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CGFNS Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools test |

CGFNS test - Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools Updated: 2024

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Exam Code: CGFNS Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools test January 2024 by team

CGFNS Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools

Exam : CGFNS

Exam Name : Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools

Exam Type : MCQ

Questions : 260

Part1 Questions : 150

Part1 exam Time : 2 hrs 30 min.

Break : 1 hour

Part2 Questions : 110

Part2 exam Time : 1 hr 50 min.

The CGFNS Certification Program® is a three part program that consists of:

1. A credentials evaluation of secondary education, nursing education and licensure

2. The CGFNS Qualifying Exam®

3. Demonstration of passing one of the accepted English language proficiency examinations

It is a requirement for licensure by some State Boards of Nursing to take the NCLEX-RN® exam.

First-level, general nurses educated outside the United States who wish to practice nursing in the United States use this service. A first-level, general nurse (as defined historically by the International Council of Nurses) is also called a registered (RN) or a professional nurse in some countries.

Second-level nurses are not eligible to be licensed as registered nurses in the United States and therefore cannot be approved to take the CGFNS Qualifying Exam®. A second-level nurse may be called an enrolled, vocational or practical nurse or a nurse assistant.

The CGFNS exam has both Nursing section. The CGFNS exam is a multiple choice and objective based paper. It is divided into two parts with a total of 260 questions. Candidates should submit anyone TOEFL, TOIEC or IELTS scores for an eligibility criterion.

Applicants are given 150 questions in the part 1 exam with a time limit of 2 hours and 30 minutes. You will get a 1 hour break for lunch after you are done with part 1 section. The part 2 section contains 110 questions with a time limit of 1 hours and 50 minutes.

The candidates must demonstrate English language proficiency and they should be able to get the passing scores for that. Any of the English proficiency exam has three parts, listening, and vocabulary and sentence structure.

It takes more than 4 hours for its completion. It is taken by experienced people and thus it covers various critical areas. Like maternal or infant nursing, child care and mental health subjects. Read on to know more information on CGFNS test.

The program is comprised of three parts: a credentials review, which includes an evaluation of the secondary and nursing education, registration and licensure; the CGFNS International Qualifying exam SM.

It tests nursing knowledge and is administered 3–4 times per year in over 50 locations worldwide (if applicant base warrants);and an English language proficiency examination.
Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools
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Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools
Question: 387
The micturition reflex center is located in the _____.
A. Pons
B. Midbrain
C. Lumbar plexus
D. Sacral plexus
Answer: D
Question: 388
Which of the following match with the definition: a poor output of urine?
A. Oliguria
B. Pyruia
C. Enuresis
D. Diuresis
Answer: A
Question: 389
Capillary loops located in the medulla are also known as _________.
A. Vasa recta
B. Urea collectors
C. Trigone
D. Macula densa
Answer: A
Question: 390
The primary function of the descending loop of Henle in the kidney is?
A. Reabsorption of sodium ions
B. Reabsoption of water by osmosis
C. Secretion of hydrogen ions
D. Secretion of potassium ions
Answer: B
Question: 391
Which of the following is not considered a part of the male urethra?
A. Prostatic
B. Membranous
C. Vasapore
D. Penile
Answer: C
Question: 392
When glucose if found in urine it is called _____.
A. Glucosuria
B. Uremia
C. Ureteritis
D. Glucose intolerance
Answer: A
Question: 393
Which of the following is not considered a component of kidney stones?
A. Calcium phosphate
B. Uric Acid
C. Calcium oxalate
D. HCO 3
Answer: D
Question: 394
The one of the functions occurring at the distal convoluted tubule in the kidney is?
A. Passive secretion of hydrogen ions
B. Passive secretion of potassium ions
C. Limited re-absorption of water
D. No re-absorption of sodium
Answer: B
Question: 395
ADH has which of the following effects on the distal convoluted tubule?
A. Decrease water re-absorption
B. Increase water re-absorption
C. Decrease the concentration of urine
D. Increase the urine volume
Answer: B
Question: 396
Which of the following is not associated with the role of the kidneys?
A. Release of erythropoietin (hormone)
B. Release of renin (enzyme)
C. Release of Vitamin E
D. Activate Vitamin D
Answer: C
Question: 397
Each kidney contains approximately ______ nephrons.
A. 10 million
B. 1 million
C. 100,000
D. 10,000
Answer: B
Question: 398
The release of Angiotension II
causes which of the following to occur?
A. Increased filtration rate
B. Decreased glomerular hydrostatic pressure
C. Increase synthesis of Vitamin E
D. Increased release of erythropoietin
Answer: A
Question: 399
Which of the following is an effect of a diuretic?
A. Decreased Cardiac Output
B. Increased fluid volume
C. Increased sodium re-absorption
D. Increased chloride ion re-absorption
Answer: A
Question: 400
Which of the following is not considered a loop diuretic?
A. Bumetadine (BUMEX)
B. Furosemide (LASIX)
C. Chlorthiazide (DIURIL)
D. Ethacrynic Acid (EDECRIN)
Answer: C
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Medical Commission test - BingNews Search results Medical Commission test - BingNews PGMER-23: Postgraduate Medical Students To Get 20 Days Paid Leave, Check Other Benefits New Delhi:

The National Medical Commission (NMC) has released the guidelines for the postgraduate medical students. The regulations called, "Post-Graduate Medical Education Regulations, 2023" or 'PGMER-23' list details about the various postgraduate qualifications, NExT, NEET PG, NEET SS, stipend offered to postgraduate students among others.

The following are the list of qualifications, duration of the course and components of Postgraduate Training as mentioned in the PGMER-23.
Postgraduate broad-speciality Qualifications- Duration of course is 3 years/2 years
Postgraduate super-speciality Courses- Duration of the course is 3 years
Postgraduate diploma Courses- Duration of the course is 2 years
Postdoctoral Certificate Courses- Duration of the course is 1 year
Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) Courses- Duration of the course is 2 years
DM/MCh (6 years course)- Duration of the course is 6 years

Candidates willing to pursue a postgraduate broad speciality course in Medicine will be required to qualify the 'NMC, National Exit Test Regulations, 2023'.
For pursuing a super-speciality programme/course in Medicine, medical aspirants are required to secure the minimum eligible score at the National Eligibility-cum-Entrance Test-Super-Speciality (NEET-SS) conducted either by the National Medical Commission or caused to have been conducted by the National Medical Commission. 

Postgraduate training
Postgraduate training shall consist of training of the students through lectures, seminars, journal clubs, group discussions, participation in laboratory and experimental work, involvement in research, clinical meetings, grand rounds, clinicopathological conferences, practical training in the diagnosis and medical and surgical treatment, training in the basic medical sciences as well as in allied clinical specialties, etc as per the requirement of Speciality training.
All post-graduate students will work as full-time resident doctors. They will work for reasonable working hours and will be provided reasonable time for rest in a day. 

Stipend to PG students
The postgraduate students undergoing postgraduate Degree/Diploma/Super-speciality courses in all the institutions shall be paid a stipend at par with the stipend being paid to the postgraduate students of State Government medical institutions/Central Government medical institutions, in the State/Union Territory where the institution is located.
Every postgraduate student will be given minimum 20 days of paid leave (casual leave) per year. Subject to exigencies of work, post-graduate students will be allowed one weekly holiday. Female postgraduate students shall be allowed maternity leave as per existing Government rules and regulations. Male postgraduate students shall be allowed paternity leave as per existing Government rules and regulations. In addition to 20 days' paid leave, the candidates will be allowed academic paid leave of 5 days per year.

For detailed information on the regulations by postgraduate students, candidates can click on the following link.

Thu, 04 Jan 2024 16:26:00 -0600 text/html
National Medical Commission introduces post-doctoral fellowship courses in medical colleges New Delhi: Medical education regulator - National Medical Commission - has for the first time launched post-doctoral fellowship courses in medical colleges regulated by it, to promote research and clinical skill development. Medical institutions till now were creating and approving these programmes at their own level to train doctors.
The regulator recently notified "Post-Graduate Medical Education Regulations, 2023" according to which once a medical college is granted permission to start PG course or seats, the course will be treated as recognised.
This will solve many difficulties faced by students to register their degree after passing postgraduate examinations, Dr Vijay Oza, President of Post-Graduate Medical Education Board of the National Medical Commission (NMC) explained.
As per the new regulations which have replaced the Postgraduate Medical Education (Amendment) Regulations, 2018, the existing NEET-PG examination will continue till the proposed National Exit Test (NExT) becomes operational for the purpose of PG admission.
The new regulations state that all post-graduate students will work as full-time resident doctors and for "reasonable working hours" and will be provided "reasonable time for rest" in a day.
They will be permitted a minimum 20 days of casual leaves per year and five days of academic per year.
Subject to exigencies of work, post-graduate students will be allowed one weekly holiday, the new regulations said.
"Earlier there was no written provision of leaves," Dr Oza said.
"The NMC after considering the comments and suggestions of various stakeholders and detailed in-house discussion unveiled groundbreaking reforms in post-graduate medical education, aimed at fostering quality, ethical practice, and inclusivity within the medical fraternity," he said.
These reforms encompass various critical aspects of post-graduate medical training and aim to enhance the standards of education and practice nationwide, Dr Oza said.
"The comprehensive reforms outlined in the Post-Graduate Medical Education Regulations, 2023, mark a pivotal moment in ensuring the highest standards of medical education in our country. These regulations underscore our commitment to nurturing a proficient and ethical healthcare workforce," Dr Yogender Malik, member of the Ethics and Medical Registration Board and head of the media division at NMC, said.
For better implementation of these regulations, there is the provision of penalty clause that includes monetary penalty, reduction in number of seats (admission capacity) or complete stoppage of admissions.
Thu, 04 Jan 2024 20:52:00 -0600 en text/html
Which State Has The Best Test Scores? Analyzing Standardized Testing Trends

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

As online college and other alternative higher ed options have grown in popularity, standardized testing has become less important at the college level, with many colleges going test-optional. But high school students across the U.S. still take the SAT and ACT® to prep for college admissions.

At the K-12 level, standardized testing remains a vital metric for measuring students’ comprehension and competency in core subject areas like math, reading, writing and science. Standardized test scores provide primary and secondary school teachers and administrators with data-driven insights that inform curriculum development and shape educational policies and practices. These scores can also impact a school’s funding and resource allocation.

In this article, we rank the states with the highest standardized test scores and discuss the evolving role of standardized testing, including K-12 assessments and college entrance exams.

Why Does Standardized Testing Matter in the U.S.?

Standardized testing assesses the academic performance of students, teachers and schools. Test scores offer a quantitative metric to determine whether schools meet established standards and help educators and policymakers identify areas for improvement.

K-12 Standardized Assessments

At the K-12 level, standardized testing evaluates students’ proficiency in core subject areas at their respective grade levels. Test scores offer insights into the factors affecting a student’s, school’s or state’s performance. They can also inform instructional strategies and shape curriculum development.

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is a comprehensive assessment encompassing print and digital assessments across multiple subject areas, including math, memorizing and science. NAEP is usually administered at the state and district levels among fourth and eighth grades. On this page, we use fourth- and eighth-grade math and memorizing assessments to determine our rankings.

K-12 standardized testing often faces criticism for its testing practices. Teachers, administrators and parents argue that standardized testing doesn’t account for each student’s unique learning style and strengths, instead testing students using a one-size-fits-all approach. Some say the education system’s focus on standardized testing has narrowed the scope and focus of curriculums to accommodate test results.

This criticism drives an ongoing dialogue about the need for more holistic and inclusive testing and assessment practices. Teachers, administrators and curriculum developers continue to propose alternative assessment methods—such as performance tasks, project-based work and portfolios—to better capture the multifaceted nature of student learning.

College Entrance Exams

During their third and fourth years of high school, students often take college entrance exams ahead of submitting their applications for admission. These exam scores measure learners’ academic readiness for higher education. Colleges and universities use standardized tests to inform their admissions decisions.

Colleges and universities also consider several other factors during the admissions process, such as academic performance, extracurricular activities, personal statements and letters of recommendation. Also, many colleges have adopted test-optional admissions policies, which lift entrance exam requirements for first-year applicants.

Though test-optional colleges do not require the ACT or SAT for college admission, most still consider entrance exam scores when applicants choose to submit them.

Our ranking looks at metrics from the following standardized tests.

  • SAT: The SAT is a multiple-choice test that covers math, evidence-based memorizing and writing. Each section of the SAT is scored on a 200- to 800-point scale, making 1600 the highest possible score.
  • ACT: The ACT evaluates students’ knowledge in four areas: English, reading, mathematics and science. There’s also an optional writing section, which does not affect the composite ACT score. Your composite score comprises the average of the four subject scores, rounded to the nearest whole number. Possible ACT scores range from one to 36.
  • MCAT: All medical school programs in the U.S. use the MCAT for medical school admissions. This computer-based, multiple-choice exam evaluates critical thinking, problem-solving, and knowledge of behavioral, natural and social science concepts and principles.

States With the Best Test Scores

Below we rank each U.S. state based on its standardized testing performances. Our methodology uses data from K-12 assessments, focusing on fourth- and eighth-grade math and memorizing assessments and college entrance exam performances.

Top Five States

The top five states in our standardized testing performance ranking are:

  1. Massachusetts
  2. Utah
  3. New Jersey
  4. New Hampshire
  5. Connecticut

Common factors contributing to these states’ strong performances include rigorous academic standards, adequate funding, student-to-teacher ratios, professional development and successful education policies and reforms.


Massachusetts consistently ranks among the states with the highest standardized test scores in the U.S. and secured the top spot on our list. At the fourth grade level, 42.9% of students demonstrated proficiency or higher in math; 42.61% achieved the same in reading.

In the eighth grade, Massachusetts students maintained their position as top performers among students nationwide, with 35.06% demonstrating proficiency or higher in math and 39.8% achieving the same in reading. While Massachusetts students received slightly lower average SAT scores than students in some other states, they earned the nation’s highest average ACT and MCAT scores.


Utah ranked second on our list, with 42.9% of NAEP test takers demonstrating proficiency or higher in math and 36.83% achieving the same in reading. Utah students received the highest average SAT score in the nation, with average ACT and MCAT scores trailing just below Massachusetts.

New Jersey

New Jersey placed third in our ranking, with 39.42% of fourth graders performing at or above proficiency in math and 38.02% at or above proficient in reading. New Jersey scored higher average ACT scores than Utah, and its average SAT and MCAT scores ranked just below Massachusetts and Utah.

New Hampshire

New Hampshire’s standardized testing performance ranked fourth, with 39.96% of fourth graders demonstrating proficiency or higher in math and 37.02% achieving the same in reading. These rates dropped slightly through the eighth grade. New Hampshire had the highest average MCAT scores of any U.S. state.


Connecticut claimed the fifth spot in our ranking, where 37.01% of fourth graders demonstrated proficiency or higher in math, and 34.62% showcased the same in reading. Connecticut students maintained their overall performances through eighth grade, though math levels dropped by 7.06%. Connecticut’s average ACT and MCAT scores were on par with those of Massachusetts.

Bottom Five States

Mississippi, Alabama, West Virginia, New Mexico and Oklahoma ranked in the bottom five states for standardized test scores.

Various educational, economic and social factors influence these scores. For example, states with lower socioeconomic status may face challenges such as resource allocation to education or limited resources.


Mississippi ranked fifth-lowest in our ranking, with 32.07% of fourth graders demonstrating proficiency or above in math and 30.64% performing the same in reading. This trend continues through the eighth grade, with the percentages of students performing at this level declining to 17.75% in math and 21.98% in reading.


Alabama ranked fourth-lowest on our list, with 27.17% of fourth graders demonstrating proficiency or above in math and 28.26% demonstrating the same in reading. These performance levels persisted through the eighth grade, dropping by 8.48% in math and 6.23% in reading. Notably, Alabama students earned higher average ACT and MCAT scores compared to Mississippi; however, their average SAT scores were lower.

West Virginia

West Virginia placed third from the bottom, with 22.84% of fourth graders demonstrating proficiency or above in math and 22.28% achieving the same in reading. The percentage of students performing at this level dropped slightly through the eighth grade to 15.09% in math and 21.66% in reading.

West Virginia students saw lower average SAT scores than learners in Mississippi and Alabama; however, their average ACT and MCAT scores kept up.

New Mexico

New Mexico ranked second-to-last in terms of standardized testing performance, with just 19.12% of fourth graders demonstrating proficiency or higher in memorizing and 20.97% achieving the same in reading. Performance rates through the eighth grade dropped by 6.43% in math and 2.54% in reading. Students in New Mexico received the lowest average SAT scores of any state. However, their average ACT and MCAT scores were comparable to students in Mississippi, Alabama and West Virginia.


Oklahoma placed at the bottom of our ranking, with 26.83% of fourth graders demonstrating proficiency or higher in math, and 24.02% performing the same in reading. NAEP performances declined through the eighth grade, falling by 5.55% and 2.74% in math and reading, respectively.

The Bottom Line

Massachusetts, Utah, New Jersey, New Hampshire and Connecticut lead the nation in standardized testing performance. Overall, students in these states maintained strong NAEP performance levels through the eighth grade, with only minimal changes in memorizing and math performances.

Comparatively, the bottom five states—Mississippi, Alabama, West Virginia, New Mexico and Oklahoma—experience a sharper decline in proficiency levels from fourth to eighth grade.

These contrasting performances highlight how various factors may impact standardized testing outcomes at various grade levels, emphasizing the importance of addressing educational disparities.


To determine the states with the best test scores, Forbes Advisor Education obtained data on test performance at the elementary, middle, high school and college levels.

At the elementary level, we analyzed the percentage of fourth-grade students who scored at or above grade-appropriate proficiency in the math and memorizing sections of NAEP, according to government data from The Nation’s Report Card. We conducted an identical analysis of eighth-grade student scores.

To measure high school standardized test performance, we looked at the average ACT and SAT scores among test takers who graduated from high school in 2023. This data came from ACT and the College Board, respectively.

Finally, to measure how a state’s college-educated test takers compare, we used the average MCAT scores of medical students expected to earn their MD in 2023–24, separated according to students’ states of legal residence. This data came from the Association of American Medical Colleges.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Standardized Testing

What is meant by a standardized test?

A standardized test is an assessment that’s administered and scored in a consistent and uniform manner across a broad population. Standardized tests are designed to measure students’ comprehension and competency in specific subject areas, evaluate overall academic performance and inform educational policies.

What are the problems with standardized testing?

Standardized testing often faces criticism from teachers, administrators and parents. Some argue that the one-size-fits-all approach overlooks students’ diverse learning styles and strengths. Moreover, some say standardized testing includes biases that can influence schools’ curriculums and funding allocations.

What are the pros and cons of standardized testing?

In primary schools, standardized testing offers a quantitative assessment of academic performance, theoretically removing subjective biases that come from individual instructors and district-specific assessments. Some say standardized testing favors certain learning styles and socioeconomic backgrounds and stifles creativity.

Is the SAT a standardized test?

The SAT is a standardized college entrance exam usually taken during the junior or senior year of high school. Many colleges and universities use SAT scores during admissions; however, schools commonly adopt test-optional admissions processes that do not require applicants to submit standardized test scores.

Thu, 04 Jan 2024 04:33:00 -0600 Mariah St John en-US text/html
The 6 Best At-Home Hormone Tests for 2024

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At-home hormone tests can indicate a hormonal imbalance. Testing at home can provide a more private and sometimes affordable option. This article features the best hormone tests for fertility, menopause, and more.

Hormones are essential in many aspects of health, from growth and metabolism to cardiovascular health and mood. Some changes in hormone levels are typical, while others can indicate an irregularity. A person may monitor their levels at home for a range of reasons.

This article explores how the tests work and which hormones people tend to monitor. It also describes six of the best testing kits on the market, including at-home testosterone tests.

Please note that the writer of this article has not tried these products. All information presented is purely research-based and correct at the time of publication.

The table below compares each hormone test in this article for the price, hormones tested, and more.

The nervous system and the endocrine system regulate the body. The nervous system uses nerves to send signals, and the endocrine regulates the body’s functions through chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream. These messengers are hormones.

Hormones affect:

  • growth and development
  • sexual function
  • reproduction
  • appetite
  • mood and behavior
  • digestion
  • heart function

Hormonal imbalances can cause various symptoms, depending on the specific hormones involved and their levels.

Anyone who suspects their symptoms result from an imbalance should contact a doctor. If they diagnose a health issue related to hormones, a person might also consider testing their hormone levels at home for greater clarity.

Some people require continued monitoring and may prefer the comfort and convenience of at-home tests. For example, this may be true for pregnant people or those with weakened immune systems.

Also, some hormone levels decrease with age, and older adults who regularly check their levels may find it more convenient to test from home.

Once a person makes a purchase, the company ships their testing kit.

Test activation

When a person receives their kit, the first step is registering it online using the code the company provides. This ensures that the results go to the person’s online account.

Sample collection

The next step is to collect a blood, saliva, or urine demo using the materials in the kit. The manufacturers should include clear instructions, and most companies offer phone or video assistance.

After collecting the sample, the person ships it back to the company or a designated lab. Most companies provide prepaid shipping labels in their testing kits.


Once the company receives the sample, it sends a confirmation of receipt. It then usually sends the demo to a partner lab for processing. This usually takes 3–5 business days.

When the results are ready, the person receives a notification and can access the results online. A nurse or doctor from the company’s medical team may then contact the person to explain the results, offer advice, and send out a prescription, if necessary.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved the majority of at-home tests. It states that while at-home tests can be fast, cost-effective, and confidential, they should not replace the care of a person’s regular healthcare professional.

Results from at-home tests can vary. These products may not test as widely as tests from the doctor’s office, and several factors can influence their accuracy, including that:

  • there is more room for user error during demo collection
  • samples are at risk of contamination or damage during shipping
  • some companies may not use CLIA-accredited labs to analyze samples

Getting tested at a doctor’s office will ensure a person has help understanding their results. A doctor will also be able to inform a person of the best steps to take next.

People should always speak with a doctor if they are concerned about their health and not make health decisions based on at-home test results without first consulting a healthcare professional.

Below, we explore these hormones’ roles and why people monitor their levels.


Commonly known as the stress hormone, the adrenal glands produce cortisol.

Checking cortisol levels can help doctors learn how these glands function and diagnose various disorders, including Cushing syndrome and Addison disease.


Estrogens are crucial for the development and function of the reproductive organs. In females, they also support the development of what doctors call “secondary sex characteristics,” such as breasts.

One type of estrogen is called estradiol, or E2, and the testicles and ovaries primarily produce it. In females, checking E2 levels can help doctors identify and explain early- or late-onset puberty. In males, testing these levels can help doctors understand the cause of delayed puberty.

Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) belong to a class of hormones called gonadotropins. They help manage fertility.


Melatonin regulates the sleep cycle. A doctor may order a test to assess melatonin secretion patterns and the pineal gland’s function.


Testing levels of progesterone can help detect ovulation and pregnancy. These tests also help doctors monitor high risk pregnancies and diagnose ectopic pregnancies.


Checking testosterone levels can help a doctor assess reproductive and adrenal function. This can help them identify hypogonadism, infertility, and tumors, for example.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

The pituitary gland secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Checking TSH levels can indicate how well the thyroid is functioning. It can help doctors diagnose hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

T3 and T4

Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are the two main hormones the thyroid gland produces.

Checking levels of T4 and TSH can give a doctor a good idea of the thyroid’s function. T3 levels help doctors diagnose hyperthyroidism and its severity.

The symptoms of a hormonal imbalance will differ depending on which hormone is affected and whether a person has too much or too little of a certain hormone.

People with a hormonal imbalance may experience:

  • weight gain
  • sudden weight loss
  • fatigue
  • mood changes
  • increased thirst or hunger
  • changes in sex drive
  • menstrual changes

However, symptoms can vary widely, and the list above is not exhaustive.

Learn more about hormonal imbalances.

At-home testing cannot replace in-person medical care. At-home test results are insufficient to diagnose a health condition, and people should not change their diet, stop or start medication, or make large lifestyle changes based on the results of an at-home test.

A person should always discuss their at-home test results with a doctor before making these changes.

Below, we answer some common questions about at-home hormone tests.

Depending on the test a person chooses, it will screen for more or fewer hormones. While tests that check more hormone levels are more expensive than basic tests, people may find they receive a more thorough overview of their hormone health.

It is possible to check hormone levels at home. People can buy at-home hormone test kits from companies such as LetsGetChecked and Everlywell. Although these tests can inform a person about various hormone levels, buyers should not change their diet, medication, or lifestyle based on the results without first discussing them with a doctor.

Many companies work with CLIA-certified and some CAP-accredited laboratories to analyze people’s hormone test samples, meaning the labs comply with federal and state regulations and go through regular checks on their tests’ accuracy.

However, at-home tests may not be as accurate as those a person can get in a doctor’s office. This may be due to a higher margin for error when people take their own samples and the risk of damage during shipments.

The FDA states that people should always discuss their at-home test results with a doctor who can interpret them based on the person’s medical history, physical exams, and other test results.

A hormone imbalance occurs when a person has too much or too little hormones in their bodies. While symptoms vary depending on which hormone is out of balance, common signs include acne, weight changes, and a lower sex drive.

Learn more about the common signs of hormone imbalances.

The FDA states that at-home tests can be cost-effective, quick, and confidential. However, they may not test as widely or be as accurate as tests available from a doctor’s office. People looking for a test to monitor their hormone levels in conjunction with regular care from a doctor may find these tests worth it. However, getting tested at a doctor’s office will ensure a person gets the insight, support, and testing panels they need for their particular situation.

People can use at-home tests to check their hormones at home. Typically, people must provide a blood or saliva demo to use the test. However, they should speak with a doctor to discuss any concerns they have about their hormones.

Hormones play an essential role in a person’s health and well-being. At-home tests can be a straightforward and convenient way to monitor levels of specific hormones.

While many testing kits are available, it is worth noting that these tests alone cannot diagnose a health issue. Anyone with concerns can contact a healthcare professional.

Thu, 14 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
NMC Introduces Post-Doctoral Fellowship Courses To Promote Research & Clinical Skill Development In Medical Colleges No result found, try new keyword!National Medical Commission (NMC) for the very first time introduced post-doctoral fellowship courses in medical colleges regulated by it, in an effort to promote research and clinical skill ... Fri, 05 Jan 2024 01:26:00 -0600 en-us text/html Medical cannabis licenses issued to all except dispensaries after last-minute injunction

The Alabama Medical Cannabis Commission has issued licenses to other companies that were selected to cultivate, transport, and test marijuana.

MONTGOMERY, Ala — A judge temporarily blocked Alabama from issuing licenses to medical marijuana dispensaries amid an ongoing legal battle over how the state selected the winning companies.

Montgomery Circuit Judge James Anderson issued a temporary restraining order late Thursday to stop the Alabama Medical Cannabis Commission from issuing licenses to the four dispensaries. The licenses will be on hold while he hears a challenge to the selection process.

The ruling affects only the dispensaries. Brittany Peters, a spokeswoman for the commission, said Friday that the commission has issued licenses to other companies that were selected to cultivate, transport, and test marijuana.

The commission next month is set to issue the coveted “integrated” licenses for multifunctional companies that grow, transport and sell medical marijuana. Anderson has not yet ruled on a request to block the issuance of the integrated licenses.

Yellowhammer Medical Dispensaries had sought the pause on the dispensary licenses. Yellowhammer was selected in the commission's first two attempts to award the licenses this summer, but the commission rescinded the awards amid disputes about the selection process. Yellowhammer was not selected in the latest round.

Patrick Dungan, a lawyer representing Yellowhammer, said the company is pleased to see the court intervene.

Dungan said Yellowhammer had unsuccessfully urged the commission to allow two dispensary licenses to go forward and withhold a decision on the final two. He said the company is “only looking for a fair opportunity to be heard on how we were denied a license after achieving the second-highest score and being awarded a license twice.”

Anderson said he is sympathetic to concerns about delaying the availability of medical marijuana but said a pause on the licenses is merited.

Members of the Alabama Medical Cannabis Commission said Thursday they are aiming to get the state's medical marijuana program underway in 2024 after a series of delays and legal disputes.

Commissioners voted 7-2 for a motion declaring they have no plans to pause license awards despite ongoing lawsuits and appeals from losing companies. Supporters said the motion is intended to convey a message that they will not delay the program any longer unless ordered to do so by a court.

“We’d like to move forward with these people, the slate of awards that we’ve had in the month of December, and just get this show on the road so the people can get their medicine,” Commissioner Sam Blakemore, a pharmacist, said during the meeting.

The commission earlier this month selected more than 20 companies to cultivate, process and sell medical marijuana in the state. Under commission rules, the licenses will be awarded after license fees are paid.

Twenty-six companies have also requested hearings with the commission after their license applications were rejected.

Medical marijuana remains unavailable in Alabama more than two years after lawmakers voted to legalize it in 2021. The state had to develop rules, and the selection process has been bogged down in disputes. Commissioners paused the license process several times during the ongoing dispute.

Fri, 29 Dec 2023 06:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Alabama aims to get its medical cannabis program started while lawsuits continue No result found, try new keyword!The Alabama Medical Cannabis Commission voted to proceed with issuing business licenses to cultivators and other companies starting Friday. Thu, 28 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en-us text/html Parity in stipends, paid leaves in new PG medical regulations No result found, try new keyword!The National Medical Commission (NMC) has introduced reforms in postgraduate medical education, including equal stipends for PG students at private and state-run colleges, minimum casual leave, and ... Thu, 04 Jan 2024 05:07:02 -0600 en-us text/html 4 Best At-Home Herpes Tests for 2024

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At-home herpes tests are a convenient way to test for this common infection. Here, we examine the best herpes test kits, from their price to their support and privacy measures. Plus, we provide our editor’s hands-on review of the LetsGetChecked herpes test.

Medical News Today Editor Lois Zoppi received a free herpes test from LetsGetChecked to review. All opinions are their own.

The table below compares the six at-home herpes tests for cost, follow-up care, and more.

People considering buying a home test may seek advice from a pharmacist on which test is likely to be best for them. The pharmacist may also be able to show them how to collect the demo at home to prevent inaccuracies.

People who are looking for an at-home herpes test should consider the following before making a purchase:

  • Clear information: The company should offer all the information that a person needs for testing, including clear and complete instructions.
  • Consultations: Some companies offer remote consultations for people who wish to discuss their sexual health concerns, particularly if they receive a positive result. This might be helpful for those who cannot easily attend doctor’s appointments in person or who are uncomfortable talking with their current doctor about their sexual health. However, people should try to visit a doctor in person if they test positive.
  • Treatment plan: Online providers may suggest further testing or treatment depending on the individual’s results and concerns. People should always discuss these suggestions with a healthcare professional.
  • Certified laboratories: Some companies work with laboratories with Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) certification. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) claims that the CLIA regulations “establish quality standards for laboratory testing.” Medical News Today only features brands that use CLIA-certified labs to test samples.

At-home and in-person tests screen for the herpes simplex virus and will return either a positive, negative, or inconclusive result.

At-home tests require a person to collect the demo themselves. These samples may include urine, mouth or genital swabs, or a blood sample.

While at-home tests may be more convenient for those uncomfortable discussing their sexual history with others or those who cannot easily access healthcare, there are some risks. If a person does not collect the demo correctly, they may receive an inconclusive or incorrect test result.

Some at-home tests involve ordering a test online and visiting a lab so that a technician can collect the sample. This may be a good middle ground between true at-home tests and tests from a clinic for those who prefer not to discuss their sexual health with their doctor.

Samples taken by lab technicians and healthcare professionals are more likely to be valid. These professionals have had training and are more likely to take the demo correctly.

Another difference between at-home and in-person tests is that companies offering at-home testing may not offer follow-up advice. On the other hand, healthcare professionals from a clinic can provide people with resources, treatment, and prevention tips.

The CDC recommends herpes testing only for people who experience symptoms. Herpes can produce blisters on and around the genitals, mouth, or rectum. One reason for this is that false-positive results are possible.

Learn more about how long it takes for herpes symptoms to show.

People who have active herpes lesions can undergo a swab test. However, if the lesion is small or has started healing, there might not be enough virus for the test to detect. Due to this, there is also a risk of a false-negative result.

Healthcare professionals may be able to diagnose a person with herpes if they present with blisters and sores. Doctors may also swab sores or blisters that have not yet healed and send the samples to a lab for tests.

Anyone who thinks they might have had exposure to HSV and wants to take a test for reassurance, despite a lack of symptoms, will need to test for antibodies in the blood instead. White blood cells produce antibodies when bacteria, viruses, or other unwanted substances. A positive antibody test may not indicate that a person has a current herpes infection. It also cannot tell people when they got herpes, if they have it.

According to the American Sexual Health Association, people should wait 12–16 weeks from the time of sexual contact before taking a test. The test checks whether or not the body has developed antibodies for HSV-1 or HSV-2, which may take some time to become detectable after exposure.

People who are sexually active or share needles with others may require regular testing.

Individuals with partners with herpes and who do not use barrier methods such as condoms each time they engage in sexual activity should also test for herpes regularly.

Some people may prefer to order their at-home tests from online providers since this does not require them to leave their homes.

A 2020 study notes that at-home kits may also benefit those who may not access routine healthcare.

There are two types of home tests: self-collection and laboratory-based.

Self-collection tests

After purchasing a test collection kit from an online provider, individuals receive all the tools they need to perform the test at home. They collect a demo by following the instructions in the kit and then return it to the company or its laboratory for analysis.

Laboratory-based tests

After purchasing the test from an online provider, the person receives a laboratory requisition form, which they present at a testing site. A healthcare professional takes the required sample, and the individual receives their result within a few days.

HSV-1 or HSV-2 test results may be negative or positive. These results depend on the type of test people take.

False results can occur with many diagnostic herpes tests. Herpes tests are not as exact as tests for other STIs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea.

A research review on the diagnosis of HSV-1 and HSV-2 concludes that using blood tests to diagnose genital herpes may be inappropriate because positive results may be due to chronic infection, whereas negative results may overlook accurate infection.

According to the American Sexual Health Association, other viruses carried by the person in their blood may cross-react with the herpes virus, causing a false positive herpes result. These viruses include the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) which causes chickenpox or cytomegalovirus (CMV).

Other factors that may determine the correct outcome of a herpes test result include demo preparation and the stage of infection of the sample.

Four types of tests can confirm the presence of the HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection. These are:

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

This is also known as a viral DNA test or HSV DNA test. The healthcare practitioner examines the sore demo to look for the DNA of HSV-1 and HSV-2 to determine which virus is causing the person’s infection.

These tests are 99% accurate and are regarded as the gold standard of testing by healthcare practitioners in advanced HIV infections.

Viral culture

A healthcare practitioner collects a demo from the person’s skin sore and sends it to a laboratory to see if the virus grows. This type of test is useful early in an outbreak when the sore is open.

A positive result indicates that the person has an HSV infection. This may be an initial outbreak or a recurring one.

A negative result indicates that the test demo did not contain HSV. A negative result does not always mean that the person is free from the herpes virus. For example, a false negative may occur if the lesion is small or has started to heal.

Tzanck smear

A healthcare practitioner scrapes cells from the person’s sore to look for characteristics of herpes infection. A clinician examines the cells at the doctor’s office. There is no need to send the demo to a laboratory.

A positive result indicates the person has an infection. A negative result indicates that they do not have a herpes infection.

Antibody tests

Herpes simplex antibody tests determine the presence of the HSV-1 or HSV-2 virus. A clinician detects these antibodies in the person’s blood or sore sample.

A positive result means that the person has HSV antibodies from a current infection, or they have had exposure, an outbreak, or infection in the past. A negative result indicates that the person does not have the virus.

Before ordering a demo collection kit, people should consider the advantages and disadvantages of using at-home herpes tests. These include:

Anyone who has sexual contact with someone who has received a herpes diagnosis should contact a doctor as soon as possible.

People who have received a positive test result may also wish to consider seeking medical advice.

Currently, herpes is not curable, but doctors can prescribe medications to reduce the frequency and severity of the symptoms. This may help lower the chance of the infection spreading to other individuals.

Below are some common questions about at-home herpes tests.

Yes, it is possible to test for herpes at home. LetsGetChecked, STDCheck, and MyLAB Box all sell at-home herpes tests online. While at-home herpes tests are easy to complete and convenient to use, there is a risk of user error if a person is not used to taking herpes tests themselves.

People can use at-home tests to check if they have herpes. These tests will usually involve collecting a demo with a finger-prick lancet or swab.

The CDC writes that if a person does not have any sores or blisters, they can check for herpes with a blood test.

Herpes can look like bumps under the skin, pimples, or fluid filled blisters, which can be red, yellow, or white. Once these blisters have burst, they will let out a clear or yellow liquid, which will crust as the blister heals.

Herpes tends to cause soft blisters that are filled with fluid.

Initial genital herpes symptoms in females include flu-like symptoms, swollen glands, painful genitals, and unusual discharge.

Early oral herpes symptoms may include flu-like symptoms, headaches, and sore lesions in and around the mouth.

Learn more about herpes in females.

Many people who have herpes do not have any symptoms at all. Additionally, if a person has herpes symptoms, they can still be mistaken for something else. For example, herpes sores may look like pimples or ingrown hairs. Since herpes sores can look like blisters, they can also be mistaken for skin condition symptoms, such as dermatitis.

Learn more about what herpes sores look like.

The CDC recommends that only people who have symptoms of herpes undergo testing. Possible symptoms include blisters around the anus, genitals, or mouth that burst and leave painful sores. The CDC also recommends testing if a person experiences what could be a herpes outbreak.

A person can ask for a herpes test at any sexual health clinic or a doctor’s office. A healthcare professional will either swab a blister or draw a blood demo if they do not have blisters. A person can opt for at-home herpes tests, which typically require a blood demo through a finger prick.

Once a person receives their test results, they should contact a doctor to discuss treatment options if necessary.

Learn more about medications for herpes.

At-home herpes tests may be the preferred option for people who feel uncomfortable discussing their sexual health with a doctor and those who cannot visit a healthcare facility.

Many companies sell at-home tests. Before purchasing a test, an individual may wish to compare the costs, how long it takes the companies to issue the results, and their instructions for collecting the sample.

Some people may have difficulty collecting samples at home and interpreting the test results. Some companies may only offer consultations to individuals who receive a positive test.

There are different types of herpes tests a person may wish to take. People should consider that any test has room for error, and those who receive a positive herpes test result should contact a doctor to discuss treatment options or a follow-up test.

Tue, 19 Dec 2023 09:59:00 -0600 en text/html
New rule for NEET UG eligibility: Candidates with Biology or Biotech as additional can now become doctors NEW DELHI:Students who studied physics, chemistry, biology, or biotechnology in addition to English in class 12 from duly recognised boards will be eligible to take the NEET-UG exam. The National Medical Commission (NMC) stated in a public notification posted on Wednesday that this decision will apply to students whose applications were previously denied.
The erstwhile Medical Council of India (MCI) governed admission and selection to the MBBS course under Chapter-II of the Regulations on Graduate Medical Education, 1997, including several revisions.
It then had mentioned that candidates must have undergone two years of regular or continuous study of the subjects of Physics, Chemistry, Biology or Biotechnology, in Class 11 and 12 with practical, along with English, the Undergraduate Medical Education Board of the NMC said in the public notice.
The two years study was required to be completed from regular schools and not from open schools or as private candidates.
Further, the study of Biology and Biotechnology or any other requisite subject, could not be completed as an additional subject after passing Class 12, the notice said.
The provisions had been challenged before the Delhi High Court and were quashed vide judgement dated May 11, 2018 in a case and other related matters.
This had a consequential bearing on the candidates seeking admission in graduate and primary medical courses in foreign medical institutes due to the statutory regulations in this regard i.e. the eligibility requirement for taking admission in an Undergraduate Medical Course in a Foreign Medical Institution Regulations, 2002 and the Screening Test Regulation, 2002.
In this background, candidates had been debarred from NEET-UG Test as also their applications seeking eligibility certificate were rejected.
Meanwhile, the NMC has framed the Graduate Medical Education Regulations, 2023 as notified on June 2.
Regulation 11(b) provides that candidates who have passed 10+2 or its equivalent with the subjects of Physics, Chemistry, Biology / Biotechnology and English shall be eligible for appearing in NEET-UG.
"Therefore, after the framing of Graduate Medical Education Regulations, 2023 the earlier Regulations on Graduate Medical Education, 1997 including the various amendments stand repealed prospectively," the NMC notice said.
The NMC held detailed deliberations in a meeting held on June 14, 2023 and took into consideration the New Education Policy, which permits great extent of flexibility in the study of various subjects in Class 12.
And "decided that the previous approach of the erstwhile Medical Council of India needs to be revisited by permitting candidates to undertake study of the requisite subjects (Physics, Chemistry, Biology / Biotechnology alongwith English) even as additional subjects after passing Class 12th from duly recognized boards by the concerned Government".
Such candidates shall be permitted to appear in NEET-UG Test and thus will be eligible for grant of eligibility certificate, the notice stated.
The present decision shall be applicable retrospectively also on candidates whose applications for grant of eligibility certificate have been rejected on the grounds contemplated in the present public notice. However, for the purpose of appearing in NEET-UG, candidates who become eligible after the date of the present public notice, shall be permitted to appear in NEET-UG-2024.
Further, court cases filed by MCI/ NMC, as before any court, in this regard shall be withdrawn and that the current position with the present public notice shall be explained in all pending litigations filed by candidates, against MCI or NMC, so that the same could be disposed at the earliest.
Thu, 23 Nov 2023 02:35:00 -0600 en text/html

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