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CPEA Certified Professional Environmental Auditor (CPEA) information source |

CPEA information source - Certified Professional Environmental Auditor (CPEA) Updated: 2023

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Exam Code: CPEA Certified Professional Environmental Auditor (CPEA) information source November 2023 by team

CPEA Certified Professional Environmental Auditor (CPEA)

BEAC issues the Certified Professional Environmental Auditor (CPEA®) designation. The CPEA credential demonstrates ones understanding of todays ever changing environmental, health & safety regulations. The CPEA designation is fully accredited by the Council on Engineering and Scientific Specialty Boards (CESB). BEAC CPEAs qualify for Professional Membership status with the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE).

Includes identifying environmental aspects and impacts, assessing compliance with environmental laws and regulations, and/or applying professional environmental compliance auditing practices.



​Bachelors degree or higher.

Professional Experience

​Applicants for certification must have four years of relevant work experience as defined below.

Audit Experience

​Applicants must perform a minimum of 20 environmental compliance audits for a minimum of 100 days within the four years prior to certification. Of the 100 days, a minimum of 20 days must be conducted on site.

Auditor Training

​Formal training as an attendee or provider is required within the three years prior to certification. This training shall consist of 40 hours of formal training as outlined in the Definition of Relevant Experience and Training Elements outlined below and may be internal or external to the applicant's organization.

Definitions of Relevant Environmental Compliance Experience and Training Elements

​Relevant experience and training must include identifying environmental aspects and impacts, assessing compliance with environmental laws and regulations, and/or applying professional environmental compliance auditing practices. It may include any combination of: environmental science and technology; environmental management and technical aspects of business activities including facility operations; requirements of environmental laws, regulations, and related documents at the national and local jurisdictional levels; evaluation, implementation, and management of environmental compliance; environmental standards against which management systems and compliance audits may be conducted; management systems and compliance audits procedures, processes, and techniques; and principles of environmental compliance and compliance implementation.

Health & Safety

Includes identifying health and safety aspects and impacts, assessing compliance with safety-related laws and regulations, and/or applying professional health & safety auditing practices.



​Bachelors degree or higher.

Professional Experience
​Applicants for certification must have four years of relevant work experience as defined below.

Audit Experience

​Applicants must perform a minimum of 20 health and safety audits for a minimum of 100 days within the four years prior to certification. Of the 100 days, a minimum of 20 days must be conducted on site.

Auditor Training

​Formal training as an attendee or provider is required within the three years prior to certification. This training shall consist of 40 hours of formal training in relevant experience elements identified below.

Definition of Relevant Health & Safety Experience and Training Elements

​Relevant experience and training must include identifying health and safety aspects and impacts, assessing compliance with safety-related laws and regulations, and/or applying professional health & safety auditing practices. It may include any combination of: safety engineering; industrial hygiene; health and safety management and technical aspects of business activities including facility operations; requirements of OSHA laws, regulations, and related documents at the national and local jurisdictional levels; evaluation, implementation, and management of health and safety compliance; health and safety standards against which management systems and compliance audits may be conducted; management systems and compliance audits procedures, processes, and techniques; and principles of health and safety compliance and compliance implementation.

Management Systems

Includes skills and understanding in any combination of EHS science and technology; EHS management and technical aspects of business activities including facility operations; requirements of EHS laws, regulations, and related documents at the national and local jurisdictional levels; evaluation, implementation, and management of EHS compliance; EHS standards against which management systems and compliance audits may be conducted; management systems and compliance audits procedures, processes, and techniques; and principles of EHS compliance and compliance implementation.



​Bachelors degree or higher.

Professional Experience

​Applicants for certification must have four years of relevant work experience as defined below.

Audit Experience

​Applicants must perform a minimum of 20 MS audits for a minimum of 100 days within the four years prior to certification. Of the 100 days, a minimum of 20 days must be conducted on site.

Auditor Training

​Formal training as an attendee or provider is required within the three years prior to certification. This training shall consist of 40 hours of formal training outlined in the Definition of Relevant Experience and Training Elements shown below, and may be internal or external to the applicant's organization.

Definition of Relevant Management Systems Experience and Training Elements

​Relevant experience and training for the Management System Certification must include any combination of: environmental, health & safety (EHS) science and technology; EHS management and technical aspects of business activities including facility operations; requirements of EHS laws, regulations, and related documents at the national and local jurisdictional levels; evaluation, implementation, and management of EHS compliance; EHS standards against which management systems and compliance audits may be conducted; management systems and compliance audits procedures, processes, and techniques; and principles of EHS compliance and compliance implementation.

​Responsible Care®

Includes skills and understanding in one or more of the following areas: implementation of Responsible Care programs; the chemical process industry; product stewardship, transportation or distribution of chemical products; requirements of EHS laws, regulations and related documents; and EHS/Responsible Care management systems and standards or related auditing procedures, processes and auditing techniques.



​Bachelors degree or higher.

Professional Experience

​Applicant is required to have a minimum of four years relevant work experience, gained during the last ten years. Clear evidence of work experience in the chemical industry or EHS fields that provides an understanding of these issues shall be required. Relevant work experience shall be considered verifiable experience and shall be defined as experience that develops skills and understanding in at least two of the areas described below.

Audit Experience
​Applicants must have performed at least four EMS-related audits consisting of at least 20 total days within the two years prior to certification.

Auditor Training

​Formal training as an attendee or provider is required within the three years prior to certification. This training shall consist of 40 hours of formal training in relevant experience elements identified below. As part of this training, the applicant must successfully complete an ACC qualified Responsible Care course in accordance with "Responsible Care Auditor Course Requirements."

Definition of Relevant Responsible Care Experience and Training Elements

​Relevant experience and training must include verifiable experience gained during the last ten years and shall be defined as experience that develops skills and understanding in at least two of the following areas: implementation of Responsible Care programs; EHS science and technology; work experience gained by actual hands-on roles in the chemical process industry and/or EHS services; product stewardship, transportation or distribution of chemical products; requirements of EHS laws, regulations and related documents; and EHS/Responsible Care management systems and standards or related auditing procedures, processes and auditing techniques. Auditor training must include 40 hours in the last three years and successful completion of an ACC qualified Responsible Care course in accordance with "Responsible Care Auditor Course Requirements" (RCMS206.00).
Certified Professional Environmental Auditor (CPEA)
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Certified Professional Environmental(R) Auditor (CPEA)
Answer: B
Question: 106
The ten CERES Principles, listed below, demand that companies that endorse the principles
pledge to go voluntarily beyond the requirements of the law. Some of those CERES
principles are:
A. Protection of the Biosphere
B. Less use of Natural Resources
C. Safe Products and Services
D. Environmental Restructuring
Answer: A, C
Question: 107
There are additional controversies associated with the EMAS regulations, such as:
A. Setting accreditation standards for the third-party verifiers
B. Setting accreditation standards for the in-house verifiers
C. setting accreditation standards for the evaluators
D. None of these
Answer: A
Question: 108
The standard provides definitions of basic terms and proceeds to discuss the some principal
elements of a sound and effective EH&S audit program. Which of the following is Not out
of those elements?
A. Senior management commitment to the program
B. Clearly stated scope and objectives of the audit program
C. Program organization, including a program manager, auditor qualifications and training
requirements, and independence of the audit function
D. Post-audit activities
Answer: D
Question: 109
One might ask how environmental expectations should be managed appropriately in the
future. Companies have important strategic choice. They can be
A. Leading edge
B. Middle-of-the pack
C. Followers
D. Any one of these
Answer: D
Question: 110
Unlike the Environmental Management System (EMS) Standard (ISO 14001), the Auditing
Guidelines are just that, guidelines. Their strict adoption is:
A. Not necessarily required for an organization
B. Necessarily required for an organization
C. Mandatory in some situations
D. None of these
Answer: A
Question: 111
The ISO 14000 Auditing Guidelines are not long documents; ISO 14010 is three pages,
ISO 14011 is five pages, and ISO 14012 is three pages. However, if one reviews the
Auditing Guidelines in detail, and at face value, there are a number of program and
procedural requirements that are.
A. Specifically addressed in a typical audit program
B. Not specifically addressed in a
typical audit program
C. Occasionally addressed in a typical audit program
D. None out of these
Answer: B
Question: 112
Most companies can respond to the audit length and team size requirement quite well with:
A. General program material and guidelines in basic laws
B. General program material already provided in program guidance documents
C. General program material that is not provided in program guidance documents
D. A and B both
Answer: B
Question: 113
Audit Procedures Guideline (14011) states that an audit plan should, if applicable, include
all of the following Except:
A. The audit scheme
B. Identification of the auditees organizational and functional units to be
C. The procedures for auditing the auditees EMS elements as appropriate for the auditees
D. The working and reporting languages of the audit
Answer: A
Question: 114
The audit plan should be communicated to the client, the audit-team members, and the
auditee. ___________ should review and approve the plan.
A. Auditor
B. Client
C. Audit team
D. Anyone of these
Answer: B
Question: 115
There should be no secrets about what the auditors will do when they visit the site or an
organization. Guidance documents do not have to be tomes; they can be as short as 20-25
pages. However, they should include as many demo tools as possible, including:
A. demo announcement memo or letter
B. Audit interlopes and demo post-audit questionnaire
C. Model opening and closing conference presentations
D. Exact audit report and defensive action plan
Answer: A, C
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Financial Environmental information source - BingNews Search results Financial Environmental information source - BingNews 6 Great Year-End Financial Planning Strategies to Finish Strong No result found, try new keyword!A Roth IRA conversion is more appealing for those who are well-positioned to take advantage of this strategy in a historically low tax rate environment ... Certain information provided herein is based ... Thu, 16 Nov 2023 22:00:00 -0600 en-us text/html A Guide to Financial Designations

Whether you're new to the financial services business or an old pro, earning a professional designation can provide numerous benefits. Increased exposure, credibility and compensation are just a few of the advantages a certification confers. However, the proliferation of designations, particularly in the financial planning field, has complicated the process for those trying to decide which designation will benefit them most. In this article, we'll review these professional designations and their requirements.

Certified Financial Planner (CFP)

The certified financial planner (CFP) designation is one the most widely recognized credentials in the financial planning industry. Applicants must have a bachelor's degree and complete college or university-level coursework through a CFP Board Registered Program, of which there are more than 300 in the United States.

Coursework covers professional conduct and regulations; general principles of financial planning; education planning; risk management and insurance planning; investment planning; tax planning; retirement savings and income planning; and estate planning. Students must take the board exam, which is 170 questions broken into two sections lasting three hours each. Other requirements include 4,000 to 6,000 of professional experience and 30 hours of continuing education every two years.

Certified Public Accountant (CPA)

A certified public accountant (CPA) is a designation to help enforce professional standards in the accounting industry. CPAs have a wide range of career options, either in public or corporate accounting. CPAs are known for their role in income tax preparation but can specialize in many other areas, such as auditing, bookkeeping, forensic accounting, managerial accounting and information technology. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) awards the CPA designation.

Candidates must complete 150 semester hours of education. The number of accounting hours varies by state. The required Uniform CPA Examination covers four areas: auditing and attestation, business environment and concepts, financial accounting and reporting, and regulation. The minimum passing score is 75%. Other requirements may include one to two years of work experience (set by the state), 40 hours of continuing education annually, and ethics examinations.

Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA)

A chartered financial analyst (CFA) is a globally-recognized professional designation given by the CFA Institute. The designation measures and certifies the competence and integrity of financial analysts. Those who earn this designation often become portfolio managers or analysts for various types of financial institutions.

Candidates must have completed a four-year college or university degree, or they must have at least four years of professional work experience. All CFA candidates are required to hold an international travel passport.

There are three exams to pass. The average person invests more than 300 hours over a four-year period to complete the program. The exams cover ethical and professional standards, quantitative methods, economics, financial reporting and analysis, corporate finance, equity investments, fixed income, derivatives, alternative investments, and portfolio management and wealth planning. Roughly 40% of candidates taking the Level I test pass. Pass rates Improve for candidates taking the Level II and Level III exams.

Enrolled Agent

An enrolled agent is a professional who is permitted to represent taxpayers before the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). To qualify, the individual must pass a three-part test covering individual and business tax returns, or they must have experience as a former IRS employee. Enrolled agent status is the highest credential the IRS awards. Individuals who obtain this designation must adhere to ethical standards and complete 72 hours of continuing education every three years. Enrolled agents, like attorneys and CPAs, have unlimited practice rights. They are unrestricted as to which taxpayers they can represent, what types of tax matters they can handle, and which IRS offices they can represent clients before.

Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU)

Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU) is a professional designation for individuals who wish to specialize in life insurance and estate planning. CFP holders will often add CLU to their credentials to demonstrate additional subject-matter expertise. The American College of Financial Services is issuing organization for the CLU.

The education requirements are five core courses in insurance planning, individual life insurance, life insurance law, estate planning and planning for business owners and professionals. Three electives are also required. Candidates must have three years of business experience within the five years preceding the awarding of the designation.

Chartered Financial Consultant (ChFC)

A Chartered Financial Consultant (ChFC) is a professional designation representing the completion of a comprehensive course consisting of financial education, examinations and practical experience. Those who earn the designation are understood to be knowledgeable in financial matters and to have the ability to provide sound advice. The American College of Financial Services is issuing organization for the ChFC.

There are eight required courses: financial planning, insurance planning, income taxation, retirement planning, investments, estate planning, personal financial planning, and contemporary applications in financial planning. Candidates must have three years of business experience within the five years preceding the awarding of the designation.

Certified Employee Benefit Specialist (CEBS)

The Certified Employee Benefit Specialist is a designation for professionals who sell or administrate employee benefit plans. A Certified Employee Benefit Specialist must have comprehensive understanding of compensation structures, health insurance and disability insurance. The International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans is the issuing organization.

There are five required courses covering the administration of benefits programs, strategic benefits management and the administration of retirement plans. Each course requires the completion of a 100-question comprehensive exam. CEBS holders must complete 30 hours of continuing education every two years.

Chartered Property Casualty Underwriter (CPCU)

Chartered Property Casualty Underwriter (CPCU) is a professional credential earned by individuals who specialize in risk management and property-casualty insurance. The CPCU is most likely to be earned by insurance agents and brokers, insurance claims representatives, risk managers, and underwriters. It is offered by The Institutes.

There are four core courses, one elective and three concentration courses in either commercial underwriting or personal underwriting. Candidates are required to have at least two years of experience in risk management and insurance. Candidates must earn a 70% minimum score on exams to pass. CPCU holders are required to complete 24 hours of continuing education every two years.

Other Designations

There are more than 200 designations available to financial professionals, all with varying requirements and degrees of industry reputation. Candidates will need to balance the investment of time and cost to earn an designation with the economic benefits a designation supposedly confers.

Two professional designations with less stringent academic requirements include the Accredited Asset Management Specialist (AAMS) and the Licensed International Financial Analyst (LIFA).

Some designations are no longer available, indicating a decline in their relevancy. For example, the American College of Financial Services has discontinued offering designations such as the Chartered Advisor in Senior Living and the Registered Health Underwriter. The Chartered Mutual Fund Counselor (CMFC) was once offered by the College of Financial Planning. However, the designation no longer appears on the company's website.

Mon, 13 Feb 2023 03:50:00 -0600 en text/html
Embracing sustainable IT unlocks environmental, business, and financial benefits

Learning from a sustainability leader on gaining performance, saving on IT costs, and supporting sustainability goals.

Norway is a leader in sustainability. Its use of renewable energy, sustainable technologies, and recycling is common in homes and businesses throughout the country, as well as the neighboring Nordic region, making Norway a role model of environmental stewardship.

Cegal, a Norwegian global IT services business, is a great example of this leadership. Recently, Cegal chose Dell Technology Rotation to create sustainable IT while enhancing the business value it delivers. Cegal’s results include achieving a sustainable IT lifecycle model, a 58% improvement in data delivery speed, an 80-90% reduction in data center footprint, and near-100% uptime for business-critical applications. As Cegal’s outcomes demonstrate, Dell Technology Rotation allows organizations to prioritize both performance and sustainability.

What is Dell Technology Rotation?

Dell Technologies is accelerating the circular economy to help global customers simultaneously achieve business and sustainability goals, and it’s how Dell Technology Rotation was born. Dell Technology Rotation is a business strategy and solution that allows organizations to implement regular refresh cycles, helping IT contribute to the circular economy, Improve productivity and security, and maintain liquidity. With a proactive plan to refresh assets, Dell Technology Rotation also refurbishes or recycles assets at the end of their useful life, helping overcome challenges throughout the full technology lifecycle.

Customers like Cegal use Dell Technology Rotation to:

  • Gain flexibility and better manage cash on hand.
  • Ensure they deploy the latest technology and security features efficiently and with minimal maintenance concerns.
  • Promote sustainable business practices to help the planet.

“Dell Technologies brand is well-known. This, together with their payment solutions, flexible pricing, and sustainability, makes them a great partner for us and our growing business,” shares Lars Bjørnar Jøssang, Procurement Manager, Cegal.

Sustainable and State-of-the-art Technology

When it comes to technology and e-waste – the recycling of electrical and electronic equipment – we can once again look to Norway and Cegal for guidance. Cegal provides IT and consulting services to regional oil and gas companies and is helping the energy sector migrate from fossil fuels to green sources. Cegal’s dedication to sustainability started with its own organization, adopting a sustainable approach to IT internally and to its customer base.

Cegal’s deployment of Dell Technology Rotation contributes to the circular economy and minimizes e-waste while also ensuring state-of-the-art technology. That’s because Dell Technology Rotation enables Cegal to rotate storage and data protection platforms every four years, providing cutting-edge storage and security for mission-critical customer data. These continuous technology refreshes help Cegal support its high-stakes energy customers with four-hour mission-critical support on all of its Dell PowerScale units and near 100% uptime.

At the end of the four years, Dell Technologies refurbishes, cleanses, and then remarkets up to 95% of the assets, giving them a second life. Dell recycles the remaining five percent in adherence with local regulatory guidelines. “It was a differentiator for us that Dell Technologies had a program that allowed us to return equipment for refurbishment when it’s no longer in use. This way, we know that we’ve reduced waste and that components are reused,” comments Jøssang.

Financial Liquidity Fuels Business Growth

While sustainability is crucial, organizations also need financial liquidity – a vital enabler of business growth and innovation. Without it, business growth can be stifled and market opportunities missed. Dell Technology Rotation increases liquidity by moving IT from a CapEx model to an OpEx model. That preserves cash and translates into a low initial investment, allowing organizations to pay for technology over time while also reducing the costs of deployment, services, and maintenance.

For Cegal, flexible finance payments spread over four years help to increase the cash available for other business priorities. “We want to be asset light so we’re looking at making more investments with an OpEx model rather than a CapEx model. It definitely brings advantages to a business like ours,” says Kjetil Anundsen, Director of Group Finance, Cegal.

Advancing Business and Sustainability

We can all learn from Norway and Cegal, both real-world proof points of environmental stewardship in action. Dell Technology Rotation is providing a simple way for IT-centric organizations like Cegal to participate in the circular economy, save costs, and advance sustainable practices.

Previously, sustainability initiatives were viewed as a hefty investment and perceived as costly to organizations. Many organizations believed something else had to be sacrificed to be environmentally responsible. Dell Technology Rotation has changed that, enabling organizations to combine sustainability, financial and operational goals. That allows organizations around the world to advance both business and sustainability initiatives – for business, people, and the planet.

Learn more about Dell Technology Rotation.

Read the Cegal customer story.

See how to create IT business value while advancing sustainability initiatives.

Read about Dell Technologies’ commitment to sustainability.

About the Author: Colin Keaney

Colin Keaney joined Dell in April 2011 as Chief Financial Officer (CFO) for Dell Financial Services EMEA. He was part of the management team who established Dell Financial Services’ captive operation in EMEA which included the setting up of a regulated bank. In May 2014 Colin took up the role of Global CFO and then in April 2023, Colin became the Global President for Dell Financial Services.

Mon, 23 Oct 2023 10:36:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Environmental, Social, and Governance Best Practices Applied to Mining Operations


Critical minerals have become strategic inputs for a successful clean energy transition, as well as for economic development and national security. A future powered by low-carbon energy sources and protected by a technologically advanced military is one that will be heavily dependent on minerals. As such, demand for minerals is expected to grow over the coming decades, and mining will become a central theme in international development discourse.

According to different clean energy scenarios modeled by the International Energy Agency, the demand for each of the five most important critical minerals (i.e., lithium, cobalt, nickel, copper, and neodymium) will likely increase between 1.5 and 7 times by 2030. Meeting this rising demand will require scaling existing operations and developing hundreds of new projects.

To this end, Latin America—which holds considerable reserves of copper and lithium, supplying 40 and 35 percent to the global market, respectively—has attracted significant investments in mining. Between 13 and 19 percent of foreign direct investment in the region has gone to the mining sector. Unfortunately, many of the mining projects have been associated with environmental destruction, corruption, dubious economic returns, and the unfair distribution of benefits. According to the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, the region has the most mining-related socioeconomic conflicts worldwide.

Many of these minerals are found in areas that are environmentally sensitive, with important biodiversity and sources of water. Closing the gap in mineral demand will have to be carried out in a manner that empowers local communities around the mines and does not exploit natural resources. As the race to secure critical minerals continues, there should be careful consideration of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) concerns.

The Importance of ESG Standards in Mining

The international community has developed an assortment of toolkits and guides to inform projects. The Group of Twenty, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund offer resources that detail how to avoid disputes, build trust, and properly secure access to essential resources. The private sector has also developed their own guidelines. For instance, the International Council on Mining and Metal has released many practical resources to help the industry in this area. The principles observed throughout such products strongly emphasize upstream planning, good governance, and enabling conditions. These same elements stress the importance of positively impacting environmental, social, and economic outcomes.

Applying best practices is not merely a nicety but a cost-saving endeavor. When there is a failure to adopt advisable practices, there is a greater potential for costly conflict. A 2014 study by the University of Queensland’s Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining attempted to quantify the cost of conflict with local communities. One case study saw an estimated $20 million loss in net present value for every week of delayed production. Consulting with local communities early on and incorporating best practices throughout the mining process can mitigate these risks.

One positive development is the June 2022 announcement of the Minerals Security Partnership (MSP), an initiative by Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union to increase mineral production. Its goal is “to promote responsible growth across the critical minerals sector via a shared commitment to high [ESG] standards; sustainability; and shared prosperity.” The MSP will be an important conduit to bolster mineral supply chains in a manner that meets high ESG standards. However, implementing these high standards will require the efforts of both the public and private sectors.

Sources of Conflict in Mining Operations

The conflict surrounding mining projects primarily derives from insufficient consultation with affected communities, the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic benefits, and environmental objections (see Box 1). The communities that live near mineral deposits are often poor and experience their own a set of unique socioeconomic problems. A report by the Inter-American Development Bank cites “deficient planning” as a consistent source of setbacks for mining projects.

There are several typical stages in the mining value chain: exploration, extraction, processing, transportation, and sales. Ideally, closure and remediation conclude the mining lifecycle. Conflict, malpractice, and missed opportunities can occur at any point in the minerals value chain, so thoughtful planning is necessary at each stage to account for all potential issues.

Having clear and detailed ESG standards is insufficient to protect Indigenous groups and the environment. Without the participation of both the public and private sector, conflicts will continue to arise throughout the value chain, costing both the mining companies and the local communities affected by their actions. The enforcement of these principles cannot be the sole responsibility of the mining company; commercial pressure and empowered regulators also have their roles in leveraging mining as a development tool.

Institutional capacity, which varies widely, determines the degree to which suggested or required practices are administered. Regional and local governments tend to lack the technical capacity, personnel, and budgetary resources to effectively address illegal activity and provide adequate land governance, law enforcement, and public services. In many instances, the process of land titling and registration at the subnational level is not well defined, leading to land grabs and clashes with local communities and Indigenous people. Often, areas that are delimited for Indigenous ethnic groups and natural parks are not safeguarded. This is partly because laws and governing principles are typically created at the federal level, not in the municipalities charged with enforcing the law.

Due to a lack of institutional capacity, local governments are often unequipped to enforce laws or combat illegal mining. This creates a low-risk environment that enables legal mining entities not to adhere to espoused ESG guidelines and encourages illegal mining activity (any such activity that takes place without receiving state permission, such as land rights or exploration permits). This has resulted in illegal mining into protected areas and the displacement of Indigenous people in many regions. For example, Interpol found that Bolivia and Colombia are major sources of illegal gold, while Ecuador, Panama, and Peru are both sources and processing centers for illegally extracted ores. Illegal mining is highly associated with transnational criminal activity, as well as with human rights violations, environmental degradation, and corruption. Like many illicit activities that exist where rule of law or enforcement capacity is weak, it is a symptom of inadequate governing authority and a lack of alternate employment opportunities.

Abandoned or improperly closed mines are attractive to illegal mining operations. Proper closure protocols have not always been common practice and remain underutilized. Nearly a quarter of jurisdictions globally do not require mine closure plans, according to a 2019–2020 survey conducted by the Intergovernmental Forum on Mining, Minerals, Metals, and Sustainable Development. Only 45 percent of the IGF member governments that responded to the survey require companies to provide adequate financial assurance for rehabilitation and other closure costs. Failure to effectively manage a post-mining transition can result in unnecessary, lasting damage to local communities and the environment around them.

Great Power Competition in Mining

Political leaders in Latin America are eager to unlock the potential of their natural resources, even if it means awarding bids to China’s state-controlled mining operations. China has experienced undeniable success in the region. According to the American Enterprise Institute’s China Global Investment Tracker, 21 percent of the $148.9 billion Chinese entities invested in Latin American and Caribbean countries between 2005 and 2022 was in the mining and metals sector. In January 2023, a consortium of the Chinese firms, Contemporary Amperex Technology, Guangdong Brunp Recycling Technology, and CMOC Group, won the rights to extract Bolivia’s lithium deposits. The $1 billion investment is estimated to yield 50,000 metric tons of battery-grade lithium carbonate per year. Moreover, China has invested over $10 billion in Peru’s mining industry and now owns two of Peru’s five largest copper mines.

China’s mining advancements in Latin and South America should concern environmentalists and humanitarians as much as it worries national security policymakers. Chinese companies frequently fail to conduct adequate environmental impact assessments or consult with local Indigenous communities. A 2023 report presented to the UN Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights documented 14 cases in Latin America where Chinese companies committed environmental destruction or violated human rights. Western firms are certainly not all without incidents and controversies, but none of the top ESG performers, according to trade publication Mining Technology, are of Chinese origin. Western firms are ESG leaders in the industry and should continue innovating and implementing towards that end to better offer alternatives to Chinese investments.

U.S. companies are competing against Chinese state-subsidized companies that do not adhere to the more stringent ESG standards or anticorruption requirements Western firms must abide by. Though Chinese regulators are working to standardize corporate ESG disclosure reporting, the Guidance for Enterprise ESG Disclosure that took effect in June 2022 mostly requires data reporting and complying with (often weak) local regulations. Rather than doing the minimum required by the host country, U.S. companies usually maintain high standards wherever they operate. Western firms are more likely to incorporate community engagement and consultation, while Chinese firms had 23 allegations of insufficient consultation from January 2021 to December 2022. It was not until May 2023 that the China Chamber of Commerce of Metals, Minerals & Chemicals Importers & Exporters (CCCMC), launched a pilot consultation mechanism. It is in U.S. companies’ interest to build the capacity of local governments, which would give these companies a comparative advantage over Chinese state-subsidized firms. The United States cannot make China's offers less financially attractive for host nations. A level playing field will never be achieved so long as there is the possibility of a firm underbidding others by cutting corners on ESG best practices. Navigating the stakeholder landscape to achieve this will require collaboration among government officials, corporations, and local communities.

Additionally, in instances where companies do not self-regulate, government authorities could develop traceability programs. Accessibility leads to transparency, which improves adherence to best practices. While traceability is not a substitute for good governance and strong rule of law, increasing transparency does support and Improve governance. Western companies and the U.S. government cannot do due diligence if knowledge of relevant supply chains is lacking. Moreover, as global consumers and investors become increasingly conscious of ESG goals, companies that demonstrate their dedication to these principles can attract more capital. Traceability may give consumers and end users the information needed to shape the market in a way that rewards ESG best practices even when host countries lack the capacity to do so.


Implementing ESG best practices will make the Latin American region more stable and prosperous. The sooner such practices are well established, with all stakeholders in the mining value chain adhering to them, the less exploitation and environmental conflict there will be. In this regard, U.S.-based companies should view responsible mining and the implementation of ESG standards not as a burden, but as a selling point. Fortunately, many firms already share this perspective, and aim high by going beyond the minimum standards. Yet there is still work to be done throughout the entire mine-to-market value chain to enhance the comparative advantage of firms that are ESG-conscious. Companies, regulators, and end users need to collaborate to continue moving in the right direction.

Romina Bandura is a senior fellow with the Project on Prosperity and Development at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Washington, D.C. Austin Hardman is a research assistant with the Project on Prosperity and Development at CSIS.

This white paper was made possible by support provided by the Rio Tinto Group and was informed by a roundtable of experts held on July 26, 2023, also made possible by support from the Rio Tinto Group.

Thu, 16 Nov 2023 00:30:00 -0600 en text/html
Next Hydrogen Reports Q3 2023 Financial Results

MISSISSAUGA, Ontario, Nov. 17, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Next Hydrogen Solutions Inc. (the "Company" or “Next Hydrogen") (TSXV:NXH, OTC:NXHSF), a designer and manufacturer of electrolyzers, is pleased to report its financial results for the third quarter ended September 30, 2023.

“The focus for 2023 is to (1) achieve significant improvement in our product line, (2) demonstrate our second-generation product line, and (3) generate significant market traction,” said Raveel Afzaal, President and CEO of Next Hydrogen. “We are well capitalized to achieve these objectives which will put us in a very competitive position for growth in 2024. The recently announced improvement in cell performance, new blue-chip industry partners such as Casale, GE and a $7.7M agreement for a nuclear application are helping us advance strongly towards our 2023 objectives.”

Q3 2023 Financial Highlights

  • Cash balance was $11.9 million as of September 30, 2023, compared to $15.9 million as of June 30, 2023
  • Revenue was $53,399 and $143,095 for the three-month period and nine-month period, compared to $74,457 and $160,078, respectively, in the previous year.
  • Net loss and comprehensive loss was $2.33 million and $8.67 million for the three-month period and nine-month period, respectively, compared to a loss of $3.90 million and $10.98 million, respectively, in the previous year

Management is proud to highlight several recent milestones that demonstrate significant recent progress:

  • Next Hydrogen has met its energy efficiency targets cell performance of 1.90 V/cell at 1 A/cm2 and 70°C for its new second generation “GEN2” water electrolyzer technology which exceeded the recently reported US Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets status for energy efficiency. The GEN2 performance achievement is the beginning of the company’s quest to achieve industry leading performance and is targeting further improvement in 2024.
  • The Company has entered into a $7.7M agreement for a project involving a specialized nuclear application. Under the agreement, Next Hydrogen will conduct design engineering (Phase 1) and subsequently provide the electrolyzer needed (Phase 2) for the Project. A $5M purchase order has been received for Phase 1, which is expected to take place during 2024, with a follow-on order of $2.7M planned for Phase 2 with electrolyzer delivery expected to occur in 2025. This project will position the company to secure further contracts from the nuclear fusion industry and is very well aligned with its product roadmap for large scale green hydrogen production.
  • Next Hydrogen and Casale SA (“Casale”), have signed a memorandum of understanding to develop green ammonia and methanol systems that integrate Next Hydrogen’s electrolysis technology to offer a bundled package to customers. Under this agreement, the companies will bring together their collective experience and capabilities to accelerate and scale-up green ammonia and methanol plants connected to renewable energy sources. This collaboration provides a compelling pathway to producing clean, zero-emission ammonia and methanol from green renewable energy power sources.
  • Next Hydrogen will be receiving advisory services and up to $750,000 in research and development funding from the National Research Council of Canada Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC IRAP) toward the development and demonstration of the Company's next generation products. This will further help the Company accelerate its product roadmap and its mission of driving large scale adoption of green hydrogen solutions to decarbonize the global economy.
  • The Company has been awarded $5.1 million from Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC) towards the development and demonstration of the Company's next generation electrolysis technology. The SDTC project, with a budget of over $12 million will run to early 2025, resulting in the launch of a second-generation product line with cost and performance improvements and a third-generation larger scale product line with further cost and performance improvements. With the launch of these products, Next Hydrogen will be well positioned to support the needs of its customers for both near term market demonstrations and commercial large scale green hydrogen systems.

For a more detailed discussion of Next Hydrogen’s third quarter results, please see the Company’s financial statements and management’s discussion and analysis, which are available on the Company’s website at or on SEDAR at

In addition, to better understand our achievements from 2022 and the outlook for 2023, please refer to the CEO letter included in the 2022 year-end MD&A using the following link:

About Next Hydrogen

Founded in 2007, Next Hydrogen is a designer and manufacturer of electrolyzers that use water and electricity as inputs to generate clean hydrogen for use as an energy source. Next Hydrogen’s unique cell design architecture supported by 40 patents enables high current density operations and superior dynamic response to efficiently convert intermittent renewable electricity into green hydrogen on an infrastructure scale. Following successful pilots, Next Hydrogen is scaling up its technology to deliver commercial solutions to decarbonize transportation and industrial sectors.

Contact Information

Raveel Afzaal, President and Chief Executive Officer
Next Hydrogen Solutions Inc.
Phone: 647-961-6620


Cautionary Statements
This news release contains “forward-looking information” and “forward-looking statements”. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, are forward-looking statements and are based on expectations, estimates and projections as at the date of this news release. Any statement that involves discussions with respect to predictions, expectations, beliefs, plans, projections, objectives, assumptions, future events or performance (often but not always using phrases such as “expects”, or “does not expect”, “is expected”, “anticipates” or “does not anticipate”, “plans”, “budget”, “scheduled”, “forecasts”, “estimates”, “believes” or “intends” or variations of such words and phrases or stating that certain actions, events or results “may” or “could”, “would”, “might” or “will” be taken to occur or be achieved) are not statements of historical fact and may be forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are necessarily based upon a number of estimates and assumptions that, while considered reasonable, are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors which may cause the actual results and future events to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such factors include, but are not limited to: the risks associated with the hydrogen industry in general; delays or changes in plans with respect to infrastructure development or capital expenditures; uncertainty with respect to the timing of any contemplated transactions or partnerships, or whether such contemplated transactions or partnerships will be completed at all; the timing for any submissions or correspondences with applicable securities laws regulators; uncertainty in respect to the timing of when the Corporation’s securities will resume trading; whether the uncertainty of estimates and projections relating to costs and expenses; failure to obtain necessary regulatory approvals; health, safety and environmental risks; uncertainties resulting from potential delays or changes in plans with respect to infrastructure developments or capital expenditures; currency exchange rate fluctuations; as well as general economic conditions, stock market volatility; and the ability to access sufficient capital. There can be no assurance that such statements will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements and information contained in this news release. Except as required by law, there will be no obligation to update the forward-looking statements of beliefs, opinions, projections, or other factors, should they change.

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Thu, 16 Nov 2023 22:27:00 -0600 en text/html
Quest Resource Holding Corporation Reports Third Quarter 2023 Financial Results

THE COLONY, Texas, Nov. 14, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Quest Resource Holding Corporation (NASDAQ: QRHC) ("Quest"), a national leader in environmental waste and recycling services, today announced financial results for the third quarter ended September 30, 2023.

Third Quarter 2023 Highlights

  • Revenue was $70.4 million, a 4.0% decrease compared with the third quarter of 2022.
  • Gross profit was $12.4 million, a 2.0% increase compared with the third quarter of 2022.
  • Gross margin was 17.7% of revenue compared with 16.6% during the third quarter of 2022.
  • GAAP net loss per diluted share attributable to common stockholders was $(0.10), compared with $(0.09) per diluted share during the third quarter of 2022.
  • Adjusted EBITDA was $3.7 million, compared with $3.8 million during the third quarter of 2022.
  • Adjusted net income per diluted share was $0.02 compared with adjusted net income of $0.04 per diluted share during the third quarter of 2022.

Year-to-Date 2023 Highlights (September 30, 2023)  

  • Revenue was $219.0 million, a 1.2% decrease compared with the same period of 2022.  
  • Gross profit was $38.6 million, a 1.2% increase compared with the same period of 2022.  
  • Gross margin was 17.6% of revenue compared to 17.2% during the same period of 2022.
  • GAAP net loss per diluted share attributable to common stockholders was $(0.25), compared with $(0.14) during the same period of 2022.   
  • Year-to-date Adjusted EBITDA was $12.7 million, compared to $14.1 million during the same period of 2022.  
  • Adjusted net income per diluted share was $0.12, compared with $0.29 per diluted share during the same period of 2022.  

“Gross profit dollars for the third quarter increased slightly in comparison with the prior year but were below our expectations for sequential growth. We estimate that gross profit dollar contribution from RWS was approximately $800,000 below our expectations. This included approximately $500,000 of unfavorable adjustments to costs of sales, which were identified during the process of completing the systems integration of RWS. In addition, we had a billing adjustment of approximately $400,000 for a large, quickly-ramping customer. Excluding these adjustments, our business performed well and was in line with results from the second quarter. We’ve taken action to Improve the efficiencies of RWS and estimate $1.7 million in annualized cost savings beginning in the fourth quarter of this year,” said S. Ray Hatch, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company.

“While the pace of adding new business has been slower than we would have liked, we are encouraged by recent progress and expect sequential growth in gross profit dollars for the fourth quarter. Additionally, in recent months we have seen a noticeable uptick in the number and size of opportunities in our pipeline. Due to our initiatives, we expect to end the year strong, as a ramp of new business from both new and existing customers offsets what is normally a seasonally weaker quarter. In addition, we continue to build our operating platform, investing in capabilities, which will enable us to drive operating efficiencies and to continually enhance our customer service. Importantly, our outlook for profitable growth in fourth quarter and 2024 remains positive.”

Third Quarter 2023 Earnings Conference Call and Webcast

Quest will conduct a conference call on Tuesday, November 14, 2023, at 5:00 PM ET, to review the financial results for the third quarter ended September 30, 2023. Investors interested in participating on the live call can dial 1-855-327-6837 or 1-631-891-4304. The conference call, which may include forward-looking statements, is also being webcast and is available via the investor relations section of Quest’s website at A replay of the webcast will be archived on Quest’s investor relations website for 90 days.

Reconciliation of U.S. GAAP to Non-GAAP Financial Measures

In this press release, non-GAAP financial measures, "Adjusted EBITDA," and “Adjusted Net Income” are presented. From time-to-time, Quest considers and uses these supplemental measures of operating performance in order to provide an improved understanding of underlying performance trends. Quest believes it is useful to review, as applicable, both (1) GAAP measures that include (i) depreciation and amortization, (ii) interest expense, (iii) stock-based compensation expense, (iv) income tax expense, and (v) certain other adjustments, and (2) non-GAAP measures that exclude such items. Quest presents these non-GAAP measures because it considers them an important supplemental measure of Quest's performance. Quest's definition of these adjusted financial measures may differ from similarly named measures used by others. Quest believes these measures facilitate operating performance comparisons from period to period by eliminating potential differences caused by the existence and timing of certain expense items that would not otherwise be apparent on a GAAP basis. These non-GAAP measures have limitations as an analytical tool and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the Company's GAAP measures. (See attached tables "Reconciliation of Net Loss to Adjusted EBITDA" and “Adjusted Net Income Per Share”).

About Quest Resource Holding Corporation

Quest is a national provider of waste and recycling services that enable larger businesses to excel in achieving their environmental and sustainability goals and responsibilities. Quest delivers focused expertise across multiple industry sectors to build single-source, client-specific solutions that generate quantifiable business and sustainability results. Addressing a wide variety of waste streams and recyclables, Quest provides information and data that tracks and reports the environmental results of Quest’s services, gives actionable data to Improve business operations, and enables Quest’s clients to excel in their business and sustainability responsibilities. For more information, visit

Safe Harbor Statement

This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which provides a "safe harbor" for such statements in certain circumstances. The forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, our expectation that our momentum will continue through the rest of the year, our belief that we are well positioned to continue to weather a challenging economic environment, execute our growth strategies and our positive outlook for profitable growth during 2023 and the next year. actual events or results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including, but not limited to, competition in the environmental services industry, the impact of the current economic environment, the spread of major epidemics (including Coronavirus) and other related uncertainties such as government-imposed travel restrictions, interruptions to supply chains, commodity price fluctuations, and extended shut down of businesses, and other factors discussed in greater detail in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such statements and to consult our SEC filings for additional risks and uncertainties that may apply to our business and the ownership of our securities. Our forward-looking statements are presented as of the date made, and we disclaim any duty to update such statements unless required by law to do so.

Investor Relations Contact:

Three Part Advisors, LLC
Joe Noyons

Financial Tables Follow

Quest Resource Holding Corporation and Subsidiaries
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
    Three Months Ended   Nine Months Ended
    September 30,   September 30,
      2023       2022
      2023       2022
Revenue   $ 70,425     $ 73,358     $ 219,036     $ 221,785  
Cost of revenue     57,995       61,175       180,471       183,685  
Gross profit     12,430       12,183       38,565       38,100  
Selling, general, and administrative     9,620       9,333       28,250       27,976  
Depreciation and amortization     2,342       2,473       7,219       7,308  
Total operating expenses     11,962       11,806       35,469       35,284  
Operating income     468       377      




Interest expense     (2,408 )     (1,911 )     (7,407 )     (5,057 )
Loss before taxes     (1,940 )     (1,534 )     (4,311 )     (2,241 )
Income tax expense     111       152       650       479  
Net loss   $ (2,051 )   $ (1,686 )   $ (4,961 )   $ (2,720 )
Net loss applicable to common stockholders   $ (2,051 )   $ (1,686 )   $ (4,961 )   $ (2,720 )
Net loss per common share:                        
Basic   $ (0.10 )   $ (0.09 )   $ (0.25 )   $ (0.14 )
Diluted   $ (0.10 )   $ (0.09 )   $ (0.25 )   $ (0.14 )
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding:                          
Basic     20,060       19,368       19,985       19,298  
Diluted     20,060       19,368       19,985       19,298  
(In thousands)
    Three Months Ended     Nine Months Ended  
    September 30,     September 30,  
    2023       2022         2023       2022
Net loss   $ (2,051 )   $ (1,686 )   $ (4,961 )   $ (2,720 )
Depreciation and amortization     2,438       2,554       7,486       7,541  
Interest expense     2,408       1,911       7,407       5,057  
Stock-based compensation expense     289       413       950       998  
Acquisition, integration, and related costs     374       327       1,026       2,301  
Other adjustments     141       176       172       485  
Income tax expense     111       152       650       479  
Adjusted EBITDA   $ 3,710     $ 3,847     $ 12,730     $ 14,141  
(In thousands)
    Three Months Ended     Nine Months Ended  
    September,30,   September 30,  
    2023     2022       2023       2022  
Reported net loss (1)   $ (2,051 )   $ (1,686 )   $ (4,961 )   $ (2,720 )
Amortization of intangibles (2)     2,224       2,222       6,668       6,617  
Acquisition, integration, and related costs (3)     374       327       1,026       2,301  
Other adjustments (4)     2             (75 )      
Adjusted net income   $ 549     $ 863     $ 2,658     $ 6,198  
Diluted earnings per share:                                
Reported net loss   $ (0.10 )   $ (0.09 )   $ (0.25 )   $ (0.14 )
Adjusted net income   $ 0.02     $ 0.04     $ 0.12     $ 0.29  
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding: Diluted (5)     22,425       21,642       22,218       21,575  

    (1)   Applicable to common stockholders
    (2)   Reflects the elimination of non-cash amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets
    (3)   Reflects the add back of acquisition/integration related transaction costs
    (4)   Reflects adjustments to earn-out fair value
    (5)   Reflects adjustment for dilution when adjusted net income is positive

(In thousands, except per share amounts)
    September 30,     December 31,  
    2023     2022  
Current assets:                
Cash and cash equivalents   $ 870     $ 9,564  
Accounts receivable, less allowance for doubtful accounts of $2,357
and $2,176 as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
    49,932       45,891  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets     2,746       2,310  
Total current assets     53,548       57,765  
Goodwill     84,258       84,258  
Intangible assets, net     27,768       33,557  
Property and equipment, net, and other assets     4,866       5,911  
Total assets   $ 170,440     $ 181,491  
Current liabilities:                
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities   $ 40,916     $ 32,207  
Other current liabilities     2,498       4,689  
Current portion of notes payable     1,159       1,159  
Total current liabilities     44,573       38,055  
Notes payable, net     56,786       70,573  
Other long-term liabilities     1,396       1,724  
Total liabilities     102,755       110,352  
Commitments and contingencies                
Stockholders’ equity:                
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 10,000 shares authorized, no
shares issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022
Common stock, $0.001 par value, 200,000 shares authorized,
19,960 and 19,696 shares issued and outstanding as
of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
    20       20  
Additional paid-in capital     175,383       173,876  
Accumulated deficit     (107,718 )     (102,757 )
Total stockholders’ equity     67,685       71,139  
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity   $ 170,440     $ 181,491  

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Tue, 14 Nov 2023 07:59:00 -0600 en text/html
Admissions and Financial Support

Admissions information

Applications to the graduate programs in the Department of Geography and Spatial Sciences, the Department of Earth Sciences, and the School of Marine Science and Policy are evaluated on the basis of the applicant's undergraduate record, TOEFL scores (if applicable), and three letters of recommendation. The Department of Earth Sciences will consider qualified applicants without a previous degree in geology, although preliminary work may be required. Prospective graduate students should explore CEOE faculty research interests on their webpages to find potential advisors. (Faculty pages are linked from each of their departments.) Applicants are encouraged to contact faculty members working in areas that interest them.

All graduate applicants should submit the following:

  • A completed graduate school application form plus application fee
  • Transcripts of all college work
  • Three (3) letters of recommendation from persons qualified to judge the student's potential for graduate work
  • A supplemental page or personal interest statement indicating your specific interests in order to help us assign an appropriate adviser

For international students

International students for whom English is not their first language must also submit the Test of English as a Foreign Language. A minimum TOEFL paper-based score of 550 is required by the University and a score of 600 is recommended by our College.  A TOEFL IBT score of 79 is required by the University and a score of 100 is recommended by our College.  For additional information about TOEFL test requirements, please view the University’s Graduate College site.

Most of our graduate students are supported by research assistantships or teaching assistantships that provide hands-on experience in addition to financial aid. A significant number of competitive scholarships and fellowships are also available to qualified students, and travel support often is provided for national meetings to allow students to network with others in the field.

Currently, nearly all full-time graduate students at the University of Delaware College of Earth, Ocean and Environment receive full financial aid via fellowships, teaching assistantships or research assistantships. Most part-time graduate students receive partial aid through scholarships and other sources.

A variety of scholarship/fellowship opportunities are available to qualified students. If you have further questions after memorizing through the descriptions here and at the Grad College Funding Opportunities webpage, send an email to

Supported by the Graduate College, CEOE offers two Breaking Barriers fellowships for U.S. students from historically underrepresented and excluded populations seeking a PhD in geological sciences, geography or climatology. The funding will provide full tuition and a $30,000 stipend for a minimum of two years. Interested applicants should submit a Graduate College inquiry form, indicating their degree interest and noting “Breaking Barriers” in the Questions section. Qualified students will have their application fee waived.

REEF@UD provides entrepreneurship training, mentorship and funding support to innovators who seek to create businesses, commercialize discoveries and develop new products that will solve environmental problems or Improve sustainability. Click here to learn more

The Joanne Currier Daiber Fellowship was established in 1999 by Franklin C. Daiber in honor of his wife, Joanne C. Daiber, and her pioneering work in the field of marine biology in the early 1950s. She was the first female marine biologist hired by UD and was a founding member of the graduate College of Marine Studies, the predecessor of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment. The Joanne Currier Daiber Fellowship supports female graduate students in the marine biology and biochemistry program.

The Magers Family Fellowship was established in 2009 by Sandra G. and J. Christopher Magers. Sandy was a UD staff member in the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment who made this gift because of her love of UD and dedication to the College. The Magers Family Fellowship supports graduate students in the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment who are studying marine alternative energy.

Several fellowships from the Okie endowment are available to students enrolled in the School of Marine Science and Policy programs. The fellowships are based on academic and research excellence and demonstrated leadership abilities.

The Nancy M. Targett Graduate Tuition Scholarship was established in 2016 by members of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment (CEOE) Dean's Advisory Council, in honor of Nancy Targett's dedicated service to the University of Delaware. A member of the UD faculty since 1984, Targett served as Dean of CEOE and director of the Delaware Sea Grant College Program for 10 years starting in 2005. The University Board of Trustees appointed Targett as Acting President effective July 1, 2015. On May 17, 2016, the University's Board of Trustees passed a resolution naming Nancy Targett as the University's 27th president, and she received an honorary degree at UD's 2016 Commencement. Several members of the UD community made additional gifts to the fund in honor of Targett. The Nancy M. Targett Graduate Tuition Scholarship supports graduate level students in the School of Marine Science and Policy, with special consideration given to under-represented students studying the sciences.

The Stavros Raptis Howe Endowed Fund provides support for ecological research and other professional activities by SMSP graduate students.  Funds may be used for specific research needs (e.g., equipment, supplies, small-boat time, travel, etc.) or to foster participation in professional meetings.  Typical grants will be less than $1,000, and a limited number of grants will be awarded each academic year. More information and application form.

The Carolyn Thompson Thoroughgood Graduate Research Fund was established in 2018 by plant scientists. The fund provides unrestricted support for graduate level research in the School of Marine Science and Policy. The research will be conducted on the Lewes, Delaware campus.

The School of Marine Science and Policy and the Department of Earth Sciences each offer fellowships to some students entering their specific programs.

The Historically Underrepresented Graduate Students Fellowship was created by the dean of the College in 2017 and provides support to students from racial and ethnic backgrounds underrepresented in earth, ocean and environmental sciences.

University Fellowships are awarded to students already matriculated into one of the graduate programs on the basis of nominations by the graduate departments or school. Students with regular, full-time status and high academic standing may qualify. Fellowships usually provide full tuition and a stipend. Awards are competitive and are based on academic achievement and professional commitment and potential. Awards are granted for one year.

Awards are competitive and administered by the University. They are awarded based on many criteria including challenging social, economic, educational, cultural or other life circumstances; academic achievements; first-generation graduate student status; and/or need as determined by federal income guidelines (FAFSA).

The Graduate College is committed to facilitating funding and fellowships for the graduate student body. These opportunities, available through university lines, as well as through external foundations and institutions, provide students with vital sources of support in their master’s and doctoral programs. Moreover, fellowships and awards further professional development by funding conference presentations, while expanding horizons through national and international research and travel. Read more >

Other External Funding

Below is a listing of some of the programs/sources of funding for which our students have been the most successful in obtaining external funding. Still have questions about graduate financial support?  Please contact the assistant dean for graduate services, Kelli Kerbawy.

Sat, 01 Feb 2020 02:40:00 -0600 en text/html
Turning data into gold: How AI-powered decision-making is transforming the global financial industry

When it comes to data collection, financial institutions have a rich trove of readily accessible real-time client information. When a consumer moves homes, buys a car, pays college tuition or simply swipes a credit card, the transactions are recorded in a database.

It is a massive amount of highly regulated customer data, and this makes it tailor-made for artificial intelligence decision-making, since the sheer size of the information eclipses what humans can do to properly manage and analyze it.

“The financial services industry is one in which clean, uniform customer data is routinely collected,” said Robert Jones, director of business consulting at Fair Isaac Corp, more commonly known as FICO, in an exclusive interview for this story. “It’s got some of the deepest and best data out there. Every purchase made, every credit card swipe, the time of day, the geographic location, payment history, risk levels … life milestones are what they deal with. For years, financial institutions have been collecting a massive amount of customer data. That’s one area where AI-powered decision-making excels.”

In the first of a three-part spotlight series on cloud modernization, SiliconANGLE takes a closer look at the future of dynamic decision-making, including how FICO and Infosys Ltd. are leveraging AI-powered tools to Improve results for customers and businesses alike while ensuring decision transparency and compliance, powered by Amazon Web Services Inc.

This article is part of SiliconANGLE’s ongoing exploration of cloud modernization trends in 2023. This piece highlights key developments from AWS and AWS Partners. AWS is sponsor of this ongoing article series.

Advanced analytics

The financial industry is not a newcomer to the AI revolution. FICO, a leading analytics software company, was founded in 1956 and introduced analytic solutions for credit scoring. As AI began to emerge as a viable technology, including the rise of generative AI for a range of use cases, the banking world has found applications for it.

“FICO has been using artificial intelligence for the past 20 years in the form of machine learning models, generation of synthetic data and other applications,” Jones said. “AI-first institutions are using advanced analytics to generate intelligent, highly relevant messages and provide smart servicing via assisted channels to create a superior experience, which has been shown to contribute to higher rates of conversion.”

There is another measure of how AI has emerged as a significant technology in the financial world. Research data indicates that major banking firms are currently on a hiring wave to fill AI-related positions. This includes J.P. Morgan Chase & Co., which advertised 3,651 AI-related global jobs over a three-month window earlier this year, and Citigroup Inc., which posted approximately 2,100 AI-related openings over the same period.

Digital drivers

The move of the financial industry into AI-related solutions is being witnessed firsthand by large digital consulting giants, such as Infosys. The company built its global practice in more than 56 countries by identifying the key drivers of digital transformation for clients. In 2023, those primary drivers make for a short list.

“There is AI coupled with cloud; that is what’s driving digital transformation,” said Shyam Vijayan, AVP at Infosys, during a recent interview with theCUBE, SiliconANGLE’s livestreaming studio. “The cloud part gives you the scalability and the modern environment to innovate very, very fast, but the AI part gives you the insights that you can then turn into very quick decisions that can drive business growth and execution as well.”

An example of what Vijayan described can be seen in Infosys’ generative AI solution, Topaz, which was launched earlier this year on AWS, leveraging Amazon Bedrock, a fully managed service through AWS. Amazon Bedrock is designed to make it easier for users to build and scale generative AI applications with foundation models.

Topaz is an AI-first set of services and platforms using generative AI technologies to Improve client service, reimagine business processes and boost productivity. Within the financial services sector, the digital consulting firm is already seeing an impact as clients adopt AI-based solutions.

“It’s helping reduce costs,” said Navdeep Gill, industry principal and segment lead for risk and computational finance at Infosys, in an interview for this story. “We implemented an AI solution for a large Australian bank to bring down the cost of operations by 40%. The decision-making is faster.”

Prompt credit decisions

The financial industry is leveraging AI in a number of key areas, including the all-important field of risk management. Making the right decision over whether or not to extend credit to a customer can have a significant impact on financial institutions and businesses over time, and it is one reason why AI is playing a significant role.

“AI-first banks have designed streamlined lending journeys, using extensive automation and near-real-time analysis of customer data to generate prompt credit decisions for retailers, small and medium-size enterprises and corporate clients,” Jones noted. “They do this by sifting through a variety of structured and unstructured data collected from conventional sources, such as bank transaction history, credit reports and tax returns, and new ones, including location data, telecom usage data and utility bills.”

Banks are also working with clients to assist them after they are in the fold. AI is being used to channel data flows into actions that can help and retain customers through closer, consistent engagement.

“Combining internal and external data sources can create a comprehensive report,” Gill said. “Banks are increasingly engaging with customers to assist them to stay on track with payments and work more closely with those who have problems. It’s building an enterprise-wide digital marketing engine to translate insights generated in the decision-making layer into a set of coordinated messages delivered through the bank’s engagement layer.”

Personalizing the experience

There are two additional areas of opportunity in the financial industry for AI, and they involve sentiment analysis and hyper-personalization. One of the hallmarks of generative AI has been its ability to funnel natural language processing into insights. In a recorded call, is the customer happy or are they upset about an unsatisfactory experience?

“A bot driven by natural language processing can predict with a high degree of accuracy what the customer was thinking and can recommend follow-up actions to prevent silent attrition,” Jones said.

Hyper-personalization extends this analysis further by using AI’s decision-making prowess to Improve the effectiveness of marketing campaigns. Rather than mailing thousands of pieces of mail on the slim hope that 0.5% will respond, financial institutions can leverage new algorithms to incorporate helpful data points, such as the preferred method of communication and the best time of day to follow up.

“Banks may use AI-powered decisions to develop a smart, highly tailored servicing experience based on client microsegments, allowing diverse channels to give greater service and a compelling experience with fast, easy and intuitive interactions,” Gill said.

The collaboration between AWS, FICO and Infosys offers a glimpse into how rapid advancements in AI are reshaping the financial industry. This is a story of how technology and banking expertise come together to deliver solutions that make a difference in areas of a business that matter. It is only the first installment in what will likely be a long, innovative journey.

“We are still in early days, but I do think the more surprising, really jaw-dropping stuff will come out of collaborative partnerships, layers of technologies working with each other,” Jones said. “Groups working together combining AI technologies with other emerging or established technologies – that’s where the exciting stuff will happen.”

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Mon, 13 Nov 2023 09:45:00 -0600 en-US text/html
The Rise of Bitcoin: How BTC is Revolutionizing the Financial Landscape

Are you ready to witness the greatest financial revolution of our time? Bitcoin, the crown jewel of decentralized digital currencies, has emerged as an unstoppable force, disrupting traditional banking systems and shaping a new era of finance. As we delve into this captivating journey, prepare to be enthralled by the rise of Bitcoin and how it is reshaping the very foundation of our financial landscape. Join us in this blog post as we unravel the secrets behind its meteoric ascent and explore why BTC has become synonymous with innovation, empowerment, and endless possibilities!

Bitcoin, the world’s first decentralized digital currency, has been making waves in the financial landscape since its creation in 2009. Its mysterious origins and rapid growth have captured the attention of investors, tech enthusiasts, and even governments worldwide. In this section, we will delve into the basics of Bitcoin and uncover its fascinating beginnings.

The concept of a peer-to-peer electronic cash system was first proposed by an anonymous person or group known as Satoshi Nakamoto in a paper titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.” This paper outlined the fundamental principles of Bitcoin – using cryptography to create a secure and decentralized form of money that is not controlled by any central authority.

Nakamoto released the open-source software for Bitcoin in 2009, along with the first-ever Bitcoins. It is believed that he mined about one million Bitcoins before disappearing from public view in late 2010. To this day, his identity remains unknown.

Bitcoin’s early days were met with skepticism and deemed nothing more than a passing trend. However, as people started to learn more about its potential benefits, it gained traction and value. By 2011, companies began accepting Bitcoin as payment for goods and services, further solidifying its position as a legitimate currency.

Understanding the Basics: What is Bitcoin?

Bitcoin is a digital currency that has gained significant attention and popularity in recent years, due to its potential to revolutionize the financial landscape. It was created in 2009 by an unidentified individual or group under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto and is based on a decentralized peer-to-peer network.

At its core, Bitcoin is a form of digital cash that allows individuals to make transactions without the involvement of traditional financial institutions such as banks. Instead, it operates on a decentralized network where all transactions are recorded on a public ledger called the blockchain.

The blockchain technology behind Bitcoin eliminates the need for third-party intermediaries, making it truly peer-to-peer. This means that users can send and receive money directly without any fees or delays associated with traditional banking systems.

One of the key aspects of Bitcoin is its limited supply. Only 21 million Bitcoins will ever exist, which makes it scarce like gold and other precious metals. This scarcity gives Bitcoin its value and acts as a safeguard against inflation, making it an appealing investment option for many people.

Unlike traditional currencies issued by governments, Bitcoin is not subject to central authority or government control. Transactions are Checked by network nodes through cryptography and recorded on the blockchain. This creates a secure and transparent system resistant to fraud and counterfeiting.

The Advancements in Technology Behind BTC

The advancements in technology have played a crucial role in the rise of Bitcoin (BTC) and its impact on the financial landscape. This digital currency, which was created in 2009 by an unknown individual or group known as Satoshi Nakamoto, has gained massive popularity and adoption in just a short period of time. At the core of this success lies the innovative technology behind BTC – blockchain.

Blockchain technology is essentially a decentralized ledger system that records all transactions made with BTC. Unlike traditional banks, where centralized authorities control and monitor financial transactions, blockchain operates on a peer-to-peer network where all participants have equal access and are responsible for verifying each transaction. This system not only eliminates the need for intermediaries but also ensures transparency and security.

One of the key advancements that make BTC stand out from traditional currencies is its ability to facilitate near-instantaneous peer-to-peer transactions across borders without any fees or regulations. This is made possible by implementing advanced computer programming techniques such as cryptographic algorithms to validate these transactions securely and efficiently.

Another significant advancement is the use of public-private key encryption to secure BTC wallets, making them virtually impossible to hack. Each user has two keys – public and private – which are used to validate ownership of their funds whenever they make a transaction. Moreover, this method also ensures that users remain anonymous while utilizing the currency, providing them with more privacy compared to traditional banking systems.

Benefits of Using Bitcoin for Transactions

Bitcoin, the world’s first decentralized digital currency, has gained massive popularity and adoption in recent years. Its unique features and capabilities have made it a preferred method of payment for transactions by individuals and businesses alike. In this section, we will explore the benefits of using Bitcoin for transactions and how it is revolutionizing the financial landscape.

1. Decentralization: One of the biggest advantages of Bitcoin is its decentralization. Unlike traditional currencies that are controlled by centralized authorities like banks or governments, Bitcoin operates on a peer-to-peer network without any central authority. This means that no single entity can control or manipulate the value of Bitcoins, providing users with more control over their money.

2. Lower Transaction Fees: Another major benefit of using Bitcoin for transactions is lower transaction fees compared to traditional payment methods such as credit cards or bank transfers. Since there is no middleman involved in processing Bitcoin transactions, they are considerably cheaper than traditional payment methods.

3. Fast Transactions: When it comes to cross-border transactions, traditional methods can be time-consuming and expensive due to factors such as exchange rates and processing times. With Bitcoin, however, payments can be sent anywhere in the world within minutes with minimal fees.

4. Secure Payments: The blockchain technology used in Bitcoin ensures secure transactions by encrypting all transaction data and making it nearly impossible for hackers to access or manipulate them. Additionally, unlike credit cards where your personal information is required for every transaction, Bitcoin uses a pseudonymous system where only your public address is visible.
5. Accessibility: Bitcoin is a digital currency that can be accessed and used by anyone with an internet connection. This means that people who do not have access to traditional banking services can still participate in the global economy using Bitcoin.

6. Transparency: All Bitcoin transactions are recorded on a public ledger called the blockchain, which is accessible to anyone. This makes transactions more transparent and reduces the risk of fraud or double-spending.

7. No Chargebacks: One issue with traditional payment methods like credit cards is the possibility of chargebacks, where a buyer can dispute a transaction and reverse it. This can be costly for businesses, especially for high-risk purchases. With Bitcoin, once a transaction is confirmed on the blockchain, it cannot be reversed, eliminating the risk of chargebacks.

8. Inflation hedge: Unlike fiat currencies that can be printed at will by governments leading to inflation, Bitcoins have a limited supply of 21 million coins. This scarcity makes them an attractive option for individuals looking to protect their wealth against inflation.

Challenges and Controversies Surrounding Bitcoin

Bitcoin, the first decentralized digital currency, was introduced in 2009 and has since gained significant attention and popularity. While many view it as a revolutionary technology that has the potential to revolutionize the financial landscape, there are also numerous challenges and controversies surrounding Bitcoin.

1. Lack of Regulation: One of the main challenges facing Bitcoin is the lack of regulation. As a decentralized currency, it operates outside the control of any government or regulatory authority. This lack of oversight has resulted in concerns over its use for illegal activities such as money laundering and tax evasion.

2. Volatility: The value of Bitcoin is highly volatile, often experiencing large price fluctuations within a short period. This makes it difficult for businesses to accept Bitcoin as a form of payment or for individuals to use it as a stable store of value.

3. Security Concerns: As with any digital asset, security is a major concern when dealing with Bitcoin. There have been instances where exchanges or wallets have been hacked, resulting in users losing their Bitcoins permanently.

4. Energy Consumption: Another controversy surrounding Bitcoin is its energy consumption. The process of mining Bitcoins requires massive amounts of computing power which consumes a significant amount of energy. Critics argue that this contributes to carbon emissions and goes against efforts towards sustainability.

5. Scalability Issues: With an increasing number of users and transactions on the network, scalability has become a major challenge for Bitcoin. In its current form, the network can only handle a limited number of transactions per second which slows down transaction processing times and increases fees.

6. Lack of Acceptance: Despite its growing popularity, Bitcoin is still not widely accepted as a form of payment in many places. This limits its use as a currency and makes it difficult for people to rely on it for daily transactions.

7. Potential for Market Manipulation: Due to the decentralized nature of Bitcoin, there have been concerns about the potential for market manipulation by larger holders of the currency. The lack of regulation makes it easier for these actors to control the market and manipulate prices.

8. Forks and Fragmentation: Bitcoin has undergone multiple forks over the years, resulting in the creation of different versions of the currency. This fragmentation can be confusing for users and could potentially devalue the original Bitcoin if one of these new versions gains more widespread adoption.

9. Environmental Impact: As mentioned earlier, Bitcoin mining consumes a significant amount of energy which has raised concerns about its impact on the environment. Some argue that this energy consumption is unsustainable and could lead to further environmental degradation.

Real-world Examples of How Bitcoin is Being Used

Bitcoin, the world’s first decentralized digital currency, has been a hot subject in recent years due to its meteoric rise in value and potential to revolutionize traditional finance. But beyond its growing popularity as an investment vehicle, Bitcoin is also being used for real-world applications that are changing the way we transact and view money.

Here are some examples of how Bitcoin is being used in various industries:

1. E-Commerce: One of the earliest adopters of Bitcoin was the e-commerce sector. Companies like Overstock, Newegg, and Shopify have all embraced Bitcoin as a payment option on their platforms. By accepting Bitcoin, these retailers can expand their customer base by reaching out to tech-savvy consumers who prefer using cryptocurrencies for online purchases. Furthermore, with lower transaction fees compared to credit cards and faster settlement times, Bitcoin offers a more efficient payment method for e-commerce businesses.

2. Remittance: An estimated $700 billion was sent globally through remittances in 2019 alone. However, traditional remittance methods can be costly with high fees associated with international transfers. Many expats working abroad are turning to Bitcoin as an alternative means of sending money back home due to its lower transaction costs and faster transfer times. By cutting out intermediaries such as banks or money transfer companies, Bitcoin allows users to directly send funds to their loved ones across borders at a fraction of the cost.

3. Cross-Border Payments: Similar to remittances, cross-border payments between businesses have historically been slow and expensive. With Bitcoin, international transactions can be completed in a matter of minutes instead of days, making it an attractive option for global businesses. Many startups are also using Bitcoin as a way to facilitate cross-border trade without the need for traditional banking channels.

4. Micropayments: With traditional payment methods, small payments under a certain threshold can be impractical due to high transaction fees. In contrast, Bitcoin allows for micropayments to be made at a very low cost. This has opened up new opportunities for content creators on platforms like Patreon and Twitch, who can now receive small donations from their supporters through Bitcoin.

5. Charitable Donations: Bitcoin is also being used to facilitate charitable donations to various causes and organizations around the world. By accepting Bitcoin, charities can reach a wider audience and reduce their processing fees, allowing more funds to go towards their cause.

6. Tourism: The tourism industry has also seen an increase in the use of Bitcoin as a means of payment. Many hotels, airlines, and travel agencies now accept Bitcoin as a form of payment, allowing travelers to have more flexibility with their currency while abroad.

7. Gaming: Virtual currencies have long been used in online gaming environments as a way to purchase in-game items and upgrades. With the rise of Bitcoin, it has also become a popular in-game currency for games such as Minecraft and World of Warcraft. In addition, some gaming platforms are now allowing players to withdraw their winnings in Bitcoin.

8. Darknet Markets: While not officially condoned, Bitcoin has gained popularity on darknet markets due to its anonymous and decentralized nature. These markets allow users to buy and sell illegal goods using Bitcoin as a form of payment.

How to Acquire and Store Bitcoin Safely

Bitcoin is a digital currency that operates on a decentralized network, making it more secure and free from government and bank control. With its rapid rise in popularity over the years, many people are now looking to invest in Bitcoin. However, before jumping into the world of cryptocurrency, it is essential to understand how to acquire and store Bitcoin safely.

Here are some tips on how to acquire and store Bitcoin securely:

1. Choose a reputable exchange platform: The first step in acquiring Bitcoin is to choose a reputable exchange platform. There are several exchanges available such as Coinbase, Binance, and Kraken. It is crucial to research these platforms thoroughly before selecting one to ensure they have proper security measures in place.

2. Set up two-factor authentication (2FA): Two-factor authentication adds an extra layer of security by requiring users to provide a code sent via SMS or email in addition to their login details. This ensures that even if someone gains access to your login information, they will not be able to access your account without the 2FA code.

3. Create strong passwords: When setting up your account on the exchange platform, make sure you create a strong password with a combination of letters, numbers, and special characters. Avoid using easily guessable passwords like birth dates or names as they can be easily cracked by hackers.

4.Refrain from sharing personal information: Be cautious about sharing personal information online when purchasing or trading Bitcoin. Scammers may use this information for identity theft or hacking attempts.

5.Use a hardware or paper wallet: For storing Bitcoin, it is recommended to use a hardware or paper wallet instead of leaving it on the exchange platform. These types of wallets keep your bitcoins offline, making them less vulnerable to cyberattacks. Hardware wallets like Ledger Nano S and Trezor are physical devices that can be connected to your computer when you need to access your bitcoins. On the other hand, paper wallets are physical copies of your private keys, which can be printed and stored in a safe place.

6.Backup your wallet: It is crucial to backup your wallet regularly as it protects you from losing your bitcoin if something unexpected happens such as theft, damage or loss of the device. You can do this by saving a copy of your private key on a separate storage device.

7.Use cold storage for large amounts: If you have a considerable amount of Bitcoin, it is recommended to store them in cold storage. Cold storage refers to keeping bitcoins offline in a secure location such as a safe deposit box, offline computer, or USB drive. This adds an extra layer of security against potential hackers.

8. Keep software up-to-date: Make sure to keep all software related to Bitcoin up-to-date, including the operating system, antivirus software, and any other security software. This will ensure that you have the latest security measures in place to protect your Bitcoin.

By following these tips, you can acquire and store Bitcoin safely. Remember to always do thorough research and not rush into investing in any cryptocurrency. Keep your private keys secure, and backup your wallet regularly to ensure the safety of your bitcoins.

The Future of Bitcoin: Predictions and Possibilities

The rise of Bitcoin has been nothing short of extraordinary in recent years. From being a relatively unknown digital currency, it has gained mainstream attention and adoption globally. While its meteoric rise may have taken many by surprise, the future of Bitcoin is something that is being widely discussed and debated.

In this section, we will delve into the predictions and possibilities for Bitcoin in the coming years. As with any emerging technology, there are varying opinions on what lies ahead for BTC. However, there are some key trends and developments that can give us a glimpse into the potential future of this revolutionary cryptocurrency.

1) Mainstream Adoption: One prediction that seems to be unanimous among experts is that Bitcoin will continue to gain mainstream adoption in both developed and developing countries. With more merchants accepting Bitcoin as a form of payment and larger institutions showing interest in utilizing it for their financial transactions, the widespread use of BTC as a currency could become a reality in the near future.

2) Institutional Investment: Along with mainstream adoption, many believe that institutional investment will play a crucial role in driving Bitcoin’s growth. We have already seen major companies like MicroStrategy and Tesla investing heavily in BTC, which has led other institutions to follow suit. This trend is expected to continue as more businesses see the potential benefits of diversifying their portfolios with digital assets like Bitcoin.

3) Increased Regulations: As Bitcoin becomes more mainstream and gains wider acceptance, governments around the world are likely to introduce regulations to ensure its proper usage within their jurisdiction. While some may view this as a hindrance, it could actually bring about more stability and legitimacy to the cryptocurrency space.

4) Improvement in Infrastructure: With the growing demand for Bitcoin, there will be a need for better infrastructure to support its usage. This could lead to advancements in areas like scalability, security, and user experience, making Bitcoin more accessible and user-friendly.

5) Integration with Traditional Finance: As Bitcoin gains more acceptance, we could see it being integrated into traditional financial systems. For example, some predict that banks may start offering cryptocurrency services to their customers alongside traditional banking products.

6) Potential as a Store of Value: Many experts believe that Bitcoin has the potential to become a store of value like gold. With its limited supply and decentralized nature, BTC could serve as a hedge against inflation and economic uncertainties in the future.

7) Development of Layer 2 Solutions: The scalability issues on the Bitcoin network have been a cause for concern in recent years. To address this, developers are working on layer 2 solutions that can Improve transaction speeds and reduce fees while maintaining the security of the blockchain. If successful, these solutions could significantly enhance Bitcoin’s usability and adoption.


In conclusion, the rise of Bitcoin has brought about a major shift in the financial landscape. It offers a decentralized and secure alternative to traditional banking systems, allowing for faster transactions and lower fees. This digital currency has gained widespread acceptance and is constantly evolving with new developments such as blockchain technology. While there are still some challenges and uncertainties surrounding its use, one thing is clear: Bitcoin has disrupted the way we think about money and has the potential to change our future financial system. As it continues to gain traction, it will be exciting to see how BTC further revolutionizes our world.

Thu, 16 Nov 2023 18:13:00 -0600 Hillary en-US text/html
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