
7. Professional Growth and Development:
- Lifelong learning and professional development
- Leadership and management principles
- Professional organizations and resources
It is important to note that the specific subjects and depth of coverage may vary based on the jurisdiction and regulatory body responsible for the CRNE. Candidates should refer to the official guidelines and materials provided by the regulatory body for the most accurate and up-to-date information.
|Canadian Registered Nurse Examination|
Medical Examination Practice Test
Other Medical examsCRRN Certified Rehabilitation Registered Nurse
CCRN Critical Care Register Nurse
CEN Certified Emergency Nurse
CFRN Certified Flight Registered Nurse
CGFNS Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools
CNA Certified Nurse Assistant
CNN Certified Nephrology Nurse
CNOR Certified Nurse Operating Room
DANB Dental Assisting National Board
EMT Emergency Medical Technician
EPPP Examination for Professional Practice of Psychology
FPGEE Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency
NBCOT National Board for Certification of Occupational Therapists - 2023
NCBTMB National Certification Board for Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork
NET Nurse Entrance Test
NPTE National Physical Therapy Examination
OCN Oncology Certified Nurse - 2023
PANCE Physician Assistant National Certifying
VTNE Veterinary Technician National Examination (VTNE)
CNS Clinical Nurse Specialist
NBRC The National Board for Respiratory Care
AHM-540 AHM Medical Management
AACN-CMC Cardiac Medicine Subspecialty Certification
AAMA-CMA AAMA Certified Medical Assistant
ABEM-EMC ABEM Emergency Medicine Certificate
ACNP AG - Acute Care Nurse Practitioner
AEMT NREMT Advanced Emergency Medical Technician
AHIMA-CCS Certified Coding Specialist (CPC) (ICD-10-CM)
ANCC-CVNC ANCC (RN-BC) Cardiac-Vascular Nursing
ANCC-MSN ANCC (RN-BC) Medical-Surgical Nursing
ANP-BC ANCC Adult Nurse Practitioner
APMLE Podiatry and Medical
BCNS-CNS Board Certified Nutrition Specialis
BMAT Biomedical Admissions Test
CCN CNCB Certified Clinical Nutritionist
CCP Certificate in Child Psychology
CDCA-ADEX Dental Hygiene
CDM Certified Dietary Manager
CGRN ABCGN Certified Gastroenterology Registered Nurse
CNSC NBNSC Certified Nutrition Support Clinician
COMLEX-USA Osteopathic Physician
CPM Certified Professional Midwife
CRNE Canadian Registered Nurse Examination
CVPM Certificate of Veterinary Practice Management
DAT Dental Admission Test
DHORT Discover Health Occupations Readiness Test
DTR Dietetic Technician Registered
FNS Fitness Nutrition Specialist
MHAP MHA Phlebotomist
MSNCB MSNCB Medical-Surgical Nursing Certification
NAPLEX North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination
NCCT-TSC NCCT Technician in Surgery
NCMA-CMA Certified Medical Assistant
NCPT National Certified Phlebotomy Technician (NCPT)
NE-BC ANCC Nurse Executive Certification
NNAAP-NA NNAAP Nurse Aide
NREMT-NRP NREMT National Registered Paramedic
NREMT-PTE NREMT Paramedic Trauma Exam
OCS Ophthalmic Coding Specialist
PANRE Physician Assistant National Recertifying Exam
PCCN AACN Progressive Critical Care Nursing
RDN Registered Dietitian
VACC VACC Vascular Access
WHNP Women Health Nurse Practitioner
AACD American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry
RPFT Registered Pulmonary Function Technologist
ACLS Advanced Cardiac Life Support - 2023
GP-Doctor General Practitioner (GP) Doctor
GP-MCQS Prometric MCQS for general practitioner (GP) Doctor
INBDE Integrated National Board Dental Examination (Day 1 exam)
Podiatry-License-Exam-Part-III Podiatry License exam Part III - 2023
|killexams.com helps thousands of candidates pass the exams and get their certifications. We have thousands of successful reviews. Our CRNE dumps are reliable, affordable, updated and of really best quality to overcome the difficulties of any IT certifications. killexams.com CRNE cheatsheet are latest updated in highly outclass manner on regular basis and material is released periodically.|
Canadian Registered Nurse Examination
Wesley, a nurse supervisor, manages the nursing staff, prepares the budget,
maintains client service, and implements policies. These tasks are accomplished
by performing managerial functions. When Wesley uses performance standards as
criteria for measuring success, he operates through which of the following
The nurse manager operates through the function of controlling when
performance standards are used as criteria for measuring success. Directing is
guiding or motivating others to meet the expected outcomes. Organizing is using
resources to achieve the expected outcomes. Decision-making is identifying a
problem and considering alternatives to resolve the problem.
A nurse is making a room assignment for a 12-month-old child with bacterial
meningitis. The nurse plans to place the infant in which of the following rooms?
A. Isolation room with negative air pressure
B. Isolation room near the nurses station
C. A room with a 12-month-old child with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt
D. A room with a 12-month old child diagnosed with diarrhea
A child with bacterial meningitis should be placed in an isolation room until the
child receives antibiotics, given through the IV route, for 24 hours. The room
must be near the nurses station for close monitoring and easier access. Bacterial
meningitis is transmitted through respiratory secretions; it is not an airborne
disease. An isolation room with negative pressure is recommended for a client
A nurse is making a room assignment for a 12-year-old boy with a brain
concussion. The nurse determines to place the boy in a room with which of the
A. A 3-year-old boy who had a club foot repair
B. A 12-year-boy with rheumatic fever
C. A 12-year-old boy with measles
D. A 10-year-old boy with a fractured leg
A 12-year old child with brain concussion should be placed in a room with a non-
infectious client who is about the same age as the boy. A client with rheumatic
fever or measles is not an ideal roommate for a client with brain concussion. The
3-year-old who had a club foot repair and the 10-year-old boy with a fractured leg
are both non-infectious, but based on the growth and developmental needs of the
12-year-old client with concussion, he must be assigned to a room with a boy who
is about the same age.
A nurse is assigned to care for four clients during a shift. After reviewing the
client records, the nurse knows that it is most important for which of the
following clients to receive the scheduled medication on time?
A. A client diagnosed with tuberculosis, treated with streptomycin
B. A client diagnosed with depression, treated with amitriptyline
C. A client diagnosed with myasthenia gravis, treated with pyridogstigmine
D. A client diagnosed with urinary tract infection, treated with ciprofloxacin
It is most important that a client diagnosed with myasthenia gravis receives
medications on time. Early administration can cause cholinergic crisis, whereas
late administration can cause myasthenia crisis.
A nurse is caring for a client with weakness on the right side of the face, right
arm, and right leg. The nurse includes which of the following nursing actions in
the plan of care?
A. Place objects within the clients reach on the right side
B. Place objects within the clients reach on the left side
C. Initiate muscle strengthening exercises to the right side of the body
D. Initiate range of motion exercises to the left side of the body
A client with one-sided weakness would benefit the most if objects were within
their reach on the unaffected side. Muscle strengthening exercises on the
unaffected side and range of motion exercises on the affected side are appropriate
A nurse prepares a nursing care plan for a newly-admitted client with myasthenia
gravis. Understanding the risks of myasthenia gravis, it is a must that the nurse
prepares which of the following near the clients bedside?
C. Incentive spirometer
D. Suction equipment
A client with myasthenia gravis is at risk for respiratory distress caused by
considerable muscle weakness or fatigue, including from the diaphragm. Suction
equipment, an Ambubag, and intubation tray are kept near the clients bedside.
A nurse should use which of the following protective measures when inserting a
A. Double gloves, goggles, and mask
B. Gloves, goggles, gown, and mask
C. Sterile gloves, goggles, gown, and mask
D. Sterile gloves, gown, and mask
Gloves, goggles, gown, and a mask are worn if the nurse is at risk for exposure to
contaminated secretions generated by splash or sprays. Sterile technique is not
necessary during nasogastric insertion.
A nurse is caring for a client with an open wound. The nurse uses which
technique when changing the clients dressing?
A. Medical technique
B. Septic technique
C. Clean technique
D. Aseptic technique
Open wounds provide an entry to disease-causing microorganisms. The nurse
should, therefore, use a sterile or aseptic technique when changing dressings.
A nurse dons gloves in which of the following situations?
A. Assisting a client diagnosed with diarrhea to ambulate from the bed to the
B. Taking the temperature of a client with Kaposis sarcoma
C. Providing a bed bath to a client diagnosed with tuberculosis
D. Administering glucagon through the subcutaneous route
The nurse should wear a pair of gloves if there is a risk for coming in contact with
the clients bodily fluids, like blood. Wearing of gloves is not necessary when
ambulating a client, when taking the temperature of a client with Kaposis
sarcoma, or when bathing a client with tuberculosis.
A nurse would be most concerned by which of the following client room
A. A client with tuberculosis is placed in a room with negative air pressure
B. A client diagnosed with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus placed in a room with a client with third degree burns on
both arms placed in a room with a client with third degree burns on both arms
C. A client with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus
aureus in a private room in a private room
D. A client diagnosed with salmonella placed in a room with another client
diagnosed with gastroenteritis
A client with MRSA should be placed in a private room or with another MRSA-
colonized client. If cohorting is not possible, the MRSA-colonized client can be
placed in a room with another client who is not at high risk for infections. A client
with third-degree burns can easily get infected because of severe impaired
integrity of the skin.
For More exams visit https://killexams.com/vendors-exam-list
Kill your exam at First Attempt....Guaranteed!
On a accurate autumn evening, by a golf course at the Greenbrier resort, I sipped a rye Manhattan to try to trip my heart into an arrhythmia. Scoutâs honor, this was for legitimate medical reasons, though not quite in line with the doctorâs advice.
For seven-plus years, Iâve sporadically awakened in the night with my heart bludgeoning the walls of my chest. These are not panic attacksâtheyâre cardiac episodes, always triggered by drinking, sometimes severe enough to think I might die. A few years ago, when I confessed this to a doctor, she referred me to a cardiologist. I never followed up. It seemed complicated to work out the insurance. More to the point, I didnât want to know.
But that morning, at the Greenbrierâs medical clinic, a heart monitor had been affixed to my chest. The nurse swabbed my skin with alcohol, then slapped it on, an hourglass-shaped device the size of a soup spoon, angled below my collarbone toward my ribs. To me, the next step was self-evident: I needed to get myself drunk in its presence. The doctor, for the record, disagreed. But if I didnât get drunkâon top-shelf liquor, in the warm embrace of a luxury West Virginia hotelâthen how could we possibly figure out what was wrong?
Iâd come to the Greenbrier on assignment, to learn how the other half lives. I figured it would be like Dirty Dancing, and basically it was: quaint ballrooms and formal dinners. A man singing Sinatra in the lobby. Resplendent mountain views. The resort offers leisure galoreâfalconry, trout fishing, an infinity pool, carriage ridesâbut the activity Iâd come to try was the âexecutive health exam.â
A two-day comprehensive physical, the executive health exam is ordinarily the preserve of elites. For $3,500ânot billable to insuranceâyou get a battery of tests, plus substantive face time with a doctor, who evaluates your overall health. The majority of top hospitals offer these exams, alongside many clinics, spas, and resorts. Corporate employers are the main customersâfancy physicals are nice perks for executivesâbut private individuals sometimes buy them, too. (The Greenbrier comped mine.) If you ask a doctor, the goal is early detection of health issues. If you ask me, the goal is learning if you might imminently die.
Thatâs how I wound up at the golf club, 31 years young with a cardiac monitor tucked beneath my shirt. It was late September, a chill under the wind, a peach sunset glowing behind the dark spines of distant mountains. Anxious, I sipped my liquorâa poison that promised to flush my heart out of its hole, whip it into a panic, and leave it flailing around my rib cage for several lonely hours of the night. I dreaded that. But maybe the monitor would find nothing. Maybe I was the picture of health.
The week I booked my executive physical, Kim Kardashian was in the news. Sheâd Instagrammed about getting a $2,500 full-body MRI scan that promised to detect budding cancers, and the medical community went berserk. Itâs bad preventive medicine, various doctors told the media. These scans can cause real harm.
The criticism is this: When you start poking around a presumably healthy person, youâre going to find abnormalities. Probably, theyâre benignâthings that never would have become problems, that didnât need to be known. But once an issue is identified, people feel compelled to follow up. They get testsâsometimes harmful ones involving radiationâthat cost significant time and money, drain hospital resources, and usually amount to nothing in the end.
An executive health exam is not an MRI body scan, but the critique is basically the same: that itâs bad to run unnecessary tests. In a standard physical exam, care is tailored to the patientâs risksâlung screenings for certain types of smokers, colonoscopies for adults over 45. But executive health exams, critics say, run tests for the sake of running them, without regard to a patientâs real needs. Sometimes, these exams catch issues early. But more frequently, they scare people who arenât ill.
âExecutive PhysicalsâBad Medicine on Three Countsâ is the title of a scathing 2008 opinion piece in the New England Journal of Medicine that I read before my trip. The author, a physician from Minnesota, blasts executive physicals as elitist and points out that their outcomes arenât necessarily better than a standard physical exam. The article calls executive health âa whimsical extravagance that satisfies certain peopleâs need for exclusivityâ and âalmost a parody of . . . high-cost, lowÂreturn procedures.â It concludes that these exams are inequitable and ineffective, âa perfect example of what American medicine should be working to expunge.â
The night before my exam, cocooned in a toothpaste-colored Greenbrier suite, I contemplated the possible outcomes. The worst-case scenario was obvious: that Iâd exacerbate inequities in the American healthcare system by participating in an exclusionary form of care, while simultaneously learning that Iâm dying. In the best-case scenario, Iâd receive an excellent physicalâthe kind that helps the richest Americans live, on average, ten to 15 years longer than the poor.
But the likeliest scenario, I feared, was that Iâd undergo two days of testing and come out with a list of possible health concerns thatâwhile probably nothingâmight also be cancer. There would be increased 2 AM scrolling of WebMD. I already felt the dread.
My exam began with bloodwork, four dark vials sucked from a vein in my arm. Then I met with the doctor, who took the most thorough health history of my life. She was a young woman with long auburn hair. It fell across her lab coat in waves.
âDo you have a primary-care doctor?â she asked, and I cringed as I confessed that I donât. For about an hour, I sheepishly narrated my health concerns, via charming anecdotes like these: Once, a doctor found a gallbladder polyp and told me I should keep track of it, but I never went back. And: A cash-only gynecologist once swabbed for a uterine issue and told me to call in two weeks. By the time I did, four months later, her practice had closed.
The doctor asked if I was up to date on a Pap smear (no), when Iâd last been vaccinated for tetanus (no clue), and what I was doing to manage stress (pouring myself into work). Then we arrived at my heart, so I explained the genetic situationâvalve issues on both sides, the kind that strike people downâwhile the doctor scribbled with furrowed brow. âWe are going to follow up on this,â she said, which filled me with both terror and relief. Thatâs one benefit of the executive physical: Ghosting isnât an option. These tests would be done. I was a captive inside a resort.
In fact, the testing commenced posthaste. Through a side door of her office, the doctor led me to a small exam room, where a nurse had prepared an EKG. âThis measures the electrical workings of the heart, as opposed to the plumbing part,â she explained as she strapped 12 electrodes to my chest. Atop the same table, the doctor did a quick Pap smear. While at it, she stuck a finger up my butt, checking for something called âfecal occult blood.â
From there, I changed rooms. In the semi-dark, a sonographer slathered me with gel for an abdominal ultrasound, followed by an echocardiogram and imaging of my carotid artery. Afterward, I had a chest x-ray, then lunch: two small chicken-salad sandwiches packaged in a blue-and-green striped box, eaten in the coffee room while Antony Blinken discussed a hostage release on Fox News.
By this point, I was an hour ahead of my itinerary, but the nurse still saw me right away. First came my ear wash, a highlight of the day: warm, abrasive liquid pumped gently but persistently toward my brain. Then she tested my hearing, breathing, and orthostatic blood pressure. All of it was simple and nice.
Last came the heart monitor, the dayâs sole point of friction. Apparently, for the two weeks I would wear it, I needed to keep a special phone within 30 feet of me at all times. As the nurse laid this out, I blanched. Lugging around two phones for 14 days? How would I remember, and would I look weird with a strange object adhered to my boob, and what if the phone lost charge, and what if Iâm really sick? What I actually asked was âDo you see a lot of heart monitors on younger patients?â âWeâve had several,â she replied, her face revealing nothing at all.
Since I was years overdue for a tetanus shot, she offered to supply me one right there. I asked to push it to tomorrow. In a couple of hours, I was headed to the Greenbrierâs gun club for skeet shooting. I needed my arms to be spry.
In response to my photographs of the Greenbrier, here is what friends have said: âItâs like Barbie lived at Graceland instead of Elvis,â and âItâs like Norman Rockwell and Tucker Carlson collaborated on a tarot deck,â and âItâs faux neoclassical mixed with Memphis mixed with rococo,â and âI like it. Itâs really exciting.â All of these strike me as correct.
Leaving the clinic, I hopped on an elevator that spat me into an eddy of hotel-room doors, none of which happened to be mine. When I tried another floor, I got lost, wandering a bewildering zone of ballrooms and grand staircases and cascading chandeliers. It was a fabulous place to be trapped. The decor was deliriousâcarpets and wallpapers in pinks, greens, blood reds, and blacks, arranged into florals, stark geometries, and abstract designs. Finally, I confessed to an employee that I was lost. âThatâs okay,â he replied. âItâs only a 1.1 millionâsquare-foot building that isnât symmetrical.â Then he led me down some hallways toward my room.
That afternoon, I had no obligations at the clinicâjust skeet shooting and a plan to drink myself into medical distress, which commenced at the golf-course bar. Over the next several hours, I would migrate to the upper lobby, where, surrounded by dark mahogany and framed drawings of long-dead Presidents, a suited bartender shook me a gimlet. Learning of my predicament, he reassured me that his heart has a hole in it, but heâs still here.
Alone at the Greenbrier, I passed the evening texting various factoids to my friends. These messages concerned my health, the textiles, the retired congressional nuclear bunker buried beneath a wing of the hotel, and the sweet gun-club attendant who called me âmaâamâ the whole time I shot clays. But primarily, the texts were about Babydog, the rotund English bulldog that belongs to the Greenbrierâs owner, West Virginia governor Jim Justice. Among her achievements, Babydog was the star of the stateâs underperforming Covid-vaccine campaign (called âDo It For Babydogâ), and she allegedly predicted the outcome of Super Bowl LV.
While I texted at the bar, an email from the Greenbrier Clinic popped up on my phone. My fate had arrived: Some of the test results were in. Immediately, I deleted it. To wipe my brain, I grabbed a diabolical concoction called a âlemon hazeââHennessy, tequila, limoncello, and Cointreauâand wandered onto the balcony into the night. There, in a rocking chair around a tabletop fire, I listened to a drunk man who claimed to be an ex-cop describe the scene of a notorious Charlottesville murder. Then I got into bed, fell asleep, and woke at 4 AM with a splitting headache and racing heart, but not the arrhythmia Iâd sought.
This was the worst possible outcome. I was tired and hungover, with no relevant data for the heart monitor. My fitness assessment was scheduled for 9 AM.
Returning to the clinic, I felt nervous. Somewhere inside, behind a baby-blue door, my test results awaited review. Throughout my fitness and nutrition consults, the 11 AM discharge meeting loomed. When the hour came, I marched somberly to the doctorâs office, suppressing the stray impulse to flee.
We began with my bloodwork, which actually looked fine. Iâm not anemic, my glucose is normal, my cholesterol is excellent, and my kidneys work well. I was deficient in B12, but the doctor promised to supply me a shot before I left. My hearing and breathing were good, and the chest x-ray found nothing substantial. Then we arrived at the locus of my dread.
The heart stuff was anticlimactic; the doctor didnât have much news. The tests that came back looked âreassuring,â but the most telling oneâthe monitorâwouldnât be reviewed until Iâd worn it and mailed it back. Ordinarily, Iâd have dwelled in dissatisfaction. But I was distracted. The abdominal ultrasound seemed bad.
Alarming yellow highlights marbled the printout of results; these were the doctorâs areas of concern. First were the gallbladder polypsânot one but two. In the majority of people, these are benign, she said. But they could become cancerous. I would need to monitor them to see if they grew.
Then came the âlesion on my spleen.â On the paper, beneath a highlighted streak, I saw a word that ended in âoma.â Oh God, I thought. Thatâs bad. In the dark pantheon of omasâsarcomas, melanomas, lymphomas, carcinomasâI knew of none that I wanted to have. Whatever a âhemangiomaâ was, it was probably how I would die.
The doctor, however, thought otherwise. While the ultrasound couldnât precisely diagnose it, the spleen lesion was probably fine, akin to a birthmark or a mole. âIf thatâs what it is, itâs not anything we should worry about,â she said. âBut we should follow it.â I swallowed hard.
I should have been prepared for that moment, since it was precisely what the critics had said; executive health exams often catch things that arenât bothersome, that are probably benign but possibly deadly, and therefore beget pointless worry and additional care. I tried, briefly, to feel indignant. But were the lesion to turn cancerous, Iâd be positioned to detect it early. I was sort of grateful to know.
At the end of my exam, the doctor pronounced me âvery healthy,â and rationally I knew this was true. Still, the splenic âomaâ ran skittery around my brain. I thought about it as I exited the clinic and entered an unnaturally pink restaurant for a fried-green-tomato sandwich. And thatâs when I returned to my heart. It was the arrhythmia, if anything, that would kill meâalthough at least I was addressing it now. Iâd submitted to copious testing. The monitor sat in judgment atop my chest.
By far, the executive health exam had been the best medical experience of my life. No doctor had ever spent so much time with me. No clinic had ever felt so warm. And the testingâfor all its naysayersâseemed pretty targeted to my concerns. Had I gotten this care in the real world, it would have involved three or four visits to various far-flung locales, all on separate days. I would never have done it. Iâd have just sat at home worrying about my heart.
Now, having tasted upscale preventive medicine, I didnât want to go back. I dreaded a future of bleak fluorescent clinics and chaotic strip-mall urgent-cares. Couldnât I receive all of my healthcare at a florid and maximalist resort, surrounded by foggy mountains while golfing and dining and shopping and shooting clays? Of course you loved the executive health exam, responded the cynical region of my brain. Itâs a luxury product that you canât regularly have, that most people could never afford.
But the goat cheese on my sandwich was so creamy and I was eager for my afternoon hike, where the sun would dribble over the wildflowers and the mountain air would be crisp. My nagging conscience quieted. I returned to brooding about my death.
This article appears in the November 2023 issue of Washingtonian.
PHOENIX - It's a phrase people often see in news reports about deaths â that results from toxicology tests can take weeks, even months.
As of Nov. 15, 2023, toxicology reports for late âFriendsâ actor Matthew Perry remain pending.
With that in mind, some are wondering why there's such a delay in releasing results from toxicology tests.
Here's what you should know.
What are toxicology tests?
(Photo By Eduardo Parra/Europa Press via Getty Images)
According to an article published by WebMD in 2012, there are different types of toxicology tests. For this article, we are talking about forensic toxicology testing, or toxicology tests that are performed after a person dies. Such tests are also known as "postmortem drug testing."
In the WebMD article, it's noted that forensic toxicology testing is part of an autopsy report. A medical professional who worked at a San Diego hospital at the time the article was published defined the report from forensic toxicology testing as "the result of the lab procedures identifying and quantifying potential toxins, which include prescription medications and drugs of abuse, and interpretations of the findings."
You mentioned other types of toxicology tests. What are they?
In the WebMD article, it is noted that another type of drug testing is called "clinical toxicology," or drug testing ordered by a medical professional, such as an emergency room doctor if a patient shows up with signs and symptoms of drug overdose or abuse.
Other types of toxicology tests, according to the article, include workplace drug testing and athletic drug testing, the latter of which is used to detect banned substances or performance-enhancing substances.
An article published by the Cleveland Clinic also lists other ways toxicology tests are used, such as during a criminal investigation as a way to collect potential evidence of a crime.
What do they collect for toxicology tests?
Containers of urine samples for testing. (Photo by Herman Lumanog/Pacific Press/LightRocket via Getty Images)
According to the WebMD article, blood samples are collected from different areas of the body, such as from the leg and heart, in order to account for different concentrations of drugs. The comparison of different concentrations can, according to an expert, boost accuracy. In addition, urine and tissues can also be collected for testing.
Afterward, the article states that the specimens are sent to a toxicology expert for testing. If drugs show up in the testing, more sophisticated tests will then be done, and experts will then determine a number of things, including whether the drug (or drugs) contributed to a death or directly caused a death.
What do the results tell us?
As mentioned above, the WebMD article states that experts will determine, based on data they received from toxicology tests, whether a drug (or drugs) contributed to a death or directly caused a death.
However, the same article also states there are times when a toxicology report presents a not-so-clear-cut picture of what happened. According to an expert interviewed in the article, about 2-5% of death cases are deemed to have an indeterminate cause of death.Â
Why do they take so long?
In a 2015 document, officials with the Wisconsin Department of Justice state that several factors contribute to the time it takes to finish a toxicology report, including:
Meanwhile, the WebMD article also lists other factors in the lengthening of the time needed for a toxicology test to be completed, including
How long does it normally take in the U.S. to complete a toxicology test?
(Asad Zaidi/Bloomberg via Getty Images
According to a 2021 report published by the U.S. Department of Justice, the average turnaround time, or the average duration to complete a toxicology case, is 33.3 days, with public toxicology labs taking an average of 55.2 days, and private labs taking an average of 4.1 days.
Meanwhile, in its 2022 Annual Report, officials with the Maricopa County Office of the Medical Examiner state that on average, toxicology tests are done 15 days from the date of examination, with 96% of the tests being completed within 30 days.
WASHINGTON (SOA) â Thereâs a growing national conversation about toxic chemicals known as PFAS, as federal health bodies take action to address contamination and assess health risks. We first reported on a new study linking a PFAS chemical to testicular cancer earlier this week. Now, in an exclusive report, we examined new data about PFAS found in servicemembersâ blood and new efforts in Washington to get care and compensation for those exposed.
Retired Air Force firefighter Kevin Ferrara remembers working with AFFF, firefighting foam we now know was made with PFAS, toxic forever chemicals that have been tied to a host of health problems including cancer.
Today, Ferrara has made it his mission to help firefighters understand the potential risks from their exposure to that foam. He told us firefighters come to him and ask about the health risks. "Usually the first question I get is, 'Am I going to get cancer?'" said Ferrara.
Answering those questions is complicated, but new studies are shedding light.
As we first reported earlier this month, a first-of-its-kind federal study performed the largest examination of PFAS exposure and testicular cancer to date, by looking at the banked blood of Air Force servicemembers. It found those employed in fire protection had elevated concentrations of PFOS, a PFAS chemical, in their blood. Higher blood levels of PFOS were linked to testicular cancer.
It's the latest in a growing body of research tying PFAS to health effects, but despite widespread use of firefighting foam, and suspected contamination in the groundwater of hundreds of military bases, exposure to PFAS is not widely considered a service-connected injury, and sources tell Spotlight on America there's a lack of understanding and uniformity among medical providers.
Congress mandated that the Department of Defense offer blood tests to military firefighters to look for PFAS chemicals in 2020.
The first results were reported to Congress this year. Spotlight on America dug through the data, finding that more than 9,100 firefighters opted for a blood test in 2021.
You can read the full report to Congress below.
We took the results to PFAS researcher and former West Virginia University Professor Dr. Alan Ducatman.
Most of the blood tests performed, about one third, were servicemembers in the Air Force. The PFAS detected most often in the serum was PFOS, which was found in 95.6% of the samples.
Overall PFAS geometric mean blood concentrations ranged from a high for PFOS at 3.1 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL), followed by PFHxS (2.8 ng/mL), PFOA (1.1 ng/mL), and PFNA (0.42 ng/mL).
In a 300-page report, the National Academies of Sciences suggested that 20ng/mL of PFAS in blood is serious enough to screen patients for signs of testicular cancer and other health effects.
Among the DoD's blood test results, levels of just one PFAS chemical at 150 ng/mL. That's more than seven times higher than the NAS designated level that could indicate potential health effects.
Still, the full extent of exposure in the military community at large is unknown.
Blood tests are only offered to active duty and reserve firefighters, not veterans or other servicemembers who may have worked with AFFF.
The VA's web site does not recommend blood tests, saying most Americans have PFAS in their blood and saying "blood tests cannot be linked to current or future health conditions."
For now, even with the results of a blood test in hand, we discovered military firefighters are fending for themselves.
Kevin Ferrara said he's spoken with firefighters left confused by their results.
"A lot of times they say, the doctor looks at them and says, 'I have no idea what this data means. Good luck.'" Kevin Ferrara said. "That's not what these firefighters need to encounter when they see a physician."
Dr. Alan Ducatman told us it's unreasonable to expect that all doctors are PFAS experts, but it's important for medical monitoring systems to be in place. "It would be good to get a cadre of doctors for the military and for communities who have had these elevated exposures who do understand the problem and who can help those community members."
Spotlight on America obtained guidance the military gave to its practitioners offering PFAS blood tests, telling them to inform patients âany follow-on health care or medical evaluations based on the PFAS laboratory result must be sought from their private healthcare at their own expense.â
Congressman Kildee calls that "unconscionable."
He's introducing legislation called the Veterans Exposed to Toxic PFAS Act, which would require the VA medical system to treat those cases as duty-related, to include high cholesterol, ulcerative colitis, thyroid disease, testicular cancer, kidney cancer and pregnancy-induced hypertension.
But the bill has not advanced.
It's frustration shared by Kevin Ferrara.
"Congress can make change within a day with a swipe of a pen," he said. "Every single day that Congress is sitting on this and arguing over whose name's going to be on the bill, who's going to sponsor it, who's gonna vote on it? We have veterans out there every day that are suffering from PFAS, and they're dying from this stuff."
The VA told Spotlight on America it's reviewing new studies about PFAS. You can read our full Q&A with the VA below:
Q1. (VHA) Is the VA aware of the federal study that linked PFOS in service members to testicular cancer ? What is the VAâs response to that study? Is there discussion about how those findings may inform the treatment of military members?
A1. We are currently reviewing this study. Veterans who feel as though their health has been impacted by exposure to PFAS during their military service are encouraged to file a claim for disability benefits. These claims are considered on a case-by-case basis.
Q2. (VBA) Is the VA aware of legislative efforts to designate PFAS exposure as a service-connected injury? What is the VAâs response to those efforts, and does it plan to comply with the law if passed?
A2. We are closely monitoring the research regarding exposure of service members to PFAS. PFAS are synthetic chemicals that are contained in many products such as fire-fighting foams (aqueous film forming foams (AFFF)), clothing, furniture, food packaging, and may be contained in drinking water and certain foods.
While no presumptions have been established to date for any specific medical condition based on exposure to PFAS, a presumption is not required to establish service connection. VA makes decisions on claims based on exposure to PFAS or a specific source of PFAS, such as aqueous film forming foams, on a case-by-case basis. For example, for a Veteran filing a claim for disability due to exposure to aqueous film forming foams, VA reviews the facts and evidence such as the types, levels, and duration of exposure (if known), onset and nature of claimed medical condition(s) and other factors to determine if disability compensation is warranted. If there is an approximate balance of positive and negative evidence, VA gives the benefit of the doubt to the Veteran.
Our general policy has always been that disability compensation can be granted if a Veteran has a current disability that is related to his or her military service including disabilities related to in-service exposures like PFAS. Any Veteran who feels that military service has negatively impacted his/her health is encouraged to submit a claim for disability compensation.
Q3. (VHA) Does the VA recommend that military firefighters receive blood tests for PFAS, in light of the study finding that those employed in fire protection had elevated levels of PFOS?
A3. We are currently reviewing scientific information related to PFAS blood testing and the utility of such tests in a clinical setting. It has been established that a blood test for PFAS gives only a snapshot of what is in the body at that time; it cannot inform on when an exposure occurred, source of exposure, or current or future health outcomes. We will continue to discuss this issue and will review additional information as it becomes available. We are also actively working to address research gaps related to PFAS-related health outcomes in the following efforts:
A collaboration between VAâs Health Outcomes Military Exposures (HOME) program, Central Arkansas VAMC and Naval Health Research Center is leveraging assets from the Millennium Cohort Study to investigate PFAS levels in military firefighters (occupationally exposed) and construction workers (occupationally unexposed) as identified by military occupational specialty (MOS) codes. The study will also investigate correlations between PFAS levels and cardiometabolic outcomes and biomarkers.
A pilot study collaboration between HOMEâs Exposure Science Program, Defense Centers for Public Health â Aberdeen and the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences is to investigate and track PFAS exposures in active-duty firefighters via dried blood spots. Correlations with biomarkers of effect will be evaluated.
Spotlight on America also posed a list of questions about blood testing to the Department of Defense. You can read their full responses below:
1) What is being done to analyze blood test results on a wide scale?
Response. Since October 2020, PFAS testing has been offered to all DoD firefighters during their annual physical exams as directed by Congress (Section 707 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020). The PFAS testing offered to each DoD firefighter is directed in DoD Policy, âDoD Manual 6055.05-Occupational Medical Examinations: Medical Surveillance and Medical Qualification, Section 5.13â, available at https://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/issuances/dodm/605505m.PDF?ver=3u-UoR7v7wydz-RIKQkI_Q%3D%3D. Currently, an individualâs PFAS levels cannot be used to predict adverse health effects and no occupational screening values for PFAS have been established. Exposure assessments and health studies are under way by organizations such as the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry (ATSDR). They may inform whether screening values can be determined for PFAS in the blood of the general public and for occupational settings. Results from our analysis of DoD firefighters is included in the response to the second question.
2) Can your office provide data on what has been collected and found?
Response. PFAS levels in blood are the result of exposures from all sources: environmental, occupational, and use of consumer products. The presence of PFAS in DoD firefighter blood does not tell us how, where, when, or for how long a person was exposed to PFAS, and whether it was from firefighting or other sources of PFAS. The following six PFAS were tested in the blood of DoD firefighters from October 1, 2020 through May 1, 2023: perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA); perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS); perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA); perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA); and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS). Additional PFAS were added, beginning in May 1, 2023. Summary statistics for the first year of DoD firefighter blood testing can be found on https://www.health.mil/Reference-Center/Reports/2023/02/14/Perfluorinated-Chemicals-PFCs-Contamination-and-First-Responder-Exposure.
Analysis of results from samples collected from the second year of testing (October 1, 2021 through September 30, 2022) is currently underway. In addition to similar summary statistics, the DoD will include some initial trending information between the first and second year of offering tests to DoD firefighters.
Additionally, the DoD is currently planning to have future blood samples analyzed using the CDCâs analytical method. This will allow the DoD to reevaluate PFAS being analyzed and consider additional PFAS analytes to better align with those being analyzed by the CDC. The CDC indicates that their scientists found four specific PFAS (PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA) in the blood of nearly all of the people tested, indicating widespread exposure to these PFAS in the U.S. population. CDC data suggest that over 98% of Americans have detectable levels of PFAS in their blood. The data tables showing PFAS blood testing results for the general population since 1999 can be viewed at: https://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/.
3) What examinations are underway?
Response. The DoD is collaborating with other Federal agencies that are leading efforts associated with the completion of environmental and occupational exposure assessments, risk assessments, and health studies. The ATSDR and CDCâs National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are conducting health and exposure studies to understand PFAS exposure pathways from environmental and occupational PFAS sources, and whether these exposures are linked with potential health outcomes. The results of these studies will inform the development of exposure assessments, occupational exposure limits and medical surveillance requirements for the DoD. In addition, the Department will update its guidance to DoD healthcare providers when ATSDR revises their PFAS clinical guidelines.
4) How many of these blood tests have been performed?
Response. DoD records indicate that in Fiscal Year (FY) 2021, 10,208 DoD firefighters were offered a blood test for PFAS as part of their existing annual firefighter occupational medical surveillance exam. Of these, 9,104 DoD firefighters chose to have their blood tested and 1,004 DoD firefighters opted not to have their blood tested. A complete analysis of accurate (FY2022 and beyond) blood testing data is ongoing and unavailable at this time.
The DVLA has asked whether drivers should pay for medical checks
Older drivers may soon have to pay for driving licence medical checks with a new consultation asking whether a charge should be added.Â
The new fee could be issued to all motorists with a medical condition but elderly motorists over the age of 70 could be disproportionately affected.Â
Under the current rules, the DVLA pays the costs associated with medical background checks but costs have spiralled out of control.Â
In a call for evidence centred around driver licensing for people with medical conditions, the DVLA has asked whether the cost associated with medical investigations should be paid by taxpayers and DVLA.
They have also asked whether it would be âappropriateâ for the individual customer to pay for medical investigations in relation to their fitness to drive.
The call for evidence closed in October meaning responses will now be analysed before further decisions are made.
The report reads: "Although DVLA aims to make 90 percent of licensing decisions within 90 days, this is becoming increasingly challenging as cases become more complex and more information is needed from third parties.
âIn addition to this, the law provides that DVLA shall pay any fees associated with medical investigations. This includes paying a fee for the completion of each medical condition specific questionnaire, eyesight tests, drugs and alcohol screening tests (unless under HRO legislation) and examinations.
âThe costs associated with gathering information to assess if an individual can meet the appropriate medical standards for driving has almost doubled in the last 10 years, from approximately ÂŁ10million to around ÂŁ20million per year.Â
âThis reflects not only an increasing number of drivers with multiple health conditions but the complexity of those conditions.â
DVLA medical checks have soared in accurate years
A DVLA chart shows costs steadily rose every year between 2013/14 and 2017/18 when fees doubled.Â
There was a slight drop in 2018/19Â but this was eclipsed with an even bigger increase the following year with total costs now just under ÂŁ25million.
Elderly drivers make up the bulk of the DVLAâs caseload with the most medical conditions among the 70-79 year olds.Â
Officials are reportedly dealing with over 14,000 single medical conditions and around 12,000 multiple medical conditions among this age range.
Those between the ages of 60-69 were the second highest age group followed by 50-59.Â
The rise in drivers having more than one medical condition as they get older creates other complexities for DVLA officials.Â
The report continues: âThe myriad combinations of medical conditions (and medications to treat them) that are reported to DVLA, and their severity present a level of complexity that complicates the decision-making process when assessing driving fitness.Â
âAssessing multiple medical conditions is time-consuming as medical information is often needed from several doctors or healthcare professionals involved in a personâs ongoing care and treatment.â
Q: For a year, my boss at work was harassing me. It got so bad that I filed a police report. Now I have a lawsuit against him and the company. They have demanded a mental exam. Isnât that just more harassment?
T.B., Chino Hills
A: The California statute on point provides that a mental examination of a party may be ordered when his or her mental condition is placed in controversy in a civil case [CCP Section 2032.020(a)]. Unless the parties agree, leave of court is required to request such an exam, and there has to be a showing of good cause [CCP Sections 2032.310(a) and 320(a)]. Good cause may well be found if you have said that as a result, you suffered mental anguish and/or emotional distress. In sum, if you put your mental state into issue, you may well have to undergo the exam.
Hence, my thought is that you sit down with your lawyer and discuss what it means to have a mental exam by the other side. Ideally, you knew going into your lawsuit that a mental exam could be required. Learn what kind of questions may be asked, and whether there will be testing of some kind (for example, multiple choice). Other inquiries include how long will the exam will take, can it be recorded or videotaped and can your lawyer be there? Note that a report will likely be issued, which your lawyer can review and challenge. And you should no doubt have your own expert to explain the severity of your anguish caused by the former bossâs misconduct.
Q: Just what is an independent medical exam? I have serious injuries caused by a bad driver who went through a red light. Now, as part of the lawsuit, do I have to go to their doctorâs office to be examined?
N.D., Newport Beach
A: It is not uncommon in personal injury cases, particularly where significant monies are sought, that the injured party is required to undergo an independent medical exam conducted by the doctor selected by the other side. At the risk of sounding a bit cynical, the word âindependentâ is a bit of a stretch. The doctor retained by your opponent wants to be credible, wants to be believable, but it is his or her job (if possible) to downplay your injury or injuries, and/or cast some question or doubt about them.
The medical exam can be recorded. Your lawyer can be there as well, and observe. Keep in mind you are alleging that you suffered physical injury as a result of the accident, and you may be arguing that you are going to have future medical care as well. Part of the lawsuit process is what we sometimes call âdueling expertsâ â yours and theirs. Your doctor is going to emphasize the nature and seriousness of the harm you have suffered; as noted, theirs may try to counter the seriousness.
Talk this out with your lawyer. Know what to expect at the independent medical exam. The report issued by the other partyâs doctor may be suspect, and a challenge to it (and the other partyâs expert) is part of your lawyerâs job.
Ron Sokol has been a practicing attorney for over 40 years, and has also served many times as a judge pro tem, mediator, and arbitrator. it is important to keep in mind that this column presents a summary of the law, and is not to be treated or considered legal advice, let alone a substitute for real consultation with a qualified professional.
GPT-4 has a shot at passing the CFA exam â but ChatGPT? Not a chance.
GPT-4 has a "decent chance" of passing the CFA level I and level II exams with appropriate prompting, while ChatGPT would not pass under all settings that were tested in a study from a team of researchers from Queens University, Virginia Tech, and J.P. Morgan's AI research division. The model struggled more with level II than level I, the researchers said, noting that there's "no consensus" on which level is more difficult for exam takers.
GPT-4 performed better than ChatGPT in almost every topic, the researchers found.Â
The series of three exams it takes to obtains your CFA is notoriously difficult for humans, too. Pass rates for Level I, II, and III fell between 37% to 47% in August 2023, according to the CFA Institute. Â
GPT-4 scored in the 90th percentile of the bar exam with a score of 298 out of 400.
While GPT-3.5, which powers the free version of ChatGPT, only scored in the 10th percentile of the bar exam, according to OpenAI.Â
The threshold for passing the bar varies from state to state. In New York though, exam takers need a score of 266, around the 50th percentile, to pass, according to The New York State Board of Law Examiners.
GPT-4 aced the SAT practicing & Writing section with a score of 710 out of 800, which puts it in the 93rd percentile of test-takers.
Meanwhile, GPT-3.5, scored in the 87th percentile with a score of 670 out of 800, according to OpenAI.
For the math section, GPT-4 earned a 700 out of 800, ranking among the 89th percentile of test-takers, according to OpenAI. While GPT-3.5 scored in the 70th percentile, OpenAI noted.
In total, GPT-4 scored 1410 out of 1600 points. The average score on the SAT in 2021 was 1060, according to a report from the College Board.
GPT-4's scores on the Graduate Record Examinations, or GRE, varied widely according to the sections.
While it scored in the 99th percentile on the verbal section of the exam and in the 80th percentile of the quantitative section of the exam, GPT-4 only scored in the 54th percentile of the writing test, according to OpenAI.Â
GPT-3.5 also scored in the 54th percentile of the writing test, and earned marks within the 25th percentile and 63rd percentiles for the quantitative and verbal sections respectively, according to OpenAI.
GPT-4 scored in the 99th to 100th percentile on the 2020 USA Biology Olympiad Semifinal Exam, according to OpenAI.
The USA Biology Olympiad is a prestigious national science competition that regularly draws some of the brightest biology students in the countryÂ The first round features a 50-minute open online exam that draws thousands of students across the country, according to USABO's site.
The second round â the Semifinal exam â is a 120-minute exam with three parts featuring multiple choice, true/false, and short answer questions, USABO notes on its site. Students with the top 20 scores on the Semifinal exam will advance to the National Finals, according to USABO.
GPT-4 has passed a host of Advanced Placement examinations, exams for college-level courses taken by high school students that are administered by the College Board.
Scores range from 1 to 5, with scores of 3 and above generally considered passing grades, according to the College Board.Â
GPT-4 received a 5 on AP Art History, AP Biology, AP Environmental Science, AP Macroeconomics, AP Microeconomics, AP Psychology, AP Statistics, AP US Government and AP US History, according to OpenAI.
On AP Physics 2, AP Calculus BC, AP Chemistry, and AP World History, GPT-4 received a 4, OpenAI said.
GPT-4 still struggles with high school math exams.
The AMC 10 and 12 are 25-question, 75-minute exams administered to high school students that cover mathematical subjects including algebra, geometry, trigonometry, according to the Mathematical Association of America's site.Â
In the fall of 2022, the average score out of 150 total points on the AMC 10 was 58.33 and 59.9 on the AMC 12, according to the MAA's site. GPT-4 scored a 30 and 60, respectively, putting it between the 6th to 12th percentile of the AMC 10 and the 45th to 66th percentile of the AMC 12, according to OpenAI.Â
While it's notoriously difficult to earn your credentials as a wine steward, GPT-4 does pass examinations to become a sommelier.
GPT-4 has passed the Introductory Sommelier, Certified Sommelier, and Advanced Sommelier exams at respective rates of 92%, 86%, and 77%, according to OpenAI.Â
GPT-3.5 came in at 80%, 58%, and 46% for those same exams, OpenAI said.
ChatGPT fares reasonably well on some sections of a Wharton MBA exam but struggles with others.
Wharton professor Christian Terwiesch recently tested the technology with questions from his final exam in operations managementâ which wasÂ once a required class for all MBA students â and published his findings.Â
Terwiesch concluded that the bot did anÂ "amazing job" answering basic operations questions based on case studies, which are focused examinations of a person, group, or company, and a common way business schools teach students.Â Â
In other instances though, ChatGPT made simple mistakes in calculations that Terwiesch thought only required 6th-grade-level math. Terwiesch also noted that the bot had issues with more complex questions that required an understanding of how multiple inputs and outputs worked together.Â
Ultimately, Terwiesch said the bot would receive an B or B- on the exam.Â
ChatGPT passed all three parts of the United States medical licensing examination within a comfortable range.
Researchers put ChatGPT through the United States Medical Licensing exam â a three part exam that aspiring doctors take between medical school and residency â and reported their findings in a paper published in December 2022.Â
The paper's abstract noted that ChatGPT "performed at or near the passing threshold for all three exams without any specialized training or reinforcement. Additionally, ChatGPT demonstrated a high level of concordance and insight in its explanations."
Ultimately, the results show that large language models â which ChatGPT has been trained onâ may have "the potential" to assist with medical education and even clinical decision making, the abstract noted.Â
The research is still under peer review, Insider noted based on a report from Axios.Â
While ChatGPT has generated convincing essays on occasion, it's also raised eyebrows for spewing out well-written misinformation.
It didn't take long after ChatGPT was released for students to start using it for essays and educators to start worrying about plagiarism.Â
In December, Bloomberg podcaster Matthew S. Schwartz tweeted that the "take home essay is dead." He noted that he had fed a law school essay prompt into ChatGPT and it had "responded *instantly* with a solid response."Â
In another instance, a philosophy professor at Furman University caught a student turning in an AI-generated essay upon noticing it had "well-written misinformation," Insider reported.Â
"Word by word it was a well-written essay," the professor told Insider. As he took a more careful look however, he noticed that the student made a claim about the philosopher David Hume that "made no sense" and was "just flatly wrong" Insider reported.Â
In an interview in January, Sam Altmanâ CEO of OpenAI which makes ChatGPT â said that while the company will devise ways to help schools detect plagiarism, he can't ensure full detection.Â
ChatGPT aced a college-level microbiology quiz.
Science journalist and executive editor of Big Think, AlexÂ Berezow, tested ChatGPT with a 10-question microbiology quiz that he devised.Â
Berezow, who also holds a Ph.D in microbiology, noted that the questions would be appropriate for a final exam for college level students. ChatGPT "blew it away," Berezow wrote.Â
In one example, Berezow asked:Â
"An emergency room patient presents with a terrible headache and stiff neck. The doctor orders a spinal tap to collect cerebrospinal fluid. A Gram stain of the CSF reveals the presence of Gram negative diplococci. What is the diagnosis?"
To which ChatGPT correctly responded:
Based on the information you provided, the Gram stain of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shows the presence of Gram-negative diplococci, which are bacteria that are typically oval-shaped and occur in pairs. This finding is consistent with the diagnosis of meningitis.
In another instance he asked:
"In five words or less, what is the point of Koch's postulates?"
To which ChatGPT said:Â
Establish causality between microbe and disease.
Taking out the word "and" Berezow said ChatGPT "Nailed it."
ChatGPT barely passed Law School Exams, earning something close to a C+.
In total, the bot answered over 95 multiple choice questions and 12 essay questions that were blindly graded by the professors. Ultimately, the professors gave ChatGPT a "low but passing grade in all four courses" approximately equivalent to a C+.Â
Still the authors pointed out several implications for what this might mean for lawyers and law education. In one section they wrote:
"Although ChatGPT would have been a mediocre law student, its performance was sufficient to successfully earn a JD degree from a highly selective law school, assuming its work remained constant throughout law school (and ignoring other graduation requirements that involve different skills). In an era where remote exam administration has become the norm, this could hypothetically result in a struggling law student using ChatGPT to earn a JD that does not reflect her abilities or readiness to practice law."
But the bot did pass a Stanford Medical School clinical reasoning final.
ChatGPT passed a Stanford Medical School final in clinical reasoning. According to a YouTube video uploaded by Eric Strong â a clinical associate professor at Stanford â ChatGPT passed a clinical reasoning exam with an overall score of 72%.Â
In the video, Strong described clinical reasoning in five parts. It includes analyzing a patient's symptoms and physical findings, hypothesizing possible diagnoses, selecting appropriate tests, interpreting test results, and recommending treatment options.Â
He said, "it's a complex, multi-faceted science of its own, one that is very patient-focused, and something that everything every practicing doctor does on a routine basis."
Strong noted in the video that the clinical reasoning exam is normally given to first-year medical students who need a score of 70% to pass.
CRNE exam contents | CRNE syllabus | CRNE education | CRNE helper | CRNE basics | CRNE mock | CRNE study help | CRNE learning | CRNE health | CRNE outline |
Killexams exam Simulator
Killexams Questions and Answers
Killexams Exams List