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This really is more than 6 years that will killexams.com delivering valid, Latest plus 2022 updated test questions and solutions. We have a huge database of CMT-Level-II practice questions queries which is often up to time and abilities in order to serve particular clients. Download completely free CMT-Level-II study guide to assess and sign upward for complete CMT-Level-II study guide.

Exam Code: CMT-Level-II Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
CMT Level II
CMT-Association Level learner
Killexams : CMT-Association Level learner - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CMT-Level-II Search results Killexams : CMT-Association Level learner - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CMT-Level-II https://killexams.com/exam_list/CMT-Association Killexams : CMT Awards No result found, try new keyword!Kelsea Ballerini Will Co-Host the 2023 CMT Music Awards — and Carrie Underwood Is Set to Perform! Carly Pearce, Cody Johnson and Walker Hayes Relish Their First Time in the CMT Artist of the ... Fri, 16 Oct 2020 06:23:00 -0500 en text/html https://people.com/tag/cmt-awards/ Killexams : Gordon Scott


Gordon Scott has been an active investor and has provided education to individual traders and investors for over 20 years. He is a licensed broker, an active trader, and proprietary day trader.

Gordon teaches the Investopedia Academy's Penny Stock Trading course, but his background in instruction is broad and deep. From 2013 to 2018 he was the Managing Director of the Chartered Market Technician (CMT) designation's examination program for the CMT Association (cmtassociation.org). The CMT is a globally-accepted technical analysis credential in the financial industry.

Gordon has over 15 years experience as a trading coach. For four years, he was the content manager at Investools, which publishes research and commentary on trading strategies. Gordon developed an online curriculum and oversaw its growth during the Thinkorswim and TD Ameritrade mergers.

Gordon's career also includes 10-years with International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), where he developed instructional materials and business process refinement. He also was an Adjunct Instructor at Brigham Young University–Organizational Strategy and Leadership department.

Gordon is co-author of the book, Invest to Win (McGraw-Hill 2013), with Toni Turner. The book provides insight on investing approaches and in managing a bullish portfolio known as the GainsMaster Investing method.

Wed, 08 Jan 2020 04:19:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.investopedia.com/contributors/82594/
Killexams : What teachers need to support English learners

November 17, 2022

Two out of five students in California schools speak a language other than English at home. Teachers need more training to bring all of those students to proficiency in English and help them succeed in other subjects.

What makes professional development for teachers of English learners effective? We hear from teachers, parents and professors about workshops that gave them tools to work with students who are learning English, and about what their own childhood experiences as English learners taught them.


  • Elvira Armas, director of the Center for Equity for English Learners, and affiliated faculty, School of Education at Loyola Marymount University
  • Laura Barbosa, vice president of the District English Learner Advisory Committee, San Leandro Unified School District
  • Marina Berry, First grade teacher, Lodi Unified School District
  • Nicole Thompson, Fourth grade teacher, Pajaro Valley Unified School District
  • Natalie Tran, professor of education, California State University Fullerton, and director, National Resource Center for Asian Languages.

Read more from EdSource:

Education Beat is a weekly podcast hosted by EdSource’s Zaidee Stavely and produced by Coby McDonald.

Wed, 16 Nov 2022 10:01:00 -0600 en text/html https://edsource.org/podcast/what-teachers-need-to-support-english-learners
Killexams : Little objective evidence to show effectiveness of learner-centered teaching methods, study warns

There is currently relatively little objective evidence that the much-promoted "learner-centered" approach to teaching is effective, according to new research.

Learner-centered pedagogy is designed to encourage pupils to become more involved in in the school and more active in class and participate in lessons.

It has been advocated by international bodies such as UNESCO and World Bank, and many countries worldwide have invested considerable time, money, and resources in LCP despite the lack of a comprehensive body of evidence regarding its implementation and outcomes.

New research by Dr. Nozomi Sakata, Dr. Leanne Cameron and Dr. Nicholas Bremner shows how the approach can have positive results, but there is currently little objective evidence to prove its effectiveness. Researchers have called for more larger-scale, objective, rigorous research on its effectiveness over time.

Some studies report teachers' and students' feedback that the teaching style helped to boost motivation, confidence, and enhanced relationships. But there is little proof it is more effective than what teachers have been doing previously.

Dr. Bremner, from the University of Exeter, said, "Existing evidence has shown learner-centered pedagogy can have a positive impact, but not enough to justify such a massive policy emphasis worldwide. Much of the evidence is too thin and simplistic to recommend either schools either abandon it or embrace it.

"On the basis of current evidence, there is a real gap in hard data to prove or disprove the value of LCP, especially given its continued prominence in worldwide policy discourses. Many policies have been introduced with good intentions, but they could be implemented in a more thoughtful way which allows teachers to make sensible decisions about using different methods and approaches at different times."

In the article, published in the International Journal of Educational Development, researchers conducted a review of 62 journal articles from 2001 to 2020 reporting the outcomes of LCP implementation in low- to middle-income countries around the world.

A total of 28 texts cited examples of teachers' positive experiences of LCP; 7 others were negative. However, only 9 out of the 62 studies contained objective evidence of improved academic learning outcomes.

A total of 26 out of the 62 texts cited examples of teachers or students' perspectives of enhanced , while 9 texts cited examples of little to no improvement in student learning.

Dr. Bremner said, "Larger-scale experimental studies may be challenging from a methodological perspective and are likely to imply a large investment in time and resources. However, on the basis of current evidence, there is a real gap in hard data to prove or disprove the value of LCP, especially given its continued prominence in worldwide policy discourses.

"The more subjective research—for example, studies presenting perspectives of teachers and students—was more prevalent than objective research, and did seem to lean towards positive experiences of LCP for non-academic outcomes such as motivation and confidence, as well as enhanced relationships. Such outcomes may not always be the priority for educational policymakers, but many would argue they are extremely important."

More information: Nicholas Bremner et al, The outcomes of learner-centred pedagogy: A systematic review, International Journal of Educational Development (2022). DOI: 10.1016/j.ijedudev.2022.102649

Citation: Little objective evidence to show effectiveness of learner-centered teaching methods, study warns (2022, November 15) retrieved 13 December 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-11-evidence-effectiveness-learner-centered-methods.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Mon, 14 Nov 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://phys.org/news/2022-11-evidence-effectiveness-learner-centered-methods.html
Killexams : 5 learner-centered education models to inspire reform

School models are, for the most part, outdated–and very overdue for replacement. When students reach high school, research shows that close to 66 percent of students are disengaged. But even students who do successfully navigate their schooling emerge with only a specific (and often narrow) skillset that may or may not match their strengths or interests.

Conventional schooling often leaves students disillusioned, questioning their intelligence and value as it is framed by a system that needs an overhaul.

Learner-centered education can play a critical role in reshaping education systems, offering a more holistic approach to meeting learners’ needs and helping students find fulfillment in their academic accomplishments.

K-12 Value Networks: The Hidden Forces That Help or Hinder Learner-Centered Education, a new report from the Clayton Christensen Institute and authored by CCI senior research fellow Thomas Arnett, offers insight into understanding why schools struggle to change their instructional models, along with tips to establish and support learner-centered education models.

Program leaders, sponsors, learners and their families, staff, community partners, and funders are all critical to the success of these learner-centered education models.

The report describes how five different learner-centered education models–The Met, Virtual Learning Academy Charter School, Iowa BIG, Village High School, and Embark Education–were able to launch and grow their models by assembling value networks congruent with their vision for learner-centered education.

1. The Met: The Metropolitan Regional Career and Technical Center, known as The Met, is a network of six small, public high schools located in Providence and Newport, Rhode Island. The hallmark of The Met’s learner-centered model is that its learners go out in their communities for two days out of the week to lead real-world projects as interns for partner organizations. For example, learners might work with a local bakery, a law firm, a tech company, or a recording studio.

When learners join the Met, they and their families work with an advisor to identify their strengths, needs, and interests, and then develop an individualized learning plan with an internship as its centerpiece. Learners are responsible for researching potential internship opportunities and communicating with partner sites to arrange their internships. Advisors coach them as they do their research and outreach to ensure that internships match their needs and interests.

2. Virtual Learning Academy Charter School: The Virtual Learning Academy Charter School (VLACS) is a statewide virtual school created in 2007 that serves K–12 learners throughout New Hampshire. The concept for the school came from the superintendent of the Exeter Region Cooperative School District, who saw an opportunity to take advantage of a new charter school law to apply for a statewide charter. Rather than create another conventional school, however, the superintendent recognized the distinctive value of using a virtual school model to offer a wide array of flexible, part-time and full-time learning options unavailable through brick-and-mortar campuses.

VLACS’s competency-based model is highly adaptable to learners’ needs and interests. It offers a range of options for learners to earn credits: through online courses, learner-designed projects, and out-of-school learning experiences such as internships and travel. Learners who take online courses move through those courses at their own pace and earn credit whenever they’re able to demonstrate mastery of designated competencies. For projects and other learning experiences, VLACS aligns these experiences with state learning standards and then measures learners’ mastery of standards using performance-based assessments.

What data tells us about student-centered learning
5 ways peer networks lead to better student support systems

Latest posts by Laura Ascione (see all)
Tue, 29 Nov 2022 18:45:00 -0600 Laura Ascione en-US text/html https://www.eschoolnews.com/2022/12/01/5-learner-centered-education-models/
Killexams : Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Types

There are many different types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), which are classified according to the gene mutation that causes the disease. The main types (CMT1, CMT2, CMT3, CMT4 and CMTX) and the related subtypes are described in more detail below.

Image Credit: Vitalii Vodolazskyi / Shutterstock

Image Credit: Vitalii Vodolazskyi / Shutterstock


CMT1 is the most common type and is caused by gene mutations the lead to the degeneration of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells. Patients with this type usually notice the first symptoms in adolescence, such as sensory loss, weakness and atrophy of the lower leg muscles.

This type is further divided into several main subtypes:

  • CMT1A is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and affects chromosome 17 of the gene, which causes changes in the production of the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP-22).
  • CMT1B follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern that affects the production of the myelin protein zero (P0). There are more than 120 gene mutations that have been identified to date that cause this change.
  • CMT1C is caused by a mutation in the LITAF gene
  • CMT1D is caused by a mutation in the EDFR gene
  • CMT1E is caused by a mutation in the NEFL gene


CMT2 is caused by gene mutations that lead to defects in the axon of the nerve cells and is less common than CMT 1. It is also typically associated with less severe symptoms.

This type is further divided into several main subtypes:

  • CMT2A results from a mutation in Mitofusin 2, which is involved in the process of mitochondrial fusion.
  • CMT2B has been linked to the RAB7 gene
  • CMT2D is caused by a mutation in the GARS gene
  • CMT2E is caused by a mutation in the NEFL gene
  • CMT2H is caused by a mutation in the HSP27 gene
  • CMT2I is caused by a mutation in the HSP22 gene


CMT3, also sometimes referred to as Dejerine-Sottas Disease, is caused by gene mutations that lead to changes in the myelin sheath of the nerve cells. It is a rare type that is caused by a specific point mutation in the P0 or PMP-22 gene.

This type is associated with severe symptoms that initially present in infancy or early childhood, such as severe muscle weakness and sensory difficulties.


CMT4 is caused by gene mutations that have not yet been identified but are known to lead to changes in the myelin sheath. This type is also linked to more severe symptoms that present in early childhood. Patients with this type are more likely to eventually lose the ability to walk independently.

This type is further divided into several main subtypes:

  • CMT4A is caused by a mutation in the GDAP1 gene
  • CMT4B1 is caused by a mutation in the MEMR13 gene
  • CMT4B2 is caused by a mutation in the MYMR2 gene
  • CMT4C is caused by a mutation in the SH3TC2 gene
  • CMT4D is caused by a mutation in the NDG1 gene
  • CMT4E is caused by a mutation in the EGR2 gene
  • CMT4F is caused by a mutation in the PRX gene
  • CMT4H is caused by a mutation in the FDG4 gene
  • CMT4J is caused by a mutation in the FIG4 gene


CMTX is more common in men than women and is caused by a point gene mutation on the X chromosome, in the connexin-32 gene that is expressed in Schwann cells. These cells form a single segment of the myelin sheath, wrapping around the axons of the nerve cells.


Mon, 07 Nov 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.news-medical.net/health/Charcot-Marie-Tooth-Disease-Types.aspx
Killexams : Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market 2023-2026 Find Out Essential Strategies To Expand The Business And Top Key Players

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Dec 06, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- Pre and Post Covid Report is Covered | Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of Russia-Ukraine War and COVID-19 on this industry.

[124 Pages Report]"Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market" size is projected to reach Multimillion USD by 2026, In comparison to 2023, at unexpected CAGR during 2023-2026 and generated magnificent revenue. The market is segmented on the basis of End-user Industry (Hospital, Clinic), By Type (ADX-71441, AFC-5128), and Geography (Asia-Pacific, North America, Europe, South America, and Middle-East and Africa). The Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market Report includes a complete table of contents, tables and figures, a chart with key analysis, an analysis of the pre- and post-COVID-19 market outbreak's effects, and a situation by region.

“Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease market revenue was Million USD in 2016, grew to Million USD in 2020, and will reach Million USD in 2026, with a CAGR of % during review period.” Ask for trial Report

Global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market Report 2023 is spread across 124 pages and provides exclusive vital statistics, data, information, trends and competitive landscape insights in this niche sector.

Who are some of the key players operating in the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease market and how high is the competition 2023?

Company Information: List by Country Top Manufacturers/ Key Players In Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market Insights Report Are:

● Аffесtіѕ Ðhаrmасеutісаlѕ АG ● Ðhаrnехt ЅА ● Lеаd Dіѕсоvеrу Сеntеr GmbН ● Gеnzуmе Соrр ● Аddех Тhеrареutісѕ Ltd

Get a trial copy of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market report 2023

According to this latest study, the 2023 development of Third-Party Replacement Strap for Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease will have huge change from earlier year.

The Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease market revenue was Million USD in 2016, grew to Million USD in 2020, and will reach Million USD in 2026, with a CAGR of during 2020-2026.

Global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market Development Strategy Pre and Post COVID-19, by Corporate Strategy Analysis, Landscape, Type, Application, and Leading 20 Countries covers and analyzes the potential of the global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease industry, providing statistical information about market dynamics, growth factors, major challenges, PEST analysis and market entry strategy Analysis, opportunities and forecasts. The biggest highlight of the report is to provide companies in the industry with a strategic analysis of the impact of COVID-19. At the same time, this report analyzed the market of leading 20 countries and introduce the market potential of these countries.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease market identifies the increase in RandD of therapeutic vaccines as one of the prime reasons driving the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market growth during the next few years. Also, increased disease diagnostic modalities, and increasing research on combination therapies will lead to sizable demand in the market.

COVID-19 / Great lockdown has compressed the global economy and with it the manufacturing sector, production, disruption, financial.


It also discussions about the market size of different segments and their growth aspects along with Competitive benchmarking, Historical data and forecasts, Company revenue shares, Regional opportunities, Latest trends and dynamics, growth trends, various stakeholders like investors, CEOs, traders, suppliers, Research and media, Global Manager, Director, President, SWOT analysis i.e. Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat to the organization and others. Revenue forecast, company share, competitive landscape, growth factors and trends

What are the major applications and type, of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease?

Major Product Types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease covered are:

● ADX-71441 ● AFC-5128

Major Applications of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease covered are:

● Hospital ● Clinic

Get a trial PDF of report @https://www.marketgrowthreports.com/enquiry/request-sample/18631978

Market Growth Reports present a detailed picture of the market by the way of study, and summation of data from multiple sources by an analysis of key parameters. Our antimicrobial therapeutics market covers the following areas:

● Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease market sizing ● Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease market forecasts ● Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease market industry analysis

What is our report scope?

This report focuses on the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application. The Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease-market report gives the clear picture of current market scenario which includes historical and projected market size in terms of value and volume, technological advancement, macro economical and governing factors in the market.

What are the major regional markets of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease in Global, according to the Market Growth Reports report?

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market analysis, by Geography: Major regions covered within the report: Consumption by Region 2023: -

● North America (U.S. and Canada) Market size, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease growth, Market Players Analysis and Opportunity Outlook ● Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Rest of Latin America) Market size, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease growth and Market Players Analysis and Opportunity Outlook ● Europe (U.K., Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Hungary, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg, NORDIC (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark), Ireland, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Turkey, Russia, Rest of Europe), Poland, Turkey, Russia, Rest of Europe) Market size, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease growth Market Players Analyst and Opportunity Outlook ● Asia-Pacific (China, India, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand, Rest of Asia-Pacific) Market size, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease growth and Market Players Analysis and Opportunity Outlook ● Middle East and Africa (Israel, GCC (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman), North Africa, South Africa, Rest of Middle East and Africa) Market size, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease growth Market Players Analysis and Opportunity Outlook

The report can help to know the market and strategize for business expansion accordingly. Within the strategy analysis, it gives insights from market positioning and marketing channel to potential growth strategies, providing in-depth analysis for brand fresh entrants or exists competitors within the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease industry. Global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market Report 2023 provides exclusive statistics, data, information, trends and competitive landscape details during this niche sector.

Fill the Pre-Order Enquiry form for the report@https://www.marketgrowthreports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/18631978

With tables and figures helping analyze worldwide Global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market Forecast this research provides key statistics on the state of the industry and should be a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.

Major Points from Table of Contents:

Global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market Research Report 2023-2026, by Manufacturers, Regions, Types and Applications

1 Introduction
1.1 Objective of the Study
1.2 Definition of the Market
1.3 Market Scope
1.3.1 Market Segment by Type, Application and Marketing Channel
1.3.2 Major Regions Covered (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Mid East and Africa)
1.4 Years Considered for the Study (2015-2026)
1.5 Currency Considered (U.S. Dollar)
1.6 Stakeholders

2 Key Findings of the Study

3 Market Dynamics
3.1 Driving Factors for this Market
3.2 Factors Challenging the Market
3.3 Opportunities of the Global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market (Regions, Growing/Emerging Downstream Market Analysis)
3.4 Technological and Market Developments in the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market
3.5 Industry News by Region
3.6 Regulatory Scenario by Region/Country
3.7 Market Investment Scenario Strategic Recommendations Analysis

4 Value Chain of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market

4.1 Value Chain Status
4.2 Upstream Raw Material Analysis
4.3 Midstream Major Company Analysis (by Manufacturing Base, by Product Type)
4.4 Distributors/Traders
4.5 Downstream Major Customer Analysis (by Region)

Get a trial Copy of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market Report 2023

5 Global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market-Segmentation by Type
6 Global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market-Segmentation by Application

7 Global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market-Segmentation by Marketing Channel
7.1 Traditional Marketing Channel (Offline)
7.2 Online Channel

8 Competitive Intelligence Company Profiles

9 Global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market-Segmentation by Geography

9.1 North America
9.2 Europe
9.3 Asia-Pacific
9.4 Latin America

9.5 Middle East and Africa

10 Future Forecast of the Global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market from 2023-2026

10.1 Future Forecast of the Global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market from 2023-2026 Segment by Region
10.2 Global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Production and Growth Rate Forecast by Type (2023-2026)
10.3 Global Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Consumption and Growth Rate Forecast by Application (2023-2026)

11 Appendix
11.1 Methodology
12.2 Research Data Source


Browse complete table of contents at


Reasons to buy this report:

● To get a comprehensive overview of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market ● To gain wide ranging information about the top players in this industry, their product portfolios, and key strategies adopted by the players. ● To gain insights of the countries/regions in the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Market.

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Mon, 05 Dec 2022 17:33:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/charcot-marie-tooth-disease-market-2023-2026-find-out-essential-strategies-to-expand-the-business-and-top-key-players-2022-12-06
Killexams : Association wants existing primary schools to host junior secondary learners

• Ronoh said investors should be encouraged to construct standalone junior secondary schools where possible to accommodate all learners.

• Philemon Kirui said a standardised assessment should be formulated to ensure that learners countrywide are assessed uniformly.

The Kenya Private Schools Association-Bomet wants the government to host junior secondary pupils in existing primary schools due to their tender age.

County chapter chairman Alfred Ronoh said the move will reduce the cost of constructing new classrooms, laboratories and other learning infrastructure that require a lot of money. He was accompanied by secretary Nicholas Kirui and executive member Philemon Kirui.

They made the remarks after presenting their views to the Presidential Working Party on Education Reforms at Tenwek High School.

“The learning areas and activities should be condensed to a manageable number, depending on the grade/ level of learners. The specialisation pathways should be deferred to senior secondary, since the learners in junior secondary are still too young to make informed choices,” Ronoh said.

He said investors should be encouraged to construct standalone junior secondary schools where possible to accommodate all learners.

Tue, 08 Nov 2022 08:48:00 -0600 en-XL text/html https://www.msn.com/en-xl/africa/other/association-wants-existing-primary-schools-to-host-junior-secondary-learners/ar-AA13T3HX
Killexams : The association between e-cigarette use and caries risk level

A new study published in The Journal of the American Dental Association found an association between e-cigarette use or vaping and dental caries risk. 

Study: A comparison of the caries risk between patients who use vapes or electronic cigarettes and those who do not: A cross-sectional study. Image Credit: Sergii Kuchugurnyi/Shutterstock
Study: A comparison of the caries risk between patients who use vapes or electronic cigarettes and those who do not: A cross-sectional study. Image Credit: Sergii Kuchugurnyi/Shutterstock


Vaping is a term used for e-cigarette use. This electronic device heats a vaping liquid, producing an aerosol when lit. However, e-cigarette use or vaping has been associated with lung injury and predisposes to fatal outcomes. 

The vaping aerosol comprises a base (containing glycerin and propylene glycol), certain flavors, and is not devoid of nicotine. Some components of the vaping aerosol adhere to the oral cavity and promote biofilm formation and microbial adhesion. This includes the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to the enamel. 

The sucrose content of the flavors also enhances biofilm formation and subsequently leads to the demineralization of the enamel. Further, the flavors negatively impact the commensal bacteria of the oral cavity. 

Tobacco and vaping also harm periodontal health. Vaping negatively affects both radiographic and clinical peri-implant parameters. Similar to regular cigarettes, e-cigarettes also reduce the pH of the oral cavity, and thus, their use can accentuate risks for dental erosion and oral tissue damage.

There are very few studies on the relationship between the prevalence of caries and vaping or e-cigarette use. The present study assessed the risk of caries in individuals who regularly practiced vaping or e-cigarette use via The Caries Management by Risk Assessment tool.

About the study

Of the 13,216 patients, 52.1% were females, and 47.9% were males. Among the participants, 6.4% were in the age range of 16-25 years, 32.8% were between 26-40 years of age, and 60.7% were above 40 years of age. Overall, 13,080 individuals responded negatively when asked whether they had used or are currently using e-cigarettes or vaping. While 136 people affirmed their e-cigarettes or vaping statuses. 

The participants were categorized based on their caries risk level as – high-risk 59.7%, moderate-risk 25.8%, and low-risk 14.5%. Meanwhile, data relating to the caries risk level was missing for 118 individuals. Therefore, a total of 13,098 individuals were selected for the evaluation, out of which 91 reported using vapes and e-cigarettes, and 13,007 said they did not.

Among those who answered “no” when enquired about their vapes or e-cigarette use status, 6.3% belonged to the 16-25-year age range, 32.6% to the 26-40-year age range, and 61.1% were more than 40 years old. In the group that responded “yes” when asked about current vaping or e-cigarette use, 19.1% were between 16-25 years of age, 52.9% were between 26-40 years old, and 27.9% were above 40 years of age.


According to the Mann-Whitney U test, the caries risk level was significantly higher in the vape or e-cigarette group compared to the control group – with 59.6%, 25.9%, and 14.5% of the individuals in the control group belonging to the high-, moderate-, and low-caries risk categories, respectively, and 79.1%, 14.3%, and 6.6% those in the vape or e-cigarette group belonging to the high-, moderate-, and low-caries risk categories, respectively. 

The multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for sex and age group revealed a significant difference in the caries risk level amongst the e-cigarette and vape users and control group. Of note, the control group had a lower risk for dental caries. Meanwhile, individuals above 40 had higher caries-risk levels compared to 16-25- and 26-40-year-olds. Additionally, females exhibited a lower dental caries risk than males.


The study concluded that patients who used vapes or e-cigarettes had a higher risk of dental caries. Therefore, all individuals who routinely vape or use e-cigarettes must be screened for oral health-related disease during their routine dental check-ups. For this, a dental history questionnaire may be used, wherein e-cigarette use or vaping should be included as a risk factor that increases the dental caries-risk level. 

A more meticulous caries management program should be planned for patients who use e-cigarettes and vapes. A longitudinal assessment is further warranted to study the effects of vapes and e-cigarettes on tissues in the oral cavity and the risk for dental caries.

Tue, 06 Dec 2022 10:43:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.news-medical.net/news/20221128/The-association-between-e-cigarette-use-and-caries-risk-level.aspx
Killexams : Shift Pharmaceuticals, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Association Partner on ASO Treatment for CMT1A GLENOLDEN, PA, USA, November 3, 2022 /EINPresswire.com/ --
Shift Pharmaceuticals, a privately held company that is developing antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to treat a variety of genetic disorders, and the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Association (CMTA) today announced a collaboration that will use ASOs to treat CMT1A. Type 1A is caused by a duplication in the PMP22 gene. ASOs are drugs that can alter RNA and reduce, restore or modify protein expression.

The collaboration takes advantage of the CMTA’s extensive suite of expert preclinical testing capabilities for companies like Shift Pharmaceuticals that want to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a drug candidate. The findings from the project will be critical in advancing research that will lead to clinical trials for CMT1A patients.

CMT is a degenerative neuromuscular disease that entered the national spotlight last year when country music legend Alan Jackson announced he has the disease. Symptoms include muscle weakness, decreased muscle size, foot drop, foot bone abnormalities, fatigue, balance problems, neuropathic and/or musculoskeletal pain, loss of feeling in the hands and feet and loss of coordination in the limbs. There are no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments to stop or reverse the loss of nerve function in CMT.

“Our entire team is excited to be working with the CMTA on the development of our lead candidate for CMT1A, SHC1A-012. Their expertise in pre-clinical development and funding natural history studies in this disease will greatly assist with the acceleration of our program to the preparation of the final Investigational New Drug application and filing with the FDA,” said Steve O’Connor, CEO of Shift Pharmaceuticals. “Additionally, we feel strongly that their efforts in patient engagement will provide invaluable guidance in designing clinical outcomes to maximize the benefit for the entire CMT1A patient community.”

CMTA CEO Amy Gray said, “We are thrilled to enter into this collaboration with Shift Pharmaceuticals to broaden the work taking place to develop treatments for the CMT community.”

CMT is a group of diseases caused by inherited genetic mutations that damage the peripheral nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord. Scientists have identified over 100 different gene mutations causing CMT. Most people (90 percent) have one of four types of CMT: CMT 1A (PMP 22); CMT 1B (MPZ); CMT 2A (MFN2) and CMT 1X (GJB1). It is estimated that CMT affects more than 3 million people worldwide, regardless of gender, race, or ethnicity. https://www.cmtausa.org/understanding-cmt/what-is-cmt/

Company Contact: Shift Pharmaceuticals
Dr. Steve O’Connor, CEO

The CMTA is the largest philanthropic funder of CMT research worldwide. The CMTA’s Strategy to Accelerate Research (STAR) brings the best CMT researchers, clinicians, and experts in therapy development together with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and patients to expedite the development of treatments for CMT. Since 2008, the CMTA has invested more than $18.5 million in STAR, with plans to invest another $10 million in the next few years. The CMTA is also actively working to help Improve the quality of life for all families living with CMT by offering educational programs and materials, hosting patient and professional conferences, providing support to families through its nationwide branch system through North America and more. More information can be found at www.cmtausa.org.

Company Contact: CMTA
Marcia Semmes

Marcia Semmes
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Association
+1 443-631-1859
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Wed, 02 Nov 2022 22:46:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.wric.com/business/press-releases/ein-presswire/599332849/shift-pharmaceuticals-charcot-marie-tooth-association-partner-on-aso-treatment-for-cmt1a/
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