Exam Code: CIPP-US Practice exam 2023 by Killexams.com team
Certified Information Privacy Professional/United States (CIPP/US)
IAPP Professional/United information hunger
Killexams : IAPP Professional/United information hunger - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CIPP-US Search results Killexams : IAPP Professional/United information hunger - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CIPP-US https://killexams.com/exam_list/IAPP Killexams : International Association of Privacy Professionals: Career and Certification Guide

Founded in 2000, the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP) bills itself as “the largest and most comprehensive global information privacy community and resource.” It is more than just a certification body. It is a full-fledged not-for-profit membership association with a focus on information privacy concerns and topics. Its membership includes both individuals and organizations, in the tens of thousands for the former and the hundreds for the latter (including many Fortune 500 outfits).

Its mandate is to help privacy practitioners develop and advance in their careers, and help organizations manage and protect their data. To that end, the IAPP seeks to create a forum where privacy pros can track news and trends, share best practices and processes, and better articulate privacy management issues and concerns.

By 2012, the organization included 10,000 members. By the end of 2015, membership had more than doubled to 23,000 members. According to a Forbes story published that same year, approximately half of the IAPP’s membership is women (which makes it pretty special, based on our understanding of the gender composition for most IT associations and certification programs). Current membership must be between 30,000 and 40,000 as growth rates from 2012 to 2015 have continued, if not accelerated in the face of the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which went into full effect on May 25, 2018. The IAPP also claims to have certified “thousands of professionals around the world.”

IAPP certification program overview

The IAPP has developed a globally recognized certification program around information privacy. Its current certification offerings include the following credentials:

  • Certified Information Privacy Professional (CIPP): seeks to identify professionals who work primarily with privacy laws, regulations and frameworks
  • Certified Information Privacy Manager (CIPM): seeks to identify professionals who manage day-to-day privacy operations for businesses and organizations
  • Certified Information Privacy Technologist (CIPT): seeks to identify IT professionals who work regularly (if not primarily) with privacy policies, tools and technologies on the job

All these certifications comply with the ANSI/ISO/IEC 17024 standard, which means they have been developed to meet stringent requirements for analyzing the subject matter and the fields of work to which they apply, along with formal psychometric analysis of test items to make sure that exams truly differentiate those who possess the required skills and knowledge to do the related jobs from those who do not.

All the IAPP exams follow the same cost structure, though charges vary by location. In the U.S., each first-time exam costs $550, with a $375 charge for any subsequent retake of the same exam. Those who already hold any IAPP certification pay just $375 for each additional certification exam they take. IAPP certification holders can either pay an annual maintenance fee of $125 to keep their certifications current (and meet continuing education requirements of 20 CPE credits every two years) or they must join the IAPP.

If a person joins, they’ll pay an annual membership fee. Currently, that’s $250 for professional members, $50 for student members, and $100 for all other membership categories (government, higher education, retired and not-for-profit). Those who elect to pay the certification maintenance fee need pay only once a year, no matter how many IAPP certifications they earn.

IAPP exams are available at Kryterion testing centers, which may be identified with its test center locator. Exams consist of 90 question items. Candidates may take up to 150 minutes (2.5 hours) to complete any IAPP exam. Payment is handled through the IAPP website, but Kryterion handles date and time windows for exams at its test centers.

Certified Information Privacy Technologist (CIPT)

This credential is the most likely place for a person working in IT to start their IAPP efforts. The CIPT validates skills and knowledge about the components and technical controls involved in establishing, ensuring and maintaining data privacy. To be more specific, the body of knowledge (BoK) for the CIPT stresses important privacy concepts and practices that impact IT, and makes sure that practitioners understand consumer privacy expectations and responsibilities.

It also addresses how to bake privacy into early stages of IT products or services to control costs and ensure data accuracy and integrity without impacting time to market. CIPTs understand how to establish privacy policies for data collection and transfer, and how to manage privacy on the internet of things. They also know how to factor privacy into data classification, and how it impacts emerging technologies such as biometrics, surveillance and cloud computing. Finally, CIPTs understand how to communicate on privacy issues with other parts of their organizations, including management, development staff, marketing and legal.

Certified Information Privacy Professional (CIPP)

IAPP describes this certification as just right for “the go-to person for privacy laws, regulations and frameworks” in an organization. This audience may include more senior privacy or security professionals with IT backgrounds, but it may also involve people from management, legal or governance organizations whose responsibilities include data privacy and protection concerns. This goes double for those involved with legal and compliance requirements, information management, data governance, and even human resources (as privacy is a personal matter at its core, involving personal information).

Because managing privacy and protecting private information is often highly regulated and subject to legal systems and frameworks, the IAPP offers versions of the CIPP certification where such content and coverage has been “localized” for prevailing rules, regulations, laws and best practices.

There are five such versions available: Asia (CIPP/A), Canada (CIPP/C), Europe (CIPP/E), U.S. Government (CIPP/G) and U.S. Private Sector (CIPP/US). As of this writing, the CIPP/E perforce offers the most direct and focused coverage of GDPR topics. That said, given that GDPR applies to companies and online presences globally, such material will no doubt soon make its way into other CIPP versions in the next 6-12 months. The U.S.-focused exams are already scheduled for a refresh in August 2018, as per the IAPP website’s certification pages.

For example, the CIPP/US page includes the following materials:

Each of the other regional versions of the CIPP has a similarly large, detailed and helpful collection of resources available to interested readers and would-be certified professionals.

Certified Information Privacy Manager (CIPM)

The CIPM is a more senior credential in the IAPP collection. It seeks to identify persons who can manage an information privacy program. Thus, the focus is on privacy law and regulations and how those things must guide the formulation of workable and defensible privacy policies, practices and procedures for organizational use. The CIPM BoK covers the following topics:

  • Privacy program governance: organizational vision, program definition and creating a privacy team; developing a privacy program framework; implementing a privacy policy framework; and identifying and using metrics to report on privacy for governance, auditing, and regulatory purposes
  • Privacy operational lifecycle: assess organizational and third-party partner and processor privacy posture, including physical and business assessments; establish privacy protections over the data lifecycle, following best cybersecurity practices and Privacy by Design; sustain privacy protections by measuring, aligning, auditing and monitoring privacy data; respond to requests for information about personal data; and respond to privacy incidents as they occur

In general, CIPMs play a lead role in defining and maintaining data privacy policies for their organizations. They will usually be responsible for operating the privacy apparatus necessary to demonstrate compliance with all applicable privacy rules, regulations and laws for the organization as well.

Other IAPP certifications

The IAPP also offers two other elements in its certification programs. One is the Privacy Law Specialist, which aims at attorneys or other licensed legal professionals who wish to focus on privacy Topics in a legal context. The other, called the Fellow of Information Privacy (FIP), aims at those at the top of the privacy profession and is available only to those who’ve completed two or more IAPP credentials, including either a CIPM or a CIPT, and one or more of the CIPP credentials. It requires three professional peer referrals and completion of a detailed application form. We won’t discuss these credentials much more in this article, except to note here that the Privacy Law Specialist garnered a surprising 200 hits in our job board search (see below for other details gleaned thereby).

Finally, the IAPP website recommends the combination of CIPP/E and CIPM as the possible credentialing for those wishing to focus on GDPR, shown in this screenshot from its Certify pop-up menu:

IAPP employment: Job board stats and example jobs

We visit four job posting sites to check on demand for specific credentials: Simply Hired, Indeed, LinkedIn and LinkUp. Here’s what we learned.

Certification  Search string  Simply Hired  Indeed  LinkedIn  LinkUp  Total 
CIPP CIPP 668 745 1,064 401 2,878
CIPM CIPM 187 198 260 191 836
CIPT CIPT 146 155 276 210 787

The breakdown for CIPP fell out like this: CIPP/A 27, CIPP/C 287, CIPP/E 351, CIPP/G 154 and CIPP/US 401. As you’d expect, the U.S. categories combine for a majority, with Europe a surprising second ahead of third-place Canada.

Salary information appears in the next table. We collected low, median and high values for each credential, finding surprisingly little difference between the CIPM and the CIPP. Given that a CIPM is likely to hold a management position, this shows that the CIPP holds considerable value in employers’ estimations. It’s also interesting that the median values show the CIPT and the CIPP are close to one another too. This bodes well for IT professionals interested in pursuing the CIPT.





CIPP $33,969 $66,748 $131,156
CIPM $41,069 $73,936 $133,106
CIPT $32,131 $62,279 $120,716
Privacy Law Attorney $46,146 $89,026 $171,752

Typical positions for privacy professionals are very much one-offs. We found a risk management and compliance manager position at a South Carolina government agency charged with defining and implementing security and privacy policies for the department of corrections. That position paid $120,000 per year and involved security and audit compliance, business continuity and disaster recovery planning, and risk and incident management. By itself, the requested CIPM would not be enough to qualify for that job.

The next position was for a healthcare services director position in Albuquerque, New Mexico, which involved auditing, risk management, and contract and vendor negotiation. Its pay range was $140,000 to $190,000 per year, and it required serious management chops, along with IT governance and risk and compliance experience, with calls for knowledge of tools like Archer and Clearwell. The third position was for a senior data privacy associate at a Washington law firm, which sought a person with a CIPP/E, CIPP/US and CIPT, with pay in the $120K-$150K range.

Thus, it appears there are plenty of opportunities – some with high rates of pay – for those willing to climb the IAPP certification ladder. Both the job boards and the individual postings speak directly to strong and urgent need in the field for qualified privacy professionals at all levels.

Training resources

IAPP courses are available through many channels, including classroom training through the IAPP and its partner network. Online training classes are also available, for lesser charges. The IAPP provides ample references and resources, with authoritative and supplemental texts, websites, legal references and statutes, and more for each of its credentials. There’s also plenty of self-study material for those who prefer that route.

The IAPP also offers practice exams (which it calls demo questions) to help candidates prepare for exams. Surprisingly, there is even something of an aftermarket for IAPP books and materials, as a quick trip to Amazon will attest.

Sun, 22 Jan 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10910-iapp-certification-guide.html
Killexams : Losing 25,000 to Hunger Every Day

During the past two decades, population growth, improvement in incomes and diversification of diets have steadily increased the demand for food. Prior to 2000, food prices were in decline, largely through record harvests. At the same time, however, public and private investment in agriculture, especially in the production of staple food, decreased, which led to stagnant or declining crop yields in most developing countries.1 Rapid urbanization has led to the conversion of farmland to non-agricultural uses, and low food prices have encouraged farmers to shift to alternative food and non-food crops. Long-term unstable land use has also caused land degradation, soil erosion, nutrient depletion, water scarcity and disruption of biological cycles. Food prices began to rise in 2004 and production increased but more slowly than demand.2 The past few years saw a steep rise. In 2005, extreme weather events in major food-producing countries caused world cereal production to fall by 2.1 per cent in 2006.3 In 2007, rapid increases in oil prices not only increased fertilizer and food production costs but also provided a climate favourable to expansion of coarse grains and oil crops for biofuels. Many countries began to impose export restrictions on commodities to control prices; others purchased grains at any price to maintain domestic food supplies or considered taxes on imported food. This has led to panic and instability in international grain markets, attracted speculative investments and contributed to a surge in food prices.

While some food prices appear to be stabilizing, most are expected to remain high. Good harvests anticipated in key grain-producing countries and indications that some major producers will relax export restrictions have calmed grain markets. International prices have come down from their latest peaks. However, over the medium-to-long term, supply and demand dynamics, high fuel prices, global threats, such as climate change,4 water stress and scarcity, and degradation of natural resources are expected to keep food prices well above their 2004 levels.

A triple challenge
The current global food crisis is a huge challenge. It will require sustained political commitment at the highest levels for many years if we are to deal with it successfully and prevent further mass pauperization and the rolling back of development gains painfully won. It cannot be seen in isolation. Indeed, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has identified the global food crisis, the Millennium Development Goals and climate change as the fundamental triple challenge for the world over the next few years.

At stake is whether the international community is capable of working together to genuinely promote sustainable development, given a rapidly growing population and increasing scarcities of key land, water and energy resources. In response to this food crisis, the United Nations established a High-Level Task Force on the Global Food Security Crisis, under the leadership of Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. It brought together the Heads of the United Nations specialized agencies, funds and programmes, the Bretton Woods institutions and relevant parts of the United Nations Secretariat.5 The aim of the task force was to create a plan of action in response to the crisis and coordinate its implementation. The result is the Comprehensive Framework for Action, which proposes ways and means to respond to threats and opportunities resulting from high food prices; create policy changes to avoid future food crises; and contribute to national, regional and international food and nutrition security.

While the Comprehensive Framework for Action is the agreed product of the high-level task force, other parts of the UN system, international experts, the Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement, private-sector companies and non-governmental organizations have been widely consulted. The Comprehensive Framework for Action does not claim to offer a magic solution to all the problems of the global food crisis, let alone to the triple challenge. However, I believe it does set out a programme of coordinated actions and outcomes that can make a real difference over time, in an area fundamental to all human life, that is, food and nutrition security.

What the problem is
Food prices began rising in 2004, with a particularly steep increase in 2006. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations forecasts that the world will spend $1,035 billion on food imports in 2008, about $215 billion more than in 2007.6 This will severely strain the budgets of Low-Income Food-Deficit Countries whose food bills will soar by more than 40 per cent in 2008. This may also cause inflation, disrupt the balance of payments and increase debt for many low-income countries.

The dramatic rise in global food prices over the past twelve months, coupled with diminishing food stocks and escalating fuel costs, has gravely jeopardized global food and nutrition security, and has re-emphasized the critical actions needed to realize the right to adequate food. Hunger and under-nutrition are the greatest threats to public health, killing more people than HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined. Each day, 25,000 people, including more than 10,000 children, die from hunger and related causes. Some 854 million people worldwide are estimated to be undernourished, and high food prices may drive another 100 million into poverty and hunger. The risks are particularly acute among those who must spend at least 60 per cent of their income on food: the urban poor and displaced populations, the rural landless, pastoralists and the majority of smallholder farmers.

Urbanization is a crucial dynamic for food supply. The urban poor, approximately 1.2 billion people, are highly vulnerable to rising food and energy prices. Even under normal price conditions, they often cannot produce or purchase enough food or energy for household use. Urbanization is further changing both consumption and production patterns through the conversion of agricultural lands and competing demands for water and energy. Lastly, urban food habits change and become more vulnerable to outside shocks when a dependence on imported staples occurs at the expense of locally produced food.

Smallholder farmers and their families represent some 2 billion people, about one third of the global population. An estimated 85 per cent of farms (or 450 million) worldwide measure less than 2 hectares, and the average farm size is shrinking. The majority of smallholder farmers and landless farm workers live on less than $2 per day and buy more food than they produce. Many of them are women who face disadvantages in access to land tenure, agricultural inputs, extension services, markets and financing. The capacity of smallholder farms to grow more food is limited when farmers cannot afford quality seed, fertilizer, veterinary drugs or services. Expanding agriculture onto less suitable lands degrades the ecosystems, with severe consequences for surrounding communities.

The Comprehensive Framework for Action aims to be a catalyst by providing governments, international and regional organizations, as well as civil society groups, with a menu of policies and actions to address the crisis. It recognizes that any response must consider the specific needs, capacities and circumstances of particular countries or regions. While many actions may require external assistance, the policies and actions described in the framework are intended, above all, to Excellerate country capacity and resilience to absorb future shocks. The key to achieving the outcomes set in the framework will be close partnerships between national governments, the high-level task force, civil society and private-sector organizations and donors.

Undernutrition and chronic disease:
A dual threat
The immediate consequences of escalating food prices highlight the vulnerability of households, governments and the international system to food and nutrition insecurity.7 The risks may be more pronounced in urban areas where people are dependent on markets for food. However, 75 per cent of the world's poor reside in rural areas and most must buy as well as produce food. It is already evident that many smallholder farmers, who constitute the large majority of agricultural producers, cannot benefit from high food prices. They cannot boost production because they lack access to financing, agricultural inputs, such as seed, fertilizer, power and markets. As a result they, too, are struggling to feed their families.

Inadequate means to assist vulnerable populations may have irreversible impacts on human development, particularly for women and children. Over 80 per cent of the world's population presently lacks access to social protection systems of any form. The most vulnerable must resort to limited, often harmful, coping mechanisms, such as eating fewer and less nutritious meals, taking children out of school, selling livestock and other assets, or borrowing money to feed their families. Low nutritional intake may increase malnutrition levels for generations to come, worsening the health status of populations and reducing resilience to disease and shocks. Thus, the food crisis is a dual threat to health: under-nutrition, mainly in young children, and chronic diseases (heart disease, diabetes and some cancers) strongly linked to poor diet.

Groups that face social exclusion are likely to be more vulnerable to the surge in food prices. These groups include indigenous communities, ethnic minorities, persons with disabilities, displaced populations, stateless people and migrants. In particular, many refugees and internally displaced persons depend on food assistance for survival and do not have access to land for farming or employment opportunities. In effect, the global food crisis endangers millions of the world's most vulnerable and threatens to reverse critical gains made towards reducing poverty and hunger to meet the Millennium Development Goals.8

Governments react
In the face of high food prices, several governments are considering trade and taxation measures that will complement or substitute domestic social safety nets. However, policies such as direct price controls, export restrictions, generalized subsidies or wage increases can further distort markets, be ineffective over time or be fiscally unsustainable. Price controls may initially stabilize food price expectations, but in the longer term act as disincentives to food producers and retailers. Price controls may be difficult to enforce and may lead to food shortages and increased black market activity. Similarly, export restrictions can increase price instability and tighten food supplies in international markets, and dissuade farmers from investments to boost productivity.

High food prices are affecting inflation rates in many countries and the balance of payments of net food-importing countries. About 44 per cent of total inflation in 2007 could be attributed to food price hikes at the year's end. This is a significant threat to overall growth rates for many countries that have made hard-won gains in controlling inflation. Inflation further reduces standards of living, particularly for poor populations, and undermines growth and development. A domino effect
Ever-rising food prices bring the threat of unrest and political instability. This threat is particularly acute in countries in conflict or post-conflict situations, where political and social institutions are fragile and less able to calm social panic. Of particular concern are countries in delicate political transitions, or with organized groups ready to harness popular frustrations into a challenge against government authority. Others to watch include those already suffering from grave humanitarian situations or confronted with economic sanctions or embargoes. It should be noted, however, that the vast majority of the world's hungry continues to suffer in silence. In placating the dangerous, there is the risk that the peaceable hungry are overlooked.

The current food crisis also threatens the larger international food market. The worldwide reduction of national grain stocks in latest years stemmed from a confidence that prices would remain relatively stable and that global trade would permit countries to acquire grain quickly and easily through international markets. The latest combination of latest export restrictions and severed access to existing food stocks, compounded by subsidy and biofuel policies of major exporters, is undermining that confidence. This could threaten progress towards a fair and equitable international trade system, if countries refocus on national food self-sufficiency based solely on domestic production and stocks -- policies, which in the past had undermined agricultural growth and have had limited success in meeting national food security.

What the crisis can teach us
Escalating food prices can benefit smallholder farmers if appropriate assistance is available. Interventions should ensure access to inputs, i.e. seed and fertilizer, rehabilitation of infrastructure and methods to decrease post-harvest losses. This will boost crop yields, Excellerate rural household welfare and local food supply. Such measures must be complemented with significantly higher investments in agricultural research and infrastructure, as well as environmentally sustainable practices to sustain the productivity of smallholder farmers.9

Policies and programmes that address constraints faced by smallholder farmers will encourage public and private agricultural and rural development investments in many low-income food-deficit countries. Consistently applied, these measures, along with improved access to financing facilities and markets, will greatly increase agriculture's contribution to economic growth and poverty reduction.

The current situation offers a critical opportunity for more focused attention to assessment of needs, early warning, contingency planning, risk management, and participatory and accountability practices. These can pre-empt and lessen risks associated with volatilities in the food market. International food assistance programmes address the needs of vulnerable populations and prevent harmful coping mechanisms; however, they cannot reach all of the malnourished and hungry. Comprehensive social protection systems that progressively achieve universal coverage of vulnerable groups are critical to building social resilience and enhancing social capacity to absorb shocks. Protection programmes for the elderly, the disabled, children, refugees and displaced persons should provide linkages to other basic social services. In addition, expansion or revision of nutrition, water and sanitation, including health programmes, are crucial in realizing the right to adequate food and in promoting sustainable nutrition practices.10

There is now a clear opportunity for international leadership in adopting a renewed strategy on agricultural trade and reassessing the most effective ways to tackle food market instabilities. High prices could lead to responsible agricultural trade policies that benefit low-income countries in developing a viable domestic commercial farming sector. Strong commitments to reform agricultural subsidy programmes and market access would help remove a major barrier to progress in the World Trade Organization Doha Round trade talks*, while still implementing the existing agreed provisions to protect consumers in low-income, food-importing countries.11 In addition, provisions to complement efforts to increase investment in smallholder agriculture in developing countries would support national efforts at improving food production.

Meanwhile, consensus is required to ensure greater complementarity between food production priorities, biofuel development and environmental management. This includes reassessment of current subsidy policies for biofuels. Moreover, measures should be considered to rebuild confidence in international and regional trading systems, including assessments of whether to (re)build well-managed global and regional grain stocks, or make greater use of financial market instruments that could reduce and protect countries from volatility in food markets.

The Comprehensive Framework for Action:
Improving on what we have
The framework presents two sets of outcomes to respond to the global food crisis.12 Both require urgent attention. The first set focuses on meeting the immediate needs of vulnerable populations, and the second aims to contribute to global food and nutrition security. These actions are neither exhaustive nor exclusive. They are intended to guide assessments and strategies developed at the country level and support international coordination efforts.

To be most effective, these actions must be taken simultaneously at the local, national, regional and international levels. They should be adapted to national and local conditions, taking into account the global climate change and poverty reduction initiatives. Actions include coordinated efforts by key stakeholders, particularly national governments, civil society and the private sector.

Action 1. Meeting immediate needs of vulnerable populations.
The Comprehensive Framework for Action proposes four basic outcomes critical to addressing the threats of high food prices on vulnerable populations and developing countries. These outcomes will contribute towards the needs of those already impoverished and minimize the number of new families falling into food insecurity when their incomes can no longer buy sufficient food. They aim to meet current and future demands for food availability. The outcomes would also ensure that:

a) Emergency food assistance, nutrition interventions and safety nets are improved and made more accessible;

b) Food production by smallholder farmers is boosted;

c) Trade and tax policies are adjusted; and

d) Macroeconomic implications are managed.

Thus, the outcomes embrace the "spectrum" of actions needed to Excellerate access and availability of food.

The Comprehensive Framework for Action emphasizes building upon available resources and capacities, scaling up activities that are already underway and improving current interventions, rather than launching new ones. The emphasis is on actions that can produce immediate results; however, the duration of activities will vary depending on factors such as lifting export bans, the speed and scale of responses, and adjustments in food prices.

Action 2. Building longer-term resilience and contributing to global food and nutrition security.
The Comprehensive Framework for Action proposes four basic outcomes to address opportunities arising from the spike in food prices, to build resilience, contribute to food and nutrition security, and address the underlying factors driving the food price crisis. The outcomes propose that:

a) Social protection systems are expanded;

b) The food production growth of smallholder farmers is sustained;

c) International food markets are improved; and

d) An international biofuel consensus is developed.

These outcomes recognize that immediate needs must be complemented and supplemented by longer-term actions that will contribute to a greater degree of self-sufficiency of vulnerable populations, farmers and countries. Achieving these outcomes will allow people and countries to better absorb new food and fuel price shocks, while working to minimize the occurrence of such shocks. These outcomes also directly contribute to achieving the Millennium Development Goal to reduce hunger,13 and focus on actions to support smallholder farmers, in particular, vulnerable women and the rural and urban poor. Many actions, nevertheless, support infrastructure and other public goods, such that larger commercial farmers will benefit as well. This is intended to encourage greater and more sustained private-sector investment into smallholder farms.

The outcomes also reflect the need for sustainable agriculture in order to avoid further environmental damage. Governments, civil society and the private sector must agree with the outcomes and move ahead. They also require concerted, long-term commitments from all stakeholders, as well as actions to be flexible and adjust as conditions evolve.

Early warning
Underpinning the two sets of outcomes is the need to ensure that stronger assessment, monitoring and surveillance systems are in place. More reliable and consistent information will Excellerate preparedness for new shocks and ensure that actions taken by governments and the international community are indeed minimizing risks and mitigating the effects of high food prices on the most vulnerable.

Much of the ongoing work at the country and global levels can be expanded. Monitoring and information systems are being strengthened and harmonized to capture developments in food access, availability and utilization, and to identify the magnitude of needs among different livelihood groups. More resources are required to strengthen monitoring of communities, households, markets, as well as cross-border trade, to enable effective management of the crisis.

Significant attention is given to countries at high risk, which are likely to see the biggest changes in their food security. These are countries which (a) exhibit high levels of food and nutrition insecurity and poverty and low capacity of emergency response, (b) have high food and fuel imports compared to total imports, exports and international foreign reserves, (c) have relatively large urban populations, (d) have already experienced high inflationary pressures and a politically unstable environment, (e) have populations spending a significant proportion of household income on food and are vulnerable to food insecurity, and (f) are increasingly exposed to extreme climate change.

How to achieve the Comprehensive Framework for Action?
National governments bear ultimate responsibility and therefore are at the centre of responding to the food crisis. They are joined by private entities, farmer/producer organizations, civil society organizations, regional political and financial bodies, donor agencies, as well as United Nations and Bretton Woods institutions. These stakeholders have already begun to address the most urgent manifestations of the crisis. They have reallocated resources in existing programmes and mobilized new funds to ensure delivery of food assistance, nutritional care and support, including prevention and management of under-nutrition and support of social safety nets for the most vulnerable. They are supplying seeds, fertilizers and other basic inputs to small farmers.

Government leadership will be essential to driving country-level response. To permit well-informed, targeted and efficient responses, international agencies are working with national counterparts to implement national assessments of food security. The Food and Agricultural Organization, the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the World Food Programme and the World Bank have completed common assessments in 22 countries, while agency-specific assessments have been undertaken in more than 60 countries. Using existing Global Nutrition Databases, the World Health Organization has also assessed country-nutrition vulnerabilities. These assessments reveal significant increases in current operating costs and the additional financial and technical support required to respond to the crisis in both rural and urban areas. Based on such assessments, efforts are underway to focus interventions by the high-level task force in countries.

During the next six months, the crisis is expected to deepen. The high-level task force will pay concerted attention to several global priorities: responding to needs for food assistance and broader social protection; distributing inputs and other agricultural support; influencing policies; advocacy; and responding to requests for support.
For a global partnership for food
To support government leadership, the high-level task force considers a broad and inclusive partnership to be central to the Comprehensive Framework for Action and a key factor in achieving food and nutrition security in countries. Therefore, the task force members strongly commit themselves to a more unified approach, a more concerted action and strengthened coordination in countries. In addition, the partnership will consist of the private sector, farmer/producer organizations, donors, non-governmental organizations, and the Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement. The high-level task force will also engage regional organizations, regional development banks and other multilateral banks as they expand their roles in supporting coordinated analyses and responses to the food crisis.

The Comprehensive Framework for Action should serve as a blueprint for coordination. Specifics of coordination will vary from country to country but will typically be characterized by systematic joint action. Close cooperation on assessment and planning, and regular consultation and sharing of analysis will help strengthen the overall partnership for food in ways that governments and their partners can avoid duplication of efforts and gaps in response.

The high-level task force will facilitate the formation of a global partnership for food, and ensure monitoring and assessments of progress made in achieving the outcomes of the Comprehensive Framework for Action. It will work with United Nations Member States to undertake regular advocacy to stakeholders and stocktaking of progress. Other functions include providing sound analysis of the evolving food situation, continued coordination at the highest level and expanded partnerships with key stakeholders.

What does it cost?
The current financial challenges are the consequences of a number of factors and trends. They include imbalances in supply and demand, limited coverage and capacity of existing safety nets for the poor, under-investment in agriculture, transport and market systems over latest decades, and non-conducive policies that magnify the problem.14 For example, the share of agriculture in government public spending is only 4.5 per cent for African countries,15 or about $13 billion.16 Globally, agriculture's share in official development assistance (ODA) has also dropped from 18 per cent in 1979 to 3.4 per cent in 2006, or approximately $4 billion.17

Increased financial support needs to come from a variety of sources, including national budgets, ODA, the private sector, farmers and communities themselves, and broader civil society. More innovative instruments, e.g. private foundations and sovereign wealth funds, could also be explored. The Comprehensive Framework for Action focuses on public expenditure and investments. Two items to note:

How much from each: It is not yet possible to set a robust estimate of the global incremental financial requirements for food and nutrition security, social protection, agricultural development and functioning food markets, or the amount that must be covered through public financing, including both national public expenditure and ODA. latest preliminary studies and estimates have ranged from $25 billion to $40 billion a year.18

How much for each: Approximately one third of the overall amount is needed for immediate requirements in food assistance, agricultural inputs, and balance of payment support. Two thirds should be invested in building longer-term resilience and contributing to food and nutrition security.19 Broadly speaking, at least 50 per cent of the total amount will be needed for agriculture and local transport and market systems.20 The majority of the remainder is needed for food assistance, nutrition interventions and social protection.21 These figures are consistent with the estimated investment costs in social protection and agriculture needed for Africa to address the Millennium Development Goal to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.22

Spend more on agriculture
These estimates suggest a formidable challenge, viz. the financial needs far exceed the current level of response. Hence, it is essential to scale up immediately and substantially public spending and investments. In this respect, the high-level task force encourages:

  • Developing countries to provide additional budgetary resources to strengthen social protection systems, and more particularly to increase the share of agriculture in public spending.
  • Donor countries to double ODA for food aid, other types of nutrition support and safety net programmes, and invest an increased percentage of ODA in food and agricultural development, from the current 3 per cent to 10 per cent within five years -- and beyond, if needed -- to reverse the historic under-investment in agriculture.
  • Developing and donor countries to Excellerate food and nutrition security risk-management through better use of local physical food stocks, support for development of infrastructure, market and food preservation systems, and to explore innovative use of local production surpluses and emerging financial instruments.
  • Increased allocations to represent true additions, not diversions, from other social sectors critical to achieving the Millennium Development Goals and other national development priorities, such as education and health.

The high-level task force also appeals for more flexibility and predictability in the funding of food assistance and safety nets, an exemption to export restrictions for humanitarian food purchases, unhindered movement of humanitarian food across and within borders, and better access to food stocks through the establishment of physical or virtual humanitarian food reserves.

Making sure we do it
The High-Level Task Force on the Global Food Security Crisis was established on 29 April 2008 with a mandate from Heads of United Nations agencies, funds and programmes. Though not envisaged as a permanent fixture, it aims to foster links between stakeholders by building upon ongoing initiatives and capacities, drawing on the expertise of relevant national, regional and international organizations, the scientific community and the private sector, and focusing on coordinated, coherent and active responses. The high-level task force should act as a centre of gravity for encouraging stakeholders to work as partners.

It is considering the next steps: how best to proceed with country-level coordination of activities, financing and progress; tracking information, including financing, within and across countries; and resource mobilization.

Recognizing the critical roles played by the private sector and civil society, the high-level task force is exploring mechanisms to engage them more systematically in achieving the outcomes of the Comprehensive Framework for Action. The outcomes and actions identified in the framework can only be achieved through partnerships at all levels.

The high-level task force will continue to provide leadership and coordination in this respect, to help governments and affected communities address the challenges of the global food crisis. Above all, the policies, actions and outcomes are all eminently feasible, given reasonable amounts of political will, resources and readiness to work together.

The techniques are all, more or less, known and tested. The money involved, while large in one sense, is little indeed compared with the enormity of what is at stake, or with the huge daily flows in financial or oil markets. Every country in the world is affected, though to different degrees. In other words, we know what to do to overcome this crisis. We just have to make sure we do it.

(This article is based on the work of the High-Level Task Force on the Global Food Security Crisis and in particular its Comprehensive Framework for Action.)

Notes 1 External assistance to agriculture dropped from 18 per cent of official development assistance in 1978 to 3 per cent by 2007. 2 2007/2008 world grain stocks are forecast to fall to their lowest levels in 30 years, to 18.7 per cent of utilization. 3 FAO, Crop Prospects and Food Situation, April 2008. 4 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that climate change alone could lead to an increase of 40 million to 170 million in the number of undernourished people. 5 The High-Level Task Force participation has included: Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD); International Monetary Fund (IMF); UN Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (OHRLLS); United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD); United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF); World Food Programme (WFP); World Health Organization (WHO); World Bank; World Trade Organization (WTO); UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs; UN Department of Political Affairs; UN Department of Public Information; UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations; the Special Adviser on Millennium Development Goals; and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 6 FAO, Food Outlook, May 2008. 7 Food security comprises access, availability and utilization issues. Nutrition security is achieved when secured access to appropriately nutritious food is coupled with sanitary environment, adequate health services and care to ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. 8 See http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals 9 Increased agricultural production is heavily dependent on the availability of rich soils, water resources and catchment areas, such as forests. Therefore, an environmentally sustainable approach must be taken to avoid depletion of water sources, salination of soils and water tables, and permanent loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. 10 The right to food is not a right to be fed, but primarily a right to feed oneself with dignity. Only if an individual is unable, for reasons beyond his or her control, to provide for himself or herself, does the State have obligations to provide food or the means to purchase it. The right to adequate food is recognized under Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. 11 See the WTO website: http://www.wto.org/ 12 See http://www.un.org/issues/food/taskforce/ 13 Millennium Development Goal #1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. This includes reducing by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. See http://www.un.org/millennium goals. 14 The World Bank's World Development Report 2008, Agriculture for Development, explains that the drop in agricultural investment during the past 25 years is largely reflected by failure to address macroeconomic and sectoral policy biases against agriculture; dependence on the State in activities, such as input supply and marketing, which overwhelmed public capacities while crowding out the private sector; and limited opportunities for farmers and other rural stakeholders to influence public investment priorities or to hold the State accountable for implementation. In addition, donor agencies did not invest sufficient time in working towards coordinated, sector-wide approaches to strengthening public service delivery. International institutions also tended towards narrow specialized approaches, which largely ignored linkages between research, marketing, the environment and public finance. Finally, there was little effective evaluation of programme impacts to inform programme design or identify constraints. 15 FAO, Financing of Agriculture: Issues, Constraints and Perspectives, 2007. 16 Stephen Akroyd and Lawrence Smith (2007), Review of Public Spending to Agriculture. A Joint Study by the Department for International Development and the World Bank, page 2. The World Development Report 2008 indicates that "the share of public spending in agriculture-based countries (mostly in Africa) is significantly less (4 per cent in 2004) than in transforming countries during their agricultural growth spurt (10 per cent in 1980)", page 40. 17 In 2006, agriculture's share represented 3.4 per cent of ODA commitments or approximately $3.99 billion, and only 2.6 per cent or approximately $2.3 billion in terms of ODA disbursements (data extracted from OECD Stat database). 18 Based on early estimates from the high-level task force members and international research organizations, these figures will be updated as information from country-level assessments is compiled. 19 World Development Report 2008, Agriculture for Development; International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Policy Brief, "Rising food prices, what should be done?", April 2008; IFPRI Policy Brief "Investing in agriculture to overcome food crisis and reduce poverty and hunger", June 2008; IMF, Food and Fuel Prices -- latest Developments, Macroeconomic Impact, and Policy Responses, June 2008; and IMF, The Balance of Payments Impact of the Food and Fuel Price Shocks on Low-Income African Countries: A Country-by-Country Assessment, June 2008. 20 According to IFPRI (S. Fan and M. Rosegrant, 2008), public investment required for agriculture in developing countries to meet MDG 1, including research, rural roads and irrigation, and partial input subsidy for poorest farmers, is estimated at $16.3 billion. 21 The WFP annual requirements, which are expected to grow to $6 billion per year, traditionally account for 50 per cent of global food assistance, with NGO and bilateral assistance accounting for the rest (ref. 2007 Interfais report). 22 Agriculture and Food Security Thematic Working Group, MDG-Africa Working Group Business Plan, 15 May 2008.

Fri, 14 Oct 2022 23:03:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.un.org/en/chronicle/article/losing-25000-hunger-every-day
Killexams : The New Face of Hunger

Millions of working Americans don’t know where their next meal is coming from. We sent three photographers to explore hunger in three very different parts of the United States, each giving different faces to the same statistic: One-sixth of Americans don’t have enough food to eat.

Click below to launch galleries

Photo of hunger in Osage, Iowa

Osage, Iowa
Photographs by Amy Toensing
On our nation’s richest lands, farmers grow corn and soybeans used to feed livestock, make cooking oil, and produce sweeteners. Yet one in eight Iowans often goes hungry, with children the most vulnerable to food insecurity.

Photo of hunger in Houston, Texas

Houston, Texas
Photographs by Kitra Cahana
Despite a strong economy, Houston is ringed by neighborhoods where many working families can’t afford groceries. Hunger has grown faster in America’s suburbs than in its cities over the past decade, creating a class of “SUV poor.”

Photo of hunger in Bronx, New York

Bronx, New York
Photographs by Stephanie Sinclair
Urban neighborhoods with pervasive unemployment and poverty are home to the hungriest. The South Bronx has the highest rate of food insecurity in the country, 37 percent, compared with 16.6 for New York City as a whole.

On a gold-gray morning in Mitchell County, Iowa, Christina Dreier sends her son, Keagan, to school without breakfast. He is three years old, barrel-chested, and stubborn, and usually refuses to eat the free meal he qualifies for at preschool. Faced with a dwindling pantry, Dreier has decided to try some tough love: If she sends Keagan to school hungry, maybe he’ll eat the free breakfast, which will leave more food at home for lunch.

Dreier knows her gambit might backfire, and it does. Keagan ignores the school breakfast on offer and is so hungry by lunchtime that Dreier picks through the dregs of her freezer in hopes of filling him and his little sister up. She shakes the last seven chicken nuggets onto a battered baking sheet, adds the remnants of a bag of Tater Tots and a couple of hot dogs from the fridge, and slides it all into the oven. She’s gone through most of the food she got last week from a local food pantry; her own lunch will be the bits of potato left on the kids’ plates. “I eat lunch if there’s enough,” she says. “But the kids are the most important. They have to eat first.”

The fear of being unable to feed her children hangs over Dreier’s days. She and her husband, Jim, pit one bill against the next—the phone against the rent against the heat against the gas—trying always to set aside money to make up for what they can’t get from the food pantry or with their food stamps, issued by the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Congressional cuts to SNAP last fall of five billion dollars pared her benefits from $205 to $172 a month.

On this particular afternoon Dreier is worried about the family van, which is on the brink of repossession. She and Jim need to open a new bank account so they can make automatic payments instead of scrambling to pay in cash. But that will happen only if Jim finishes work early. It’s peak harvest time, and he often works until eight at night, applying pesticides on commercial farms for $14 an hour. Running the errand would mean forgoing overtime pay that could go for groceries.

It’s the same every month, Dreier says. Bills go unpaid because, when push comes to shove, food wins out. “We have to eat, you know,” she says, only the slightest hint of resignation in her voice. “We can’t starve.”

Chances are good that if you picture what hunger looks like, you don’t summon an image of someone like Christina Dreier: white, married, clothed, and housed, even a bit overweight. The image of hunger in America today differs markedly from Depression-era images of the gaunt-faced unemployed scavenging for food on urban streets. “This is not your grandmother’s hunger,” says Janet Poppendieck, a sociologist at the City University of New York. “Today more working people and their families are hungry because wages have declined.”

In the United States more than half of hungry households are white, and two-thirds of those with children have at least one working adult—typically in a full-time job. With this new image comes a new lexicon: In 2006 the U.S. government replaced “hunger” with the term “food insecure” to describe any household where, sometime during the previous year, people didn’t have enough food to eat. By whatever name, the number of people going hungry has grown dramatically in the U.S., increasing to 48 million by 2012—a fivefold jump since the late 1960s, including an increase of 57 percent since the late 1990s. Privately run programs like food pantries and soup kitchens have mushroomed too. In 1980 there were a few hundred emergency food programs across the country; today there are 50,000. Finding food has become a central worry for millions of Americans. One in six reports running out of food at least once a year. In many European countries, by contrast, the number is closer to one in 20.

To witness hunger in America today is to enter a twilight zone where refrigerators are so frequently bare of all but mustard and ketchup that it provokes no remark, inspires no embarrassment. Here dinners are cooked using macaroni-and-cheese mixes and other processed ingredients from food pantries, and fresh fruits and vegetables are eaten only in the first days after the SNAP payment arrives. Here you’ll meet hungry farmhands and retired schoolteachers, hungry families who are in the U.S. without papers and hungry families whose histories stretch back to the Mayflower. Here pocketing food from work and skipping meals to make food stretch are so common that such practices barely register as a way of coping with hunger and are simply a way of life.

It can be tempting to ask families receiving food assistance, If you’re really hungry, then how can you be—as many of them are—overweight? The answer is “this paradox that hunger and obesity are two sides of the same coin,” says Melissa Boteach, vice president of the Poverty and Prosperity Program of the Center for American Progress, “people making trade-offs between food that’s filling but not nutritious and may actually contribute to obesity.” For many of the hungry in America, the extra pounds that result from a poor diet are collateral damage—an unintended side effect of hunger itself.

Help for the Hungry

More than 48 million Americans rely on what used to be called food stamps, now SNAP: the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

In 2013 benefits totaled $75 billion, but payments to most households dropped; the average monthly benefit was $133.07 a person, less than $1.50 a meal. SNAP recipients typically run through their monthly allotment in three weeks, then turn to food pantries. Who qualifies for SNAP? Households with gross incomes no more than 130 percent of the poverty rate. For a family of four that qualifying point is $31,005 a year.*

*Qualifying incomes in Alaska and Hawaii are higher than in the contiguous U.S.

As the face of hunger has changed, so has its address. The town of Spring, Texas, is where ranchland meets Houston’s sprawl, a suburb of curving streets and shade trees and privacy fences. The suburbs are the home of the American dream, but they are also a place where poverty is on the rise. As urban housing has gotten more expensive, the working poor have been pushed out. Today hunger in the suburbs is growing faster than in cities, having more than doubled since 2007.

Yet in the suburbs America’s hungry don’t look the part either. They drive cars, which are a necessity, not a luxury, here. Cheap clothes and toys can be found at yard sales and thrift shops, making a middle-class appearance affordable. Consumer electronics can be bought on installment plans, so the hungry rarely lack phones or televisions. Of all the suburbs in the country, northwest Houston is one of the best places to see how people live on what might be called a minimum-wage diet: It has one of the highest percentages of households receiving SNAP assistance where at least one family member holds down a job. The Jefferson sisters, Meme and Kai, live here in a four-bedroom, two-car-garage, two-bath home with Kai’s boyfriend, Frank, and an extended family that includes their invalid mother, their five sons, a daughter-in-law, and five grandchildren. The house has a rickety desktop computer in the living room and a television in most rooms, but only two actual beds; nearly everyone sleeps on mattresses or piles of blankets spread out on the floor.

Though all three adults work full-time, their income is not enough to keep the family consistently fed without assistance. The root problem is the lack of jobs that pay wages a family can live on, so food assistance has become the government’s—and society’s—way to supplement low wages. The Jeffersons receive $125 in food stamps each month, and a charity brings in meals for their bedridden matriarch.

Like most of the new American hungry, the Jeffersons face not a total absence of food but the gnawing fear that the next meal can’t be counted on. When Meme shows me the family’s food supply, the refrigerator holds takeout boxes and beverages but little fresh food. Two cupboards are stocked with a smattering of canned beans and sauces. A pair of freezers in the garage each contain a single layer of food, enough to fill bellies for just a few days. Meme says she took the children aside a few months earlier to tell them they were eating too much and wasting food besides. “I told them if they keep wasting, we have to go live on the corner, beg for money, or something.”

Stranded in a Food Desert

Tens of thousands of people in Houston and in other parts of the U.S. live in a food desert: They’re more than half a mile from a supermarket and don’t own a car, because of poverty, illness, or age. Public transportation may not fill the gap. Small markets or fast-food restaurants may be within walking distance, but not all accept vouchers. If they do, costs may be higher and nutritious options fewer.

Map of food deserts in Houston, Texas

Jacqueline Christian is another Houston mother who has a full-time job, drives a comfortable sedan, and wears flattering clothes. Her older son, 15-year-old Ja’Zarrian, sports bright orange Air Jordans. There’s little clue to the family’s hardship until you learn that their clothes come mostly from discount stores, that Ja’Zarrian mowed lawns for a summer to get the sneakers, that they’re living in a homeless shelter, and that despite receiving $325 in monthly food stamps, Christian worries about not having enough food “about half of the year.”

Christian works as a home health aide, earning $7.75 an hour at a job that requires her to crisscross Houston’s sprawl to see her clients. Her schedule, as much as her wages, influences what she eats. To save time she often relies on premade food from grocery stores. “You can’t go all the way home and cook,” she says.

On a day that includes running a dozen errands and charming her payday loan officer into giving her an extra day, Christian picks up Ja’Zarrian and her seven-year-old, Jerimiah, after school. As the sun drops in the sky, Jerimiah begins complaining that he’s hungry. The neon glow of a Hartz Chicken Buffet appears up the road, and he starts in: Can’t we just get some gizzards, please?

Christian pulls into the drive-through and orders a combo of fried gizzards and okra for $8.11. It takes three declined credit cards and an emergency loan from her mother, who lives nearby, before she can pay for it. When the food finally arrives, filling the car with the smell of hot grease, there’s a collective sense of relief. On the drive back to the shelter the boys eat until the gizzards are gone, and then drift off to sleep.

Christian says she knows she can’t afford to eat out and that fast food isn’t a healthy meal. But she’d felt too stressed—by time, by Jerimiah’s insistence, by how little money she has—not to supply in. “Maybe I can’t justify that to someone who wasn’t here to see, you know?” she says. “But I couldn’t let them down and not get the food.”

Photos of the Reams family foraging for food

To supplement what they get from the food pantry, the cash-strapped Reams family forages in the woods near their Osage home for puffball mushrooms and grapes. Kyera Reams cans homegrown vegetables when they are in season and plentiful, so that her family can eat healthfully all year. “I’m resourceful with my food,” she says. “I think about what people did in the Great Depression.”

Of course it is possible to eat well cheaply in America, but it takes resources and know-how that many low-income Americans don’t have. Kyera Reams of Osage, Iowa, puts an incredible amount of energy into feeding her family of six a healthy diet, with the help of staples from food banks and $650 in monthly SNAP benefits. A stay-at-home mom with a high school education, Reams has taught herself how to can fresh produce and forage for wild ginger and cranberries. When she learned that SNAP benefits could be used to buy vegetable plants, she dug two gardens in her yard. She has learned about wild mushrooms so she can safely pick ones that aren’t poisonous and has lobbied the local library to stock field guides to edible wild plants.

“We wouldn’t eat healthy at all if we lived off the food-bank food,” Reams says. Many foods commonly donated to—or bought by—food pantries are high in salt, sugar, and fat. She estimates her family could live for three months on the nutritious foods she’s saved up. The Reamses have food security, in other words, because Kyera makes procuring food her full-time job, along with caring for her husband, whose disability payments provide their only income.

But most of the working poor don’t have the time or know-how required to eat well on little. Often working multiple jobs and night shifts, they tend to eat on the run. Healthful food can be hard to find in so-called food deserts—communities with few or no full-service groceries. Jackie Christian didn’t resort to feeding her sons fried gizzards because it was affordable but because it was easy. Given the dramatic increase in cheap fast foods and processed foods, when the hungry have money to eat, they often go for what’s convenient, just as better-off families do.

It’s a cruel irony that people in rural Iowa can be malnourished amid forests of cornstalks running to the horizon. Iowa dirt is some of the richest in the nation, even bringing out the poet in agronomists, who describe it as “black gold.” In 2007 Iowa’s fields produced roughly one-sixth of all corn and soybeans grown in the U.S., churning out billions of bushels.

These are the very crops that end up on Christina Dreier’s kitchen table in the form of hot dogs made of corn-raised beef, Mountain Dew sweetened with corn syrup, and chicken nuggets fried in soybean oil. They’re also the foods that the U.S. government supports the most. In 2012 it spent roughly $11 billion to subsidize and insure commodity crops like corn and soy, with Iowa among the states receiving the highest subsidies. The government spends much less to bolster the production of the fruits and vegetables its own nutrition guidelines say should make up half the food on our plates. In 2011 it spent only $1.6 billion to subsidize and insure “specialty crops”—the bureaucratic term for fruits and vegetables.

Those priorities are reflected at the grocery store, where the price of fresh food has risen steadily while the cost of sugary treats like soda has dropped. Since the early 1980s the real cost of fruits and vegetables has increased by 24 percent. Meanwhile the cost of nonalcoholic beverages—primarily sodas, most sweetened with corn syrup—has dropped by 27 percent.

“We’ve created a system that’s geared toward keeping overall food prices low but does little to support healthy, high-quality food,” says global food expert Raj Patel. “The problem can’t be fixed by merely telling people to eat their fruits and vegetables, because at heart this is a problem about wages, about poverty.”

When Christina Dreier’s cupboards start to get bare, she tries to persuade her kids to skip snack time. “But sometimes they eat saltine crackers, because we get that from the food bank,” she said, sighing. “It ain’t healthy for them, but I’m not going to tell them they can’t eat if they’re hungry.”

The Dreiers have not given up on trying to eat well. Like the Reamses, they’ve sown patches of vegetables and a stretch of sweet corn in the large green yard carved out of the cornfields behind their house. But when the garden is done for the year, Christina fights a battle every time she goes to the supermarket or the food bank. In both places healthy foods are nearly out of reach. When the food stamps come in, she splurges on her monthly supply of produce, including a bag of organic grapes and a bag of apples. “They love fruit,” she says with obvious pride. But most of her food dollars go to the meat, eggs, and milk that the food bank doesn’t provide; with noodles and sauce from the food pantry, a spaghetti dinner costs her only the $3.88 required to buy hamburger for the sauce.

What she has, Christina says, is a kitchen with nearly enough food most of the time. It’s just those dicey moments, after a new bill arrives or she needs gas to drive the kids to town, that make it hard. “We’re not starved around here,” she says one morning as she mixes up powdered milk for her daughter. “But some days, we do go a little hungry.”

Crops Taxpayers Support With Subsidies

Federal crop subsidies began in the 1920s, when a quarter of the U.S. population worked on farms. The funds were meant to buffer losses from fluctuating harvests and natural disasters. Today most subsidies go to a few staple crops, produced mainly by large agricultural companies and cooperatives.

Chart of top farm subsidies by crop

How Subsidized Crops Affect Diet

Subsidized corn is used for biofuel, corn syrup, and, mixed with soybeans, chicken feed. Subsidies reduce crop prices but also support the abundance of processed foods, which are more affordable but less nutritious. Across income brackets, processed foods make up a large part of the American diet.

Chart of top sources of calories for low-income individuals

Tracie McMillan is the author of The American Way of Eating and a Senior Fellow at the Schuster Institute for Investigative Journalism at Brandeis University. Photographers Kitra Cahana, Stephanie Sinclair, and Amy Toensing are known for their intimate, sensitive portraits of people.

The magazine thanks The Rockefeller Foundation and members of the National Geographic Society for their generous support of this series of articles.

Maps and graphics by Virginia W. Mason and Jason Treat, NGM Staff. Help for the Hungry, sources: USDA; Food Research and Action Center; Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Stranded in a Food Desert, sources: USDA; City of Houston; U.S. Census Bureau. Crop Subsidies, research: Amanda Hobbs. Sources: Mississippi Department of Human Services; Environmental Working Group; National Cancer Institute.

Food Shorts
What can you get for ten dollars?

Mon, 21 Dec 2020 04:39:00 -0600 text/html https://www.nationalgeographic.com/foodfeatures/hunger/
Killexams : Best InfoSec and Cybersecurity Certifications of 2023
  • The U.S. job market has almost 600,000 openings requesting cybersecurity-related skills. 
  • Employers are struggling to fill these openings due to a general cyber-skill shortage, with many openings remaining vacant each year. 
  • When evaluating prospective information-security candidates, employers should look for certifications as an important measure of excellence and commitment to quality.
  • This article is for business owners looking to hire cybersecurity experts, or for individuals interested in pursuing a cybersecurity career. 

Cybersecurity is one of the most crucial areas for ensuring a business’s success and longevity. With cyberattacks growing in sophistication, it’s essential for business owners to protect their companies by hiring qualified cybersecurity experts to manage this aspect of their business. The best candidates will have a certification in information security and cybersecurity. This guide breaks down the top certifications and other guidance you’ll need to make the right hire for your company. It’s also a great primer for individuals who are embarking on a cybersecurity career.

Best information security and cybersecurity certifications

When evaluating prospective InfoSec candidates, employers frequently look to certification as an important measure of excellence and commitment to quality. We examined five InfoSec certifications we consider to be leaders in the field of information security today.

This year’s list includes entry-level credentials, such as Security+, as well as more advanced certifications, like Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH), Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), Certified Information Security Manager (CISM) and Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA). According to CyberSeek, more employers are seeking CISA, CISM and CISSP certification holders than there are credential holders, which makes these credentials a welcome addition to any certification portfolio.

Absent from our list of the top five is SANS GIAC Security Essentials (GSEC). Although this certification is still a very worthy credential, the job board numbers for CISA were so solid that it merited a spot in the top five. Farther down in this guide, we offer some additional certification options because the field of information security is both wide and varied.

1. CEH: Certified Ethical Hacker

The CEH (ANSI) certification is an intermediate-level credential offered by the International Council of E-Commerce Consultants (EC-Council). It’s a must-have for IT professionals who are pursuing careers in white hat hacking and certifies their competence in the five phases of ethical hacking: reconnaissance, enumeration, gaining of access, access maintenance and track covering. 

CEH credential holders possess skills and knowledge of hacking practices in areas such as footprinting and reconnaissance, network scanning, enumeration, system hacking, Trojans, worms and viruses, sniffers, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering, session hijacking, web server hacking, wireless networks and web applications, SQL injection, cryptography, penetration testing, IDS evasion, firewalls and honeypots. CEH V11 provides a remapping of the course to the NIST/NICE framework’s Protect and Defend (PR) job role category, as well as an additional focus on emerging threats in cloud, OT and IT security, such as fileless malware.

To obtain a CEH (ANSI) certification, candidates must pass one exam. A comprehensive five-day CEH training course is recommended, with the exam presented at the course’s conclusion. Candidates may self-study for the exam but must submit documentation of at least two years of work experience in information security with employer verification. Self-study candidates must also pay an additional $100 application fee. Education may be substituted for experience, but this is evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Candidates who complete any EC-Council-approved training (including with the iClass platform, academic institutions or an accredited training center) do not need to submit an application prior to attempting the exam.

Because technology in the field of hacking changes almost daily, CEH credential holders are required to obtain 120 continuing-education credits for each three-year cycle.

Once a candidate obtains the CEH (ANSI) designation, a logical progression on the EC-Council certification ladder is the CEH (Practical) credential. The CEH (Practical) designation targets the application of CEH skills to real-world security audit challenges and related scenarios. To obtain the credential, candidates must pass a rigorous six-hour practical examination. Conducted on live virtual machines, candidates are presented 20 scenarios with questions designed to validate a candidate’s ability to perform tasks such as vulnerability analysis, identification of threat vectors, web app and system hacking, OS detection, network scanning, packet sniffing, steganography and virus identification. Candidates who pass both the CEH (ANSI) and the CEH (Practical) exams earn the CEH (Master) designation.

CEH facts and figures

Certification name Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) (ANSI)
Prerequisites and required courses Training is highly recommended. Without formal training, candidates must have at least two years of information security-related experience and an educational background in information security, pay a nonrefundable eligibility application fee of $100 and submit an exam eligibility form before purchasing an exam voucher.
Number of exams One: 312-50 (ECC Exam)/312-50 (VUE) (125 multiple-choice questions, four hours)
Cost of exam $950 (ECC exam voucher) Note: An ECC exam voucher allows candidates to test via computer at a location of their choice. Pearson VUE exam vouchers allow candidates to test in a Pearson VUE facility and cost $1,199.
URL https://www.eccouncil.org/programs/certified-ethical-hacker-ceh
Self-study materials EC-Council instructor-led courses, computer-based training, online courses and more are available at ECCouncil.org. A CEH skills assessment is also available for credential seekers. Additionally, Udemy offers CEH practice exams. CEH-approved educational materials are available for $850 from EC-Council.

Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) training

While EC-Council offers both instructor-led and online training for its CEH certification, IT professionals have plenty of other options for self-study materials, including video training, practice exams and books.

Pluralsight currently offers an ethical-hacking learning path geared toward the 312-50 exam. With a monthly subscription, you get access to all of these courses, plus everything else in Pluralsight’s training library. Through Pluralsight’s learning path, students can prepare for all of the domains covered in the CEH exam.  

CyberVista offers a practice exam for the CEH 312-50 certification that includes several sets of exam-like questions, custom quizzes, flash cards and more. An exam prep subscription for 180 days costs $149 and gives candidates access to online study materials, as well as the ability to download the materials for offline study. Backed by its “pass guarantee,” CyberVista is so confident its practice exam will prepare you for the CEH exam that the company will refund its practice test costs if you don’t pass.

Did you know?FYI: Besides certifications in information security and cybersecurity, the best IT certifications cover areas such as disaster recovery, virtualization and telecommunications.

2. CISM: Certified Information Security Manager

The CISM certification is a top credential for IT professionals who are responsible for managing, developing and overseeing information security systems in enterprise-level applications or for developing organizational security best practices. The CISM credential was introduced to security professionals in 2003 by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA).

ISACA’s organizational goals are specifically geared toward IT professionals who are interested in the highest-quality standards with respect to the auditing, control and security of information systems. The CISM credential targets the needs of IT security professionals with enterprise-level security management responsibilities. Credential holders possess advanced and proven skills in security risk management, program development and management, governance, and incident management and response.

Holders of the CISM credential, which is designed for experienced security professionals, must agree to ISACA’s code of ethics, pass a comprehensive examination, possess at least five years of experience in information security management, comply with the organization’s continuing education policy and submit a written application. Some combinations of education and experience may be substituted for the full experience requirement.

The CISM credential is valid for three years, and credential holders must pay an annual maintenance fee of $45 (ISACA members) or $85 (nonmembers). Credential holders are also required to obtain a minimum of 120 continuing professional education (CPE) credits over the three-year term to maintain the credential. At least 20 CPE credits must be earned every year.

CISM facts and figures

Certification name

Certified Information Security Manager (CISM)

Prerequisites and required courses

To obtain the CISM credential, candidates must do the following:

  1. Pass the CISM exam.
  2. Agree to the ISACA code of professional ethics.
  3. Adhere to ISACA’s CPE policy
  4. Possess a minimum of five years of information security work experience in described job practice analysis areas. Experience must be verifiable and obtained in the 10-year period prior to the application date or within five years of exam passage. There are some exceptions to this requirement depending on the current credentials held.
  5. Apply for CISM certification. (The processing fee is $50.) The credential must be obtained within five years of exam passage.

Number of exams

One: 150 questions, four hours

Cost of exam

Exam fees: $575 (members), $760 (nonmembers)

Exam fees are nontransferable and nonrefundable.



Self-study materials

Training and study materials in various languages, information on job practice areas, primary references, publications, articles, the ISACA Journal, review courses, an exam prep community, terminology lists, a glossary and more are available at ISACA.org. Additionally, Udemy offers comprehensive training for the certification exam.

Other ISACA certification program elements

In addition to CISM, ISACA offers numerous certifications for those interested in information security and best practices. Other credentials worth considering include the following:

  • Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA)
  • Certified in the Governance of Enterprise IT (CGEIT)
  • Certified in Risk and Information Systems Control (CRISC)

The CISA designation was created for professionals working with information systems auditing, control or security and is popular enough with employers to earn it a place on the leaderboard. The CGEIT credential targets IT professionals working in enterprise IT management, governance, strategic alignment, value delivery, and risk and resource performance management. IT professionals who are seeking careers in all aspects of risk management will find that the CRISC credential nicely meets their needs.

Certified Information Security Manager (CISM) training

Pluralsight offers a CISM learning path containing five courses and 17 hours of instruction. The courses cover the domains addressed in the exam, but the learning path is aimed at the CISM job practice areas. 

CyberVista offers a CISM online training course in both live and on-demand formats. The course includes more than 16 hours of training videos, supplementary lessons, custom quizzes, practice exam questions and access to experts through the instructor. As with other CyberVista courses, the CISM training course comes with a “pass guarantee.” 

Did you know?Did you know?: According to CyberSeek, there are enough workers to fill only 68% of the cybersecurity job openings in the U.S. A cybersecurity certification is an important way to demonstrate the knowledge and ability to succeed in these job roles.

3. CompTIA Security+

CompTIA’s Security+ is a well-respected, vendor-neutral security certification. Security+ credential holders are recognized as possessing superior technical skills, broad knowledge and expertise in multiple security-related disciplines.

Although Security+ is an entry-level certification, the ideal candidates possess at least two years of experience working in network security and should consider first obtaining the Network+ certification. IT pros who obtain this certification have expertise in areas such as threat management, cryptography, identity management, security systems, security risk identification and mitigation, network access control, and security infrastructure. The CompTIA Security+ credential is approved by the U.S. Department of Defense to meet Directive 8140/8570.01-M requirements. In addition, the Security+ credential complies with the standards for ISO 17024.

The Security+ credential requires a single exam, currently priced at $381. (Discounts may apply to employees of CompTIA member companies and full-time students.) Training is available but not required.

IT professionals who earned the Security+ certification prior to Jan. 1, 2011, remain certified for life. Those who certify after that date must renew the certification every three years to stay current. To renew, candidates must obtain 50 continuing-education units (CEUs) or complete the CertMaster CE online course prior to the expiration of the three-year period. CEUs can be obtained by engaging in activities such as teaching, blogging, publishing articles or whitepapers, and participating in professional conferences and similar activities.

CompTIA Security+ facts and figures

Certification name

CompTIA Security+

Prerequisites and required courses

None. CompTIA recommends at least two years of experience in IT administration (with a security focus) and the Network+ credential before the Security+ exam. Udemy offers a complete and comprehensive course for the certification.

Number of exams

One: SY0-601 (maximum of 90 questions, 90 minutes to complete; 750 on a scale of 100-900 required to pass)

Cost of exam

$381 (discounts may apply; search for “SY0-601 voucher”)



Self-study materials

Exam objectives, demo questions, the CertMaster online training tool, training kits, computer-based training and a comprehensive study guide are available at CompTIA.org.

CompTIA Security+ training

You’ll find several companies offering online training, instructor-led and self-study courses, practice exams and books to help you prepare for and pass the Security+ exam.

Pluralsight offers a Security+ learning path as a part of its monthly subscription plan for the latest SY0-601 exam. Split into six sections, the training series is more than 24 hours long and covers attacks, threats and vulnerabilities; architecture and design; implementation of secure solutions; operations and incident response; and governance, risk and compliance.

CyberVista offers a Security+ practice exam so you can test your security knowledge before attempting the SY0-601 exam. The test comes with a 180-day access period and includes multiple sets of exam questions, key concept flash cards, access to InstructorLink experts, a performance tracker and more. As with CyberVista’s other offerings, this practice exam comes with a “pass guarantee.”

4. CISSP: Certified Information Systems Security Professional

CISSP is an advanced-level certification for IT pros who are serious about careers in information security. Offered by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium, known as (ISC)2 (pronounced “ISC squared”), this vendor-neutral credential is recognized worldwide for its standards of excellence.

CISSP credential holders are decision-makers who possess the expert knowledge and technical skills necessary to develop, guide and manage security standards, policies and procedures within their organizations. The CISSP certification continues to be highly sought after by IT professionals and is well recognized by IT organizations. It is a regular fixture on most-wanted and must-have security certification surveys.

CISSP is designed for experienced security professionals. A minimum of five years of experience in at least two of (ISC)2’s eight common body of knowledge (CBK) domains, or four years of experience in at least two of (ISC)2’s CBK domains and a college degree or an approved credential, is required for this certification. The CBK domains are security and risk management, asset security, security architecture and engineering, communications and network security, identity and access management, security assessment and testing, security operations, and software development security.

(ISC)2 also offers three CISSP concentrations targeting specific areas of interest in IT security:

  • Architecture (CISSP-ISSAP)
  • Engineering (CISSP-ISSEP)
  • Management (CISSP-ISSMP)

Each CISSP concentration exam is $599, and credential seekers must currently possess a valid CISSP.

An annual fee of $125 is required to maintain the CISSP credential. Recertification is required every three years. To recertify, candidates must earn 40 CPE credits each year, for a total of 120 CPE credits within the three-year cycle.

CISSP facts and figures

Certification name

Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) 

Optional CISSP concentrations:  

  • CISSP Architecture (CISSP-ISSAP)
  • CISSP Engineering (CISSP-ISSEP)
  • CISSP Management (CISSP-ISSMP)

Prerequisites and required courses

At least five years of paid, full-time experience in at least two of the eight (ISC)2 domains or four years of paid, full-time experience in at least two of the eight (ISC)2 domains and a college degree or an approved credential are required. Candidates must also do the following:

  • Agree to the (ISC)2 code of ethics.
  • Submit the CISSP application.
  • Complete the endorsement process.

Number of exams

One for CISSP (English CAT exam: 100-150 questions, three hours to complete; non-English exam: 250 questions, six hours) 

One for each concentration area

Cost of exam

CISSP is $749; each CISSP concentration is $599.



Self-study materials

Training materials include instructor-led, live online, on-demand and private training. There is an exam outline available for review, as well as study guides, a study app, interactive flash cards and practice tests.

Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) training

Given the popularity of the CISSP certification, there is no shortage of available training options. These include classroom-based training offered by (ISC)2, as well as online video courses, practice exams and books from third-party companies.

Pluralsight’s CISSP learning path includes 12 courses and 25 hours of e-learning covering the security concepts required for the certification exam. Available for a low monthly fee, the CISSP courses are part of a subscription plan that gives IT professionals access to Pluralsight’s complete library of video training courses.

When you’re ready to test your security knowledge, you can take a simulated exam that mimics the format and content of the real CISSP exam. Udemy offers CISSP practice questions to help you prepare for this challenging exam.

5. CISA: Certified Information Systems Auditor

ISACA’s globally recognized CISA certification is the gold standard for IT workers seeking to practice in information security, audit control and assurance. Ideal candidates can identify and assess organizational threats and vulnerabilities, assess compliance, and provide guidance and organizational security controls. CISA-certified professionals demonstrate knowledge and skill across the CISA job practice areas of auditing, governance and management, acquisition, development and implementation, maintenance and service management, and asset protection.

To earn the CISA certification, candidates must pass one exam, submit an application, agree to the code of professional ethics, agree to the CPE requirements and agree to the organization’s information systems auditing standards. In addition, candidates must possess at least five years of experience working with information systems. Some substitutions for education and experience with auditing are permitted.

To maintain the CISA certification, candidates must earn 120 CPE credits over a three-year period, with a minimum of 20 CPE credits earned annually. Candidates must also pay an annual maintenance fee ($45 for members; $85 for nonmembers).

CISA facts and figures

Certification name

Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA)

Prerequisites and required courses

To obtain the CISA credential, candidates must do the following:

  1. Pass the CISA exam.
  2. Agree to the ISACA code of professional ethics.
  3. Adhere to ISACA’s CPE policy.
  4. Agree to the information auditing standards.
  5. Possess a minimum of five years of information systems auditing, control or security work in described job practice analysis areas. Experience must be verifiable and obtained in the 10-year period prior to the application date or within five years after the exam is passed. There are some exceptions to this requirement depending on the current credentials held.
  6. Apply for CISA certification. (The processing fee is $50.) The credential must be obtained within five years of exam passage.

Number of exams

One: 150 questions, four hours

Cost of exam

$575 (members); $760 (nonmembers)



Self-study materials

ISACA offers a variety of training options, including virtual instructor-led courses, online and on-demand training, review manuals and question databases. Numerous books and self-study materials are also available on Amazon.

Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) training

Training opportunities for the CISA certification are plentiful. Udemy offers more than 160 CISA-related courses, lectures, practice exams, question sets and more. On Pluralsight, you’ll find 12 courses with 27 hours of information systems auditor training covering all CISA job practice domains for the CISA job practice areas.

Beyond the top 5: More cybersecurity certifications

In addition to these must-have credentials, many other certifications are available to fit the career needs of any IT professional interested in information security. Business owners should consider employing workers with these credentials as well.

  • The SANS GIAC Security Essentials (GSEC) certification remains an excellent entry-level credential for IT professionals seeking to demonstrate that they not only understand information security terminology and concepts but also possess the skills and technical expertise necessary to occupy “hands-on” security roles.
  • If you find incident response and investigation intriguing, check out the Logical Operations CyberSec First Responder (CFR) certification. This ANSI-accredited and U.S. DoD-8570-compliant credential recognizes security professionals who can design secure IT environments, perform threat analysis, and respond appropriately and effectively to cyberattacks. Logical Operations also offers other certifications, including Master Mobile Application Developer (MMAD), Certified Virtualization Professional (CVP), Cyber Secure Coder and CloudMASTER.
  • The associate-level Cisco Certified CyberOps Associate certification is aimed at analysts in security operations centers at large companies and organizations. Candidates who qualify through Cisco’s global scholarship program may receive free training, mentoring and testing to help them achieve a range of entry-level to expert certifications that the company offers. CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst (CySA+), which launched in 2017, is a vendor-neutral certification designed for professionals with three to four years of security and behavioral analytics experience.
  • The Identity Management Institute offers several credentials for identity and access management, data protection, identity protection, identity governance and more. The International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP), which focuses on privacy, has a small but growing number of certifications as well.
  • The SECO-Institute, in cooperation with the Security Academy Netherlands and APMG, is behind the Cyber Security & Governance Certification Program; SECO-Institute certifications aren’t well known in the United States, but their popularity is growing. 
  • It also may be worth your time to browse the Chartered Institute of Information Security accreditations, the U.K. equivalent of the U.S. DoD 8570 certifications and the corresponding 8140 framework.

Also, consider these five entry-level cybersecurity certifications for more options.

TipTip: Before you decide to purchase training for a certification or an exam voucher, see if your employer will cover the cost. Employers may cover all or part of the cost if you have a continuing education or training allowance, or if the certification is in line with your current or potential job duties.

Information security and cybersecurity jobs

According to CyberSeek, the number of cybersecurity job openings in the U.S. stands at almost 598,000, with about 1.05 million cybersecurity professionals employed in today’s workforce. Projections continue to be robust: The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics expects 33% growth in information security analyst positions between 2020 and 2030; in comparison, the average rate of growth for all occupations is about 8%.

Security-related job roles include information security specialist, security analyst, network security administrator, system administrator (with security as a responsibility) and security engineer, as well as specialized roles, like malware engineer, intrusion analyst and penetration tester.

Average salaries for information security certified and security engineers – two of the most common job roles – vary depending on the source. For example, SimplyHired reports about $74,000 for specialist positions, whereas Glassdoor‘s national average is about $108,000. For security engineers, SimplyHired reports almost $112,000, while Glassdoor’s average is more than $111,000, with salaries on the high end reported at $261,000. Note that these numbers frequently change as the sources regularly update their data. [Meet the man who kept Microsoft safe and secure for more than a decade.]

Our informal job board survey from April 2022 reports the number of job posts nationwide in which our featured certifications were mentioned on a given day. This should supply you an idea of the relative popularity of each certification.

Job board search results (in alphabetical order by cybersecurity certification)




LinkedIn Jobs



CEH (EC-Council)
























Security+ (CompTIA)






Did you know?Did you know?: Cybersecurity matters even when you’re traveling. Find out how to keep your computer secure when you’re on the road for business or pleasure.

The importance of hiring information security and cybersecurity professionals

According to Risk Based Security‘s 2021 Year End Data Breach Quickview Report, there were 4,145 publicly disclosed breaches throughout 2021, containing over 22 billion records. This is the second-highest number of breached records, after an all-time high the year before. The U.S. was particularly affected, with the number of breaches increasing 10% compared with the previous year. More than 80% of the records exposed throughout 2021 were due to human error, highlighting an ever-increasing need for cybersecurity education, as well as for highly skilled and trained cybersecurity professionals. [Learn how to recover from a data breach.]

If you’re serious about advancing your career in the IT field and are interested in specializing in security, certification is a great choice. It’s an effective way to validate your skills and show a current or prospective employer that you’re qualified and properly trained. If you’re a business owner, hiring certified professionals and skilled IT managers can help prevent cyberattacks and provide confidence that your company’s security is in the right hands. In the meantime, review our quick cybersecurity tips to Excellerate your company’s protection.

Jeremy Bender contributed to the writing and research in this article.

Sun, 22 Jan 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10708-information-security-certifications.html
Killexams : Biotechnology – A Solution to Hunger?

World hunger and food insecurity is a recurring problem in most parts of the developing world. Among the many potential biotechnologies that are available, and the different ways in which they can be applied, genetic modification (GM) of crops demands particular attention. Genetically modified crops possessing genes from different species, could possibly relieve global food shortages. Although initial excitement surrounded the use of GM crops -- that they will provide bigger and better harvests for farmers -- there are still questions about the benefits of such crops. In addition, the general public may not welcome the creation of "super plants" as a viable option in solving global hunger.

The environmental impact of GM crops is important with regard to creating food security in developing countries. Genetically modified crops can potentially fail to germinate; kill organisms other than pests that are beneficial to plants and reduce soil fertility; and potentially transfer insecticidal properties or virus resistance to wild relatives of the crop species.

A segment of the scientific community often proposes that export earnings from higher agricultural yields can contribute to reducing food insecurity and hunger in developing countries. However, there are many issues and challenges that beg the practicality of this proposal. A few crop varieties, specially created through biotechnology, can Excellerate yields, but biotechnology alone cannot solve the problem of hunger in the developing world.

Nevertheless, the potential advantages that biotechnology can confer across a wide range of agricultural applications are in areas such as livestock management, storage of agricultural products and sustaining current crop yields, while reducing the use of fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides. The real challenge is whether we are smart enough to harness the benefits of biotechnological solutions. But what are these solutions?

Biotechnology offers a very promising alternative to synthetic foods and an improvement on conventional plant-breeding technologies. Combined with other advanced agricultural technologies, it offers an exciting and environmentally responsible way to meet consumer demand for sustainable agriculture. When the benefits of GM crops reach small and marginal farmers, more Green Revolutions may become a reality.

Combating Hunger and Malnutrition
Malnutrition is the related term in medicine for hunger. The most latest estimate of the Food and Agriculture Organization says that 854 million people worldwide are undernourished. This is 12.6 per cent of 6.6 billion people in the world. Many of the 854 million that are undernourished, children being the most visible victims, live in developing countries. Undernutrition magnifies the impact of every disease, including measles and malaria.

One example tells us how biotechnology can contribute to combating global hunger and malnutrition.

Golden Rice
Approximately 140 million children in low-income groups in 118 countries, especially in Africa and South-East Asia, are deficient in Vitamin A. This situation has compounded into a public health challenge. The World Health Organization reports that an estimated 250,000 to 500,000 Vitamin A-deficient children become blind every year, half of them dying within 12 months of losing their sight. Golden Rice, created by researchers in Germany and Switzerland, contains three new genes -- two from the daffodil and one from a bacterium -- that helps it to produce provitamin A. This rice is available as a possible option for mass distribution, in part due to the waiving of patent rights by biotechnology companies. This is just one among the hundreds of new biotech products, which point to the contributions of biotechnology to society.

Intellectual Property and Food Security
There are concerns about a technological landscape controlled almost exclusively by the private sector and defined by patent protection. Patents allow large, private firms substantial control over plant genes, which has worrisome implications. If farmers have to purchase seeds during every sowing season, it affects their income and food security. Although biotech companies such as Monsanto and AstraZeneca have announced that they would not commercialize the so-called "Terminator" or seed-sterilization technology, which is genetically designed to "switch off" a plant's ability to germinate a second time, the biotech industry collectively owns at least three dozen patents that control either seed germination or essential plant germination processes. This privatization of a plant's genetic resources puts not only agricultural research in developing nations at a disadvantage, but might ultimately threaten the livelihoods of a majority of small farmers in Africa, Latin America, and Asia who largely depend on seed saved from one crop to sow in the next.

In developing countries, there may be a potential negative impact from Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) over biotechnological products or the processes used in producing them. IPRs have been held not only by private companies, but also by some public organizations making it impossible to use any aspect of biotechnology for improving major crop species without infringing a patent somewhere in the process. Because of IPRs, it has not always been possible to separate the biotechnology prospects from the business interests involved. A major consequence of IPR in agricultural biotechnology is that many developing countries which have not yet invested in biotechnology may never be able to catch up in the future.

Sound decisions need to be based on diligent research. Biotechnology scientists are often highly specialized and technique-focused and may also need additional competency in handling the complicated issue of hunger and food security in developing countries.

Biotechnology holds tremendous possibilities for the developing world. The use of high-yielding, disease- and pest-resistant crops will have a direct bearing on improved food security, poverty alleviation and environmental conservation. GM crops will hopefully produce more yield on less land. This may increase the overall productivity and may offer developing countries a means to sustain themselves and reduce worldwide hunger. Ninety per cent of the world's 13.3 million "biotech crop farmers" are from developing countries. India, with 7.6 million hectares, is the fourth among the 14 "mega-biotech crop" countries. For instance, five million farmers in India are engaged in planting 7.6 million hectares of Bt or Bacillus thuringiensis, cotton, which protects itself from insects without requiring external pesticide. The shift to Bt cotton has been possible because of the 31 per cent increase in its yield, 39 per cent decrease in insecticide use, and higher profits equivalent to $250 per hectare.

It is now also possible using biotechnological approaches to increase the extraction of oil from a plant source up to 90 per cent. With the depletion of world hydrocarbon reserves, in the future it is probable that plant oils, such as biodiesel, may compete in terms of price and quality with oil, coal and gas.
Final Thoughts
The world's food supply is abundant, not scarce. The world's production of grain and other foods is sufficient to provide at least 4.3 pounds of food per person, per day. The real reason for hunger in the world is poverty, which often strikes women--the nutritional gatekeepers in many families--the hardest. Economists argue that resolving hunger requires political solutions and not just agro-technical solutions. According to them, instead of looking at biotechnology as a yet unproven and non-existent breakthrough, decision makers should look at the full body of research that shows that solutions to eliminate hunger are not technological in nature, but rooted in basic socio-economic realities. This is not to say that technology, including biotechnology, does not play a role in reducing, say, malnutrition, but there is no technology that can override the immediate political and social forces that keep people poor and hungry. The global biotechnology industry has funnelled a vast majority of its investment into a limited range of products that have large, secured markets in the First World -- products which are of little relevance to the needs of the world's hungry. Biotechnology has applications that can significantly solve the problem of world hunger. Green is the colour of agricultural biotechnology, of fertility, self-respect and well-being. In my opinion, policymakers should pragmatically consider modern biotech discoveries and assets as an important tool for solving the problem of global hunger.

Fri, 10 Feb 2023 14:50:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.un.org/en/chronicle/article/biotechnology-solution-hunger
Killexams : Food, farming, and hunger

Of the 5.9 million children who die each year, poor nutrition plays a role in at least half these deaths. That’s wrong. Hunger isn’t about too many people and too little food. It’s about power, and its roots lie in inequalities in access to resources and opportunities.

Mon, 30 Dec 2013 06:21:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.oxfamamerica.org/explore/stories/food-farming-and-hunger/
Killexams : Evidence-based Practice for Information Professionals

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Wed, 28 Apr 2021 11:31:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/evidencebased-practice-for-information-professionals/7C4D54BA9D809A4A84910B9E63FDA5FA
Killexams : Brittany Hunger

Brittany is experienced in treating a variety of mental health concerns including anxiety, depression, eating disorders, substance use disorders, and more. She is passionate about Art Therapy and incorporating creativity into the healing process. Brittany works with children, adolescents, and adults utilizing a person- centered and strength-based approach and believes that everyone deserves the opportunity to express themselves, heal, and grow.

Brittany is a Hope College alumnus with a Master's degree in Clinical Mental Health Counseling and Art Therapy from Edinboro University. Brittany is a Limited Licensed Professional Counselor in the state of Michigan as well as a Registered Art Therapist with a provisional license.

Sat, 10 Dec 2022 17:24:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/therapists/brittany-hunger-zeeland-mi/1063704
Killexams : The United States Provides US$289 Million To Fight Hunger As The Lean Season Approaches In South Sudan
(MENAFN- African Press Organization)
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A contribution of US$288.5 million from the United States Government, through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), will help to support more than two million of the most food-insecure people in South Sudan with life-saving food and nutrition assistance through the 2023 lean season, the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) announced.

South Sudan is facing one of its hungriest years since independence with 7.76 million people expected to be in crisis or worse levels of hunger (IPC3+). The lean season – the period between household food stocks running out and the next harvest – falls between April and August in South Sudan.

“A fourth year of record flooding, rising costs of food and energy, and ongoing conflict are disrupting lives and livelihoods and threatening to push millions of families further into hunger,” said Mary-Ellen McGroarty, WFP's Country Director in South Sudan.

“This generous contribution comes at a critical time as we race to dispatch food assistance to the most remote areas ahead of the lean season. Receiving funding in advance means we can act earlier to prevent families from falling into more severe levels of acute hunger when shocks strike,” she says.

The announcement of the funding for WFP's 2023 humanitarian response was made during a visit to USAID and WFP-supported projects in Aweil, where delegates met with women and children at the Gabat Nutrition Site. The event was attended by Michael J. Adler, the US Ambassador to South Sudan, Kate Crawford, the USAID Mission Director in South Sudan, H.E. Mrs. Rebecca Nyandeng De Mabior, Vice President of South Sudan and Head of Gender, Youth and Humanitarian Cluster, H.E. Tong Akeen Ngor, Governor of Northern Bahr el Ghazal State, and Mary-Ellen McGroarty, WFP's Country Director in South Sudan.

The contribution from the United States will support the delivery of food to more than 2.2 million severely food-insecure women, children, and men across South Sudan through 2023. As the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance grows, sustainable funding from donors is more critical than ever to prevent a humanitarian catastrophe.

Distributed by APO Group on behalf of World Food Programme (WFP).


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Fri, 17 Feb 2023 00:16:00 -0600 Date text/html https://menafn.com/1105592172/The-United-States-Provides-US289-Million-To-Fight-Hunger-As-The-Lean-Season-Approaches-In-South-Sudan
Killexams : Professional Licensure Information

""The requirements to become a professional engineer can differ from state to state.

At a minimum, most states require an undergraduate degree from an accredited engineering program (certified by an organization such as ABET) before an individual can be classified as an “engineer intern.”

A MEng degree alone without a qualifying undergraduate engineering degree is not sufficient to satisfy the educational requirements to become an “engineer intern.”

Visit the National Society of Professional Engineers for more information.

Sat, 15 Aug 2020 08:51:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.uab.edu/engineering/cem/academics/professional-licensure-information
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