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CNA Certified Nurse Assistant

Tests/Quizzes (Totals make up 25% of your overall grade)

Chapter Tests 100 points ea.

Chapter Quizzes (if given) 25 points ea.

Major Exams (Totals make up 25% of your overall grade)

Mid-term 500 points * Must have a 75% in class to take – must score 75% on test

Skills Final 400 points

Final 500 points * Must have a 75% in class to take – must score 75% on test

Classwork/Homework (Totals make up 25% of your overall grade)

Homework 50 points/week

Skills/Lab 50 points/per skill day

Career Portfolio 100 points

Research papers 100 points

Oral presentations 100 points

Employability (Totals make up 25% of your overall grade)

Weekly class employability grade semester 1 40 pts. /day = 200 points a week)

Weekly class employability grade semester 2 40 pts. / day = 120 points a week)

Weekly clinical employability points semester 2 40 pts / day or 80 pts on Saturday

Major Exams: The Arizona State Board of Nursing has determined that all students must achieve at least 75% or better on all major examinations. In keeping with the BON standard, the EVIT standard for NA students is that students score at least 75% on all major exams as well as maintain a 75% overall class average. Students scoring less than 75% on either the Mid-term or the Final test are considered to have failed and may petition the instructor to re-take the exam. Only one re-take will be permitted. Re-takes will be administered the next school day. The re-take test will address the same competencies as the first test but with different questions. The maximum score that will be posted in the grade book for a re-take test is 75%. Students with a permanent score of less than 75% for the midterm test will be referred to the counseling department. It is the students responsibility to arrange a time with the teacher if they need to re-take a major test due to a failing
grade or to make-up a major test due to an excused absence.

Successful Completion Requires:

1. Students must demonstrate 100% accuracy on all skills taught in lab/ clinical setting
in order to receive “Pass” for this portion of the Program.

2. Students must maintain 100% attendance rate in class/clinical. (If student misses a
class they will have to wait until that class day is offered again and it is not
guaranteed it will be available in the next class)

3. All Students must complete 100% of the clinical hours

4. All Students must get at least an 80% or above on all quizzes and exams when given

5. All Financial obligations to school must be satisNied before sitting for CNA State exam
or accreditation testing or before receiving a completion of Achievement CertiNicate.

Course Objectives • Communication and Interpersonal Skills • Infection Control • Safety/ Emergency procedures- including, but not limited to the
Heimlich maneuver • Promoting Residents independence • Respecting residents rights • Taking and recording vitals signs • Measuring and recording height and weight • Caring for the residents environment • Caring for residents when death is imminent • Recognizing abnormal changes in body function and the importance of
reporting such changes to a supervisor • Bathing • Grooming • Dressing • Toileting • Assisting with eating and hydration • Proper feeding techniques • Skin care • Transfers, positioning and turning • Modifying aides behavior in response to residents behavior • Identifying development tasks associated with aging process • How to respond to residents behavior
• Allowing the residents to make personal choices • Identifying psychiatric disorders • Techniques for addressing the unique needs and behaviors of
individuals with dementia • Communicating with cognitively impaired residents • Understanding the behavior of cognitively impaired residents • Appropriate responses to behavior of cognitively impaired residents • Methods of reducing the effects of cognitive impairments • Training the residents in self care according to the residents abilities • Use of assistive devices in transferring, ambulation, eating & dressing • Maintaining range of motion • Proper turning and positioning in bed and chair • Bowel and Bladder training • Care and use of prosthetic and orthotic devices • Providing privacy and maintenance of conNidentiality • Promoting the residents right to make personal choices to
accommodate their needs • Giving assistance in resolving grievances and disputes • Providing needed assistance in getting to and participating in resident
and family groups and other activities • Maintaining care and security of residents personal possessions • Promoting the residents right to be free from abuse, mistreatment and
neglect, and the need to report any such instance to appropriate facility
staff • Avoiding the need for restraints in accordance with current professional

Certified Nurse Assistant
Medical Certified study tips

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CRRN Certified Rehabilitation Registered Nurse
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CGFNS Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools
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CNN Certified Nephrology Nurse
CNOR Certified Nurse Operating Room
DANB Dental Assisting National Board
Dietitian Dietitian
EMT Emergency Medical Technician
EPPP Examination for Professional Practice of Psychology
FPGEE Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency
NBCOT National Board for Certification of Occupational Therapists - 2023
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NET Nurse Entrance Test
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OCN Oncology Certified Nurse - 2023
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CNS Clinical Nurse Specialist
NBRC The National Board for Respiratory Care
AHM-540 AHM Medical Management
AACN-CMC Cardiac Medicine Subspecialty Certification
AAMA-CMA AAMA Certified Medical Assistant
ABEM-EMC ABEM Emergency Medicine Certificate
ACNP AG - Acute Care Nurse Practitioner
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ANCC-CVNC ANCC (RN-BC) Cardiac-Vascular Nursing
ANCC-MSN ANCC (RN-BC) Medical-Surgical Nursing
ANP-BC ANCC Adult Nurse Practitioner
APMLE Podiatry and Medical
BCNS-CNS Board Certified Nutrition Specialis
BMAT Biomedical Admissions Test
CCN CNCB Certified Clinical Nutritionist
CCP Certificate in Child Psychology
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CNSC NBNSC Certified Nutrition Support Clinician
COMLEX-USA Osteopathic Physician
CPM Certified Professional Midwife
CRNE Canadian Registered Nurse Examination
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DAT Dental Admission Test
DHORT Discover Health Occupations Readiness Test
DTR Dietetic Technician Registered
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MHAP MHA Phlebotomist
MSNCB MSNCB Medical-Surgical Nursing Certification
NAPLEX North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination
NCCT-TSC NCCT Technician in Surgery
NCMA-CMA Certified Medical Assistant
NCPT National Certified Phlebotomy Technician (NCPT)
NE-BC ANCC Nurse Executive Certification
NREMT-NRP NREMT National Registered Paramedic
NREMT-PTE NREMT Paramedic Trauma Exam
OCS Ophthalmic Coding Specialist
PANRE Physician Assistant National Recertifying Exam
PCCN AACN Progressive Critical Care Nursing
RDN Registered Dietitian
VACC VACC Vascular Access
WHNP Women Health Nurse Practitioner
AACD American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry
RPFT Registered Pulmonary Function Technologist
ACLS Advanced Cardiac Life Support - 2023
GP-Doctor General Practitioner (GP) Doctor
GP-MCQS Prometric MCQS for general practitioner (GP) Doctor
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Podiatry-License-Exam-Part-III Podiatry License test Part III - 2023

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Certified Nurse Assistant
Question: 192
A resident whose spouse has recently died cries frequently. What should the nursing assistant do?
A. . Change the subject.
B. . Introduce them to the other available residents on the unit.
C. . Stay and listen to the resident as much as possible.
D. . Tell the resident that things will get better over time.
Answer: C
Sitting and listening to the resident conveys caring and empathy. Changing the subject (A), introducing him or her
to the other available residents on the unit (B), and telling him or her things will get better over time (D) do not
respect the residents feelings and will close off effective communication with the resident.
Question: 193
Which of the following best defines what an ombudsman is?
A. D. . union representative
B. . A nurse representative who assures quality care
C. . A person appointed by the court to handle an estate
D. . A union representative
Answer: A
An ombudsman is the person who represents a resident and investigates complaints. A nurse representative who
assures quality care (B) is the quality care manager. A person appointed by the court to handle an estate (C) is a
guardian. A union representative (D) helps the employees not the residents.
Question: 194
A nursing assistant is assigned to supply a shower to a resident and he refuses. Which is the bestaction of the nursing
A. . Insist that that the shower needs to be done now.
B. . Tell the resident you will supply him five minutes and then you will return to perform the
C. . Do not force or insist the task be done, but uphold the residents right to refuse care.
D. . Shame the resident into letting the procedure be performed.
Answer: C
A resident has a right to refuse care. The nursing assistant should respect that right and also let the nurse know the
resident refused. Insisting (A), issuing mandates (B), or shaming the resident (D) does not respect the residents
Question: 195
Which of the following is not a healthy way for a nursing assistant to reduce stress in his or herlife?
A. . Get plenty of rest and eat a balanced diet.
B. . Get involved in a new hobby.
C. . Go out several times a week for drinks after work.
D. . Exercise several times a week.
Answer: C
Alcohol is not a stress reducer. Overindulging in food or alcohol might seem to reduce stress at the time but in the
long run it adds to it. Getting plenty of rest and eating a balanced diet (A), getting involved in a new hobby (B),
and exercising several times a week (D) are recommended to reduce stress.
Question: 196
If a residents family becomes angry at the nursing assistant, what action should the nursing assistanttake?
A. . Tell the family member it is not your fault.
B. . Quickly walk away.
C. . Tell them you do not have to stand for this behavior.
D. . Stay calm and inform the nurse caring for the resident.
Answer: D
Stay calm and report the behavior to the nurse caring for the resident. Any other action could escalate the anger or
you might respond in an unprofessional manner. The scene might also upset the resident.
Question: 197
The cashier at the grocery store knows you work at the long-term care facility and inquires about aresident. Which
of the following is your best response?
A. . She is doing great; you should come by and visit her.
B. . I know her daughter shops here; you should ask her how her mom is doing.
C. . The facility has a policy that we are not allowed to talk about the residents.
D. . It is the right of every resident to confidentiality. I would not want to ignore that right
Answer: D
The best response is to remind inquiring persons about the residents right to confidentiality. The responses, She
is doing great; you should come by and visit her. (A) and I know her daughter shops here; you should ask her
how her mom is doing. (B) are a violation of the residents right to confidentiality. The response, The facility
has a policy that we are not allowed to talk about the residents. (C) places the facility at blame when it is truly the
rights of the resident
Question: 198
A nursing assistant is overheard telling a resident that the nurse caring for her is not a good nurse.The nursing
assistant could be charged with which of the following?
A. . Slander
B. . Malpractice
C. . Negligence
D. . Assault
Answer: A
Slander is making a false accusation of someone that injures his or her character or reputation. Malpractice (B) is
the break in a standard of care or standard of practice by a member of a profession. Negligence (C) is the failing of
someone to act or acting in a way that injures someone. Assault (D) is threatening to harm someone or leading
someone to believe you will harm them.
Question: 199
Which of the following is a sign that a resident is being physically or verbally abused?
A. . Daughter discussing changes in care with her mother
B. . Withholding the residents sleeping medication because the resident would not take bath
C. . Son does not return his father for several hours whenever they go out to lunch
D. . The wrong medication is given to a resident
Answer: B
Withholding medication as a form of punishment is considered abuse. A daughter discussing changes in care with
her mother (A) or a son who does not return his father for several hours whenever they go out to lunch (C) are not
signs of physical or verbal abuse. Giving the wrong medication to a resident (D) is an example of malpractice if the
resident is harmed by the error.
Question: 200
Elastic stockings are applied to the residents legs to help reduce venous stasis. Which of the followingis a critical
step to remember with the application and monitoring?
A. . Pull the stocking up smoothly over the legs.
B. . Make sure that the stockings are wrinkle free at all times.
C. . Support the residents foot at the heel.
D. . Slip the stockings over the toes before the heel.
Answer: B
The stocking needs to be wrinkle free to prevent discomfort and the possibility of pressure ulcers from the
wrinkles. Pulling the stocking up smoothly over the legs (A), supporting the residents foot at the heel (C), and
slipping the stockings over the toes before the heel (D) are all correct actions but are not critical steps.
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Medical Certified study tips - BingNews Search results Medical Certified study tips - BingNews 10 Tips on Getting Into Med School

Medical schools are highly competitive. The national acceptance rate is 43%, according to data compiled by the Association of American Medical Colleges. Students often ask, "How do I get into medical school?" Use these top 10 tips from doctors and medical students to help you prepare for your pre-health profession.

1. Get Some Medical Experience on Your Résumé

Job shadow with doctors and other medical professionals. Admissions committees don't expect applicants to have real experience actually treating patients. After all, you're not a doctor yet. But they do want to know that you've spent time getting to know what your future job would be like. Job shadowing is a great way to get some medical experience but there are other non-shadowing opportunities that may be available to you.

"Med school admissions committees want students to have realistic expectations for what a career in medicine will be like. says Dr. Sarah Carlson, an associate chief of surgery at VA Boston HCS, and an assistant professor at BU School of Medicine. who has also served on a medical school admissions committee. As an undergraduate, she volunteered to file x-rays at the local hospital, then parlayed that into an opportunity to talk with the radiologist. He explained both how to read x-ray films, and why he chose his profession. "It's those types of interactions that are important to have under your belt," she says. "Quite frankly, medicine isn't for everyone, so it's best if you do some soul-searching and spend some time with the people who have the job you want. Most doctors are happy to sit down with students who are considering a career in medicine."

Former pre-med student and current medical school student Karmyn Polakowski served with Michigan Tech's EMS for a couple of years. "It was definitely the highlight of my undergraduate career," she says. "I was not only able to deploy my patient interaction and care skills, but I found the EMS family that created bonds to last a lifetime. EMS brings out special qualities in everyone and learning how to utilize everyone’s strengths is really quite eye-opening. This lesson in itself makes me confident in my ability to work well as a physician amongst a group of other healthcare workers someday soon." Polakowski is now attending Michigan State University College of Human Medicine.

Other ways to get medical experience include becoming a Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) or as a hospital scribe doing data entry. Some applicants are able to gain clinical experience by helping to care for family members.

2. Do Research Projects

Student holding a pippet and looking at a bottle

Demonstrate your hands-on science knowledge. "Undergraduate research experience really shines through on medical school applications. Most medical schools want students who are interested in research, and the best way to show that interest is to come in having already gotten your feet wet" says Dr. Carlson. She did pipetting and ran assays for Dr. Pushpa Murthy's lab at Michigan Technological University. It was a small part of the research, but she conveyed the overall impact. "I had to explain at my interviews that the larger scope of the research was about inositol phosphate metabolism."

Medical student Carly Joseph did long-term research in engineered biomaterials. "Sticking with it gave me time to learn how to think critically and ignited my passion for science," she says. "I started off simply learning about biomaterials from older students in the lab, then gradually worked up to doing my own experiments and eventually presenting at conferences." By choosing to make research a main priority each semester she was able to form close relationships with faculty mentors and accomplish more during undergrad than she ever imagined.

In addition to college-based research programs, you can investigate summer offerings, including those through the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates program or check out the AAMC database for summer undergrad research programs

3. Put in Time Serving Others

Dr. Carlson volunteered with the Big Brothers-Big Sisters organization. So did Joseph. Rake leaves, build an accessibility ramp, clean the beach, walk a dog. There are lots of non-clinical options for volunteering that demonstrate your willingness to pay it forward and supply back.

"They have many different programs and services." Joseph, accepted into Central Michigan University's College of Medicine, was part of the Forever Friends program, matched with an elderly woman she visited a few times each month. "I 've formed a great friendship with her, and hopefully, helped alleviate some loneliness. It 's a win-win!"

"Doctors are generally pretty altruistic people, and med schools want to see that you care about your community or have some drive to contribute to the greater good," says Dr. Carlson. "Community service comes in many forms, and really anything qualifies, from trash cleanup and mentorship programs to working the concession stand at a fund-raiser for a charity—anything that requires some unpaid time for a good cause."

Ask your pre-health professions advisor about volunteering opportunities on campus or in your community, which could include helping at local food banks or blood drives, local shelters for the homeless or those dealing with domestic violence. You could tutor, deliver good companionship and Meals on Wheels, or walk the dogs at a local animal shelter. Take an alternative spring break and work with Habitat for Humanity or on developing clean water sources for Third World countries. Check with your school for a list of community and global partners it works with who can use your time and talents. The mentors you develop will come in handy when it's time to gather recommendation letters—most schools ask for at least three—and the friendships you develop will last a lifetime.

4. Choose a Major You Will Excel In

Grades aren't everything, but they're extremely important. Choose a field of study that will yield a competitive GPA (grade point average). The recommended GPA for medical school applicants is 3.7 for MDs (medical doctors), 3.5 for DOs (doctors of osteopathy), and 3.4 for NDs (Doctor of Naturopathic). While many students who are planning careers in medicine decide to major in biology, Dr. Carlson earned her bachelor's in chemistry. Many of her colleagues majored in even more unexpected fields, including engineering, English, music, and classics.

"It 's OK if you 're not on the pre-med track right away when you start college; pursue experiences that genuinely interest you and rely on guidance from your faculty mentors to navigate your path"Carly Joseph

There is no such thing as a pre-med major, says pre-health professions advisor Dr. Kemmy Taylor, who works with students preparing for medical careers at Michigan Technological University. "There is no specific major requirement for getting into medical school.. You can major in whatever degree program you want." You will still need to do well in both your cumulative and your science GPA, classes like biology, physics, chemistry, and math, that are required for medical school admission. If you are struggling in any classes, get help right away.

During her fourth year, Joseph had to take many of the medical school prerequisite classes that were not part of her engineering curriculum and build a Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) study plan into her schedule.

5. Apply to Multiple Medical Schools

Student sitting at a laptop

Improve your odds by not placing all your hopes on one school. Do individual research on each school, says Taylor; application requirements can vary from school to school and from year-to-year.

She also notes that you can reach out to admission committees with specific questions about the program and expectations. And, she says, don't be bummed if at first you don't succeed. Try again. "If you don 't get accepted into the school of your dreams, it 's OK! Schools have many applicants and can 't take everyone," says McKenzie, who was accepted into the Michigan State University College of Human Medicine. "My dad, who has been a family physician for 29 years, often tells me, "An MD is an MD, it doesn't matter where you go to school."

"Don't take it personally when you get some rejections—they happen at every stage of the game. If you cast a wide net, you'll increase your likelihood of getting an acceptance."Dr.  Sarah Carlson

Other ways to get noticed among the hundreds or even thousands of medical school applications submitted each year: send supplemental materials beyond your application. For example, "if you've published a paper, consider sending a copy of the publication with a handwritten note to the director of admissions, indicating you really hope to be considered for acceptance," she says.

6. Study Early and Often for the Medical College Admission Test, or MCAT

MCAT scores range from 472-528. Accepted medical students average around 508. Recommended study time: 300-350 hours.

Take a course and buy books and study on your own. Find the method that works for you. Take practice questions many times and don't let your practice scores spook you, says McKenzie. "I used the Kaplan book series, and studied by reading, highlighting, and taking notes. The real MCAT was not as hard as the Kaplan test, in my opinion." The pre-health professions advisor can help you find the resources you need.

You can also join a pre-health professions club or association at your school, including Alpha Epsilon Delta, the national honor society for health pre-professionals. Members help each other get ready for tests, along with hosting speakers and events to help gain knowledge and experience.

7. Learn Another Language

"I speak Spanish almost every day at work," says Dr. Carlson. "It 's what I use the most from my premed education." Joseph spent a semester in Chile. "Focusing on language, culture, and people challenged me in a me in ways that technical classes couldn't and was critical in my preparation for medical school. If you 're thinking about studying abroad, do it. Communication and understanding different cultures are crucial skills for anyone entering the medical field, and medical schools look for applicants who make the effort to broaden their horizons culturally."

Medical volunteer programs abroad are another option to gain both life and health-care related experiences. Students are placed in hospitals and clinics in both rural and urban settings where staff is inadequate. Work, with professional guidance, can include giving vaccinations and other tasks interacting directly with patients, as well as helping to make facilities cleaner and more accessible. Programs are normally for people aged 18 and older

8. Don't Skimp on Extracurricular Activities

Students playing trumpets with a choir behind.

Show that you're interested in other things besides schoolwork. Dr. Carlson says having outside interests makes you stand out (she plays violin in an orchestra). "It's OK to indicate some of these personal interests on your med school applications—they supply the interviewers something to relate to you with," she says. "I interviewed one applicant who only got a C in biochemistry, but he wrote lots of letters to the admissions committee highlighting his other strengths. We accepted him, and he turned out to be a star."

"Medical schools like to see commitment in their applicants, be it to sports, work, or extracurricular activities," says McKenzie. "It 's easier to not join clubs and just do homework and relax, but devoting time now to extracurricular commitments is worth it in the long run. These experiences also supply you good opportunities to get to know people who can write the letters of recommendation."

Joseph says to choose activities based on what works best for you. Aim for quality rather than quantity.

"There 's a lot of pressure to have as many leadership roles as possible and be involved in tons of student organizations. For me though, having a few deep and lasting experiences was the way to go. I chose to invest my time in research, improving my Spanish, and volunteering," she says.

9. Be Polite and Be Yourself at Medical School Interviews

Research the schools you're interested in and look at mission statements, so you know something about the institution that you can share at the interview. Practice answering interview questions. When you arrive, be courteous to everyone you meet at the interview, including the receptionist.

"Schools are interested in learning what kind of student and person you are," says McKenzie. Schools invest in students and are looking for a good fit.

If you need help with effective body language, knowing how to dress professionally or for other tips, check out your school's Career Services office, which may offer mock interview opportunities and other techniques to help you present your best self.

10. Be Ready to Explain Why You Want to be a Doctor

Standing student in business attire writing in a notebook

Avoid generic answers like "I want to help people." There's no one right answer. Be specific. Tell your story.

McKenzie's dream centers on helping people close to home, in an underserved area that suffers from chronic physician shortages. "I have always wanted to return to the Houghton-Hancock area, where I grew up, and to serve my rural community."

For Joseph, the dream centers on combining a passion for science with helping others in a direct way.

Dr. Carlson 's dream started when she was five years old and her sister was born with cystic fibrosis. She reminds applicants to go beyond that initial inspiration during application interviews and explain how you've prepared for a grueling process that is not for everyone. "After medical school comes residency, and then—for some—fellowship, academic track positions, publications, and navigating an ever-evolving health care system," says Dr. Carlson.

Bonus Tips for Getting into Medical School

Dr. Carlson has two more important suggestions to help you successfully apply to medical school:

Ask a Mentor or Advisor to Pick Up the Phone and Make a Call for You

"This is an unwritten rule that everyone does and nobody ever told me until I was several years into my training," says Dr. Carlson. "If you want to go to a particular school, find a way to have one of your mentors or advisors reach out to the admissions committee on your behalf."

For example, if you wanted to go to the University of Michigan ask your advisor or another mentor to call the director of admissions or any other person they know and advocate for you. Email can also be effective, she says. "It's a bonus if your mentor/advisor actually has a personal contact at the medical school you're interested in. "There is a culture of 'I can vouch for this person' that goes very far in the medical world. A phone call won't get you in if your application is terrible, but if you're on the cusp of acceptance and someone makes a call on your behalf, it can supply you the push you need to be accepted."

Don't Be Afraid to Self-Promote (In a Humble Way).

"It's OK to highlight the accomplishments you're proud of; put these in your required personal statement or find a way to work them into conversation during interviews. The key is to do it humbly but confidently: 'I was fortunate enough to win a teaching award from my time as a chemistry lab TA, and that's something I'm really proud of.' It's OK to be proud of your own achievements! Selectively highlighting a few make your application stand out from the rest."

Do you have the personal skills it takes for a career in medicine?

Medical students must be dedicated and focused. "A significant amount of personal sacrifice comes along with the training, and if you don't have a great motivation, you won't find the sacrifice worth the reward," says Dr. Carlson. If you can answer yes to these questions, or you're willing to find the resources to work to develop any of these vital skills you could improve, you increase your chances of being able to accomplish what it takes to be accepted into medical school.

Are you compassionate, mature, and emotionally intelligent?

Compassionate people are kind. They are aware of suffering in the self and other living things, and they want to help alleviate suffering. Mature people are able to accept responsibility. They are considerate of others, patient, and supportive of others, among other qualities. Emotionally intelligent people are aware of their emotions. They can harness and apply their emotions to problem-solving and other tasks and manage emotions—like being able to cheer up yourself, or other people, or to infuse calm into a situation.

Are you hard-working?

Hard-working people are conscientious about correctly performing duties and tasks on time. They are willing to put in the hours necessary to achieve goals.

Are you a high achiever?

High-achieving people are motivated to set and complete ambitious goals. They have a passion to excel in the field they choose to work in and are not daunted by obstacles.

Are you socially conscious?

Socially conscious people strive to stay informed and aware about the world around them, including how people interact with the economy, education, and both physical and social environments.

Do you have excellent quantitative and qualitative skills?

People with quantitative skills can perform analyses and other concrete and measurable tasks. Two examples of quantitative skills are data interpretation and math. People with qualitative skills are able to perform broad skills. Resilience and creativity are two examples of qualitative skills.

Pre-Health Professions at Michigan Tech

Michigan Tech's placement rate into medical school is 60 to 70 percent (well above the national average) and is nearly 100 percent for physical therapy school. Choose a pre-health profession and prepare for your future today.

Tue, 07 Aug 2018 02:27:00 -0500 en text/html
Clinical Experience Tips

Whether your goal is medical school or dental school, clinical experience during your undergraduate career is a must. Here are some common ways to gain it at SUNY Cortland.


Most hospitals house a Volunteer Department that students can contact to gain experience with patients. It may only be in patient transport or calling patients to review their hospital experience, but any contact with patients is beneficial.

Additionally, nursing homes and hospice centers need volunteers for a variety of tasks. Many volunteer opportunities also exist at important healthcare organizations such as rape/suicide crisis centers, HIV/AIDS resource clinics or Planned Parenthood.

One of the most common locations for our students to volunteer is the Cortland Medical Center. For more information, contact Jarrod Kolodziejczyk, the hospital’s director of volunteer services.

Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)

SUNY Cortland boasts a close-knit, award-winning Emergency Medical Services (EMS) student group that provides quality emergency care service 24 hours per day, seven days per week on campus.

The function of the squad has grown into a first response unit, as well as an organization which educates the campus community. The College also financially supports students in taking training courses such as the EMT basic course, which allows students to administer basic life saving techniques on a patient.

Learn more about EMS on its campus group page.

Observe in a Dental Office/Clinic

Pre-dental students can find volunteer opportunities to work locally at community health clinics, local schools or even globally to promote oral care in underserved populations.

A full list of opportunities and community health centers can be found on the American Dental Association website.

Shadow a Medical Doctor

The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) offers many tips on setting up a shadowing experience with a doctor, including how to find one, how to ask them and even what you should wear.

Members of SUNY Cortland’s Pre-Medical Advisory Committee can offer their expertise if you are interested in a shadowing experience.

Study Abroad

SUNY Cortland students can participate in a special study abroad trip to Cuernavaca, Mexico during winter break designed to expose pre-health professionals to healthcare in a developing country.

Students develop Spanish language skills to be effective healthcare providers, observe medicine in a variety of clinical settings and gain cross-cultural experiences that will add to their cultural competence.

Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA)

A CNA works under the direction of a nurse, assisting in basic tasks such as obtaining vital signs and weight/height measurements as well as bathing and dressing people who cannot do these tasks alone. Generally, a CNA is required to complete a 75-hour training course and pass an assessment exam.


Phlebotomists are the technicians that draw blood for laboratory analysis. They need to know everything about blood collection, including handling of needles, tubes, bags and related equipment, as well as the regulations associated with blood collection. A phlebotomy technician course is required, along with passing a national certification exam. Phlebotomy gives students a flexible, paid position to gain patient contact hours. 


In this role, you follow Emergency Room clinicians around during clinical encounters and document medical history and physical exams in the electronic medical record. Scribing allows you to observe the patient-doctor interaction, learn medical terms and documentation skills and develop an understanding of challenges in healthcare.

Hospitals usually work with scribe companies that train and match students with area hospitals. Scribe America is a company that places students locally. Many require a yearlong commitment, which means that you will work part-time during the semester.

Wed, 28 Jun 2017 14:32:00 -0500 en text/html
4 Skills to Develop Before Medical School No result found, try new keyword!The premed years are an important time to develop useful habits for success in med school and to reduce the stress associated with being a medical student. As you study for your premed courses ... Mon, 20 Dec 2021 22:03:00 -0600 What a First-Year Medical School Student Can Expect No result found, try new keyword!In addition to didactic coursework, most often they have clinical skills lessons and frequently ... to make it through the marathon that is medical training, so students should establish a routine ... Mon, 08 Mar 2021 21:20:00 -0600 Head zaps help surgeons transfer skills from VR to IRL

Researchers found that applying gentle, non-invasive electrical stimulation to the brain during virtual reality training helped budding surgeons to more easily transfer the skills they’d learned to a real-life setting. In addition to training better future surgeons, the approach could help skill acquisition in other industries.

Motor learning allows us to develop new skills, like mastering a tennis serve or, in the case of a surgeon, developing precision suturing skills. These days, surgeons are likely to learn these types of skills in a virtual reality (VR) environment before they transition to the real world.

Researchers at Johns Hopkins University in the US have developed a method of improving how medicos learn surgical skills in a virtual environment so that their learned skills are transferred more effectively to a real-life scenario.

“Training in virtual reality is not the same as training in a real setting, and we’ve shown with previous research that it can be difficult to transfer a skill learning in a simulation into the real world,” said Jeremy Brown, a study co-author. “It’s very hard to claim statistical exactness, but we concluded people in the study were able to transfer skills from virtual reality to the real world much more easily when they had this stimulation.”

By “this stimulation”, Brown is talking about a gentle electric current delivered to the head, more specifically, the cerebellum, a part of the brain that plays a critical role in error-based learning. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been used before in attempts to Strengthen motor learning. One form of NIBS, the one that was used in the current study, is anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS), the application of a constant electric current to specific areas of the brain. Anodal stimulation depolarizes the neurons, increasing the probability of an action potential – a rapid sequence of voltage changes – occurring. The action potential and subsequent neurotransmitter release enable one neuron to communicate with others.

The researchers recruited 36 participants, 17 females and 19 males, with a mean age of 27. While 12 had medical backgrounds, none had prior experience with laparoscopy, robotic surgery, or any other teleoperation device. Each was asked to perform a complex visuomotor surgical training task in a real or virtual environment and then switch to the opposite training environment. The task involved driving a curved surgical needle through three rings with a 2 mm radius distributed at 45-degree increments inside the vertical plane. ‘Real’ training environment in the context of this study meant performing the task using the da Vinci Research Kit (dVRK), an open-source research robot, to control the surgical instruments.

Participants received either atDCS or sham cerebellar stimulation during the training task, which they had to perform at three speeds: fast, medium, and slow. While all participants showed improvement from baseline, groups receiving cerebellar atDCS showed significantly improved skill transfer from the virtual to the real environment at fast and moderate speeds, whereas groups receiving the sham stimulation did not.

“The group that didn’t receive stimulation struggled a bit more to apply the skills they learned in virtual reality to the genuine robot, especially the most complex moves involving quick motions,” said Guido Caccianiga, the study’s lead and corresponding author. “The groups that received brain stimulation were better at those tasks.”

The researchers say validating their findings using a larger demo could significantly impact robotic surgery training programs. Enhancing skill transfer through NIBS could speed up training time and shorten the learning curve. Outside of training surgeons, the approach could help with skill acquisition in other industries or learning more generally.

“What if we could show that with brain stimulation, you can learn new skills in half the time?” Caccianiga said. “That’s a huge margin on the costs because you’d be training people faster; you could save a lot of resources to train more surgeons or engineers who will deal with these technologies frequently in the future.”

The study was published in the journal Nature Scientific Reports, and the below video, produced by Johns Hopkins, shows a participant receiving cerebellar atDCS during training.

Could an Electric Nudge to the Head Help Your Doctor Operate a Surgical Robot?

Source: Johns Hopkins University

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Songbirds need daily vocal workout to maintain singing skills: study No result found, try new keyword!Scientists say the songbirds need to "use it or lose it." The post Songbirds need daily vocal workout to maintain singing skills: study appeared first on Talker. Tue, 12 Dec 2023 03:18:00 -0600 en-us text/html with Medical Billing and Coding

Obtaining a CPC, CCA, or CBCS certification implies that an individual has met competencies in the field of medical billing and coding. Certification is invaluable to the student's career goals. Students have an opportunity to make confident, informed decisions about the national certification they prefer.

The Certified Professional Coder (CPC) test is offered by the American Academy of Professional Coders (AAPC). It is the gold standard entry-level coding certification for physician, or professional fee, coders.

The Certified Coding Associate (CCA) is offered by the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA). It is an entry-level medical coding certification across all settings--physician practices and inpatient hospital.

The Certified Billing and Coding Specialist (CBCS) is offered by the National Healthcareer Association (NHA) and is currently an entry-level medical billing certification for physician practices. In the summer of 2021, the test will transition to an entry-level billing and coding certification, with the inclusion of ICD-10-CM, CPT, and HCPCS Level II testing.

Mon, 31 Jan 2022 02:17:00 -0600 en text/html
Study abroad helps MSU nursing graduate see new aspects of health care No result found, try new keyword!A program that allowed Graham High School students to obtain a Certified Nursing Assistant license set Abigail Hurst on her educational path. Her choice was solidified when she entered the Wilson ... Thu, 28 Dec 2023 01:17:18 -0600 en-us text/html Boomerang Medical's IBD Neuromodulation Study Successfully Completes Enrollment Milestone No result found, try new keyword!--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Boomerang Medical, Inc., a women-led bioelectronic medicine company focused on autoimmune diseases, proudly announced the completion of Stage 2 of its FDA-approved pilot stud ... Tue, 19 Dec 2023 15:14:00 -0600 Living with pets, others may slow the decline of cognitive skills in older adults: Study

A large British study suggests that living with others, whether another person, or even a pet, may slow down the decline in cognitive skills that tends to come as people age.

Cognitive decline in older adults is a major public health issue, with almost 10% of U.S. adults ages 65 and older estimated to have dementia, and 32% estimated to have some degree of cognitive impairment. Previous research has shown that living alone and social isolation are associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline with age.

"Research indicates that having long-term, high-quality relationships, whether that’s with family, friends, or romantic relationships, is not only important for happiness, but for promoting good brain health and reducing the risk for dementia," said Dr. Leah Croll, assistant professor of neurology at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University.

Pet ownership has been shown to reduce feelings of loneliness and isolation in those living alone, but up until now, no study had directly compared rates of cognitive decline between pet owners and non-pet owners.

PHOTO: A senior man sitting on a sofa playing with his dog, a white Shih Tzu, at home.

A senior man sitting on a sofa playing with his dog, a white Shih Tzu, at home.

STOCK PHOTO/Getty Images

The study, published in JAMA Neurology, found that pet ownership was associated with slower rates of decline in cognitive skills in older adults living alone, but not in those living with other people. There was no difference in rates of decline between pet owners living with others and pet owners living alone.

Croll commented on these findings, stating that pet ownership may potentially represent an "alternative option for people whose social circumstances don’t allow for them to have frequent interactions with other people."

The authors used data from 7,945 adults 50 years or older living in the U.K. They compared rates of decline in cognitive skills between pet owners and non-pet owners over a period of nine years.

Each year, the participants were asked to perform several tests: reciting 10 unrelated words immediately after they were given, and after a delay, and naming as many animals as they could in one minute. These tests were designed to measure verbal memory and verbal fluency, skills that are vital to performing daily tasks and remaining independent as one ages.

As the U.S. population ages and the number of single-person households increases, dementia and cognitive decline in older adults will likely become increasingly important public health issues.

This study suggests that even for those who can’t live with another person, a beloved pet may be protective against the effects that loneliness and social isolation have toward cognitive decline with age.

It should be noted that the study only tested two domains of cognition, and that further work needs to be done to provide a fuller picture of how to slow cognitive decline with age. From what research is available, Croll currently recommends that her patients "stay active, eat a heart-healthy diet like the Mediterranean diet, and keep in touch with their friends," in order to promote healthy aging and prevent cognitive decline.

Joey K. Ng, MD, is an emergency medicine resident at Wyckoff Heights Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York, and a member of the ABC News Medical Unit.

Tue, 26 Dec 2023 14:26:00 -0600 en text/html

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