CDCA-ADEX Dumps - Dental Hygiene Updated: 2023
|killexams.com CDCA-ADEX CDCA-ADEX exam brain dumps with practice software.|
Exam Code: CDCA-ADEX Dental Hygiene Dumps November 2023 by Killexams.com team|
CDCA-ADEX Dental Hygiene
The CDCA-ADEX Dental Hygiene examination is a standardized test designed to evaluate the clinical competence and knowledge of dental hygiene students or graduates. This examination is administered by the Commission on Dental Competency Assessments (CDCA) and is a requirement for dental hygiene licensure in some states. Below is a detailed description of the test, including the number of questions and time allocation, course outline, exam objectives, and exam syllabus.
Number of Questions and Time:
The CDCA-ADEX Dental Hygiene examination consists of two components: a computer-based written exam and a clinical exam. The number of questions and time allocation for each component may vary depending on the specific administration. Typically, the written exam consists of multiple-choice questions, and the time given is around 4-5 hours. The clinical exam involves performing dental hygiene procedures on patients, and the time allocation can range from several hours to a full day.
The CDCA-ADEX Dental Hygiene examination covers a wide range of syllabus related to dental hygiene theory, practice, and clinical skills. While the exact course outline may vary, the following are common areas covered in the examination:
1. Dental Anatomy and Physiology:
- Structure and function of teeth and surrounding oral tissues
- Oral cavity landmarks and anatomical structures
- Physiology of the oral cavity and associated systems
2. Oral Health Assessment:
- Dental and periodontal charting
- Radiographic interpretation and analysis
- Oral health risk assessment
- Oral pathology recognition
3. Dental Hygiene Treatment Planning and Implementation:
- Patient assessment and diagnosis
- Treatment plan development
- Dental prophylaxis and scaling procedures
- Application of preventive measures (fluoride, sealants, etc.)
- Local anesthesia administration (if allowed by state regulations)
4. Dental Hygiene Clinical Skills:
- Instrumentation techniques (hand and ultrasonic scaling)
- Periodontal instrumentation and root planing
- Soft tissue management (curettage, debridement, etc.)
- Patient education and oral hygiene instruction
- Infection control and sterilization procedures
The objectives of the CDCA-ADEX Dental Hygiene examination are to assess the candidate's competence in dental hygiene theory, clinical skills, and patient care. The exam aims to evaluate the following:
1. Knowledge of dental anatomy, physiology, and oral health assessment techniques.
2. Competence in developing comprehensive dental hygiene treatment plans.
3. Proficiency in performing dental hygiene procedures, including scaling, root planing, and prophylaxis.
4. Ability to apply infection control and sterilization protocols.
5. Capability to communicate effectively with patients and provide oral health education.
The CDCA-ADEX Dental Hygiene examination syllabus outlines the specific syllabus and competencies covered in the exam. The syllabus typically includes the following areas:
- Dental Anatomy and Physiology
- Oral Health Assessment
- Dental Hygiene Treatment Planning and Implementation
- Dental Hygiene Clinical Skills
- Infection Control and Sterilization Procedures
- Patient Education and Communication
Medical Hygiene Questions and Answers
Other Medical examsCRRN Certified Rehabilitation Registered Nurse
CCRN Critical Care Register Nurse
CEN Certified Emergency Nurse
CFRN Certified Flight Registered Nurse
CGFNS Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools
CNA Certified Nurse Assistant
CNN Certified Nephrology Nurse
CNOR Certified Nurse Operating Room
DANB Dental Assisting National Board
EMT Emergency Medical Technician
EPPP Examination for Professional Practice of Psychology
FPGEE Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency
NBCOT National Board for Certification of Occupational Therapists - 2023
NCBTMB National Certification Board for Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork
NET Nurse Entrance Test
NPTE National Physical Therapy Examination
OCN Oncology Certified Nurse - 2023
PANCE Physician Assistant National Certifying
VTNE Veterinary Technician National Examination (VTNE)
CNS Clinical Nurse Specialist
NBRC The National Board for Respiratory Care
AHM-540 AHM Medical Management
AACN-CMC Cardiac Medicine Subspecialty Certification
AAMA-CMA AAMA Certified Medical Assistant
ABEM-EMC ABEM Emergency Medicine Certificate
ACNP AG - Acute Care Nurse Practitioner
AEMT NREMT Advanced Emergency Medical Technician
AHIMA-CCS Certified Coding Specialist (CPC) (ICD-10-CM)
ANCC-CVNC ANCC (RN-BC) Cardiac-Vascular Nursing
ANCC-MSN ANCC (RN-BC) Medical-Surgical Nursing
ANP-BC ANCC Adult Nurse Practitioner
APMLE Podiatry and Medical
BCNS-CNS Board Certified Nutrition Specialis
BMAT Biomedical Admissions Test
CCN CNCB Certified Clinical Nutritionist
CCP Certificate in Child Psychology
CDCA-ADEX Dental Hygiene
CDM Certified Dietary Manager
CGRN ABCGN Certified Gastroenterology Registered Nurse
CNSC NBNSC Certified Nutrition Support Clinician
COMLEX-USA Osteopathic Physician
CPM Certified Professional Midwife
CRNE Canadian Registered Nurse Examination
CVPM Certificate of Veterinary Practice Management
DAT Dental Admission Test
DHORT Discover Health Occupations Readiness Test
DTR Dietetic Technician Registered
FNS Fitness Nutrition Specialist
MHAP MHA Phlebotomist
MSNCB MSNCB Medical-Surgical Nursing Certification
NAPLEX North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination
NCCT-TSC NCCT Technician in Surgery
NCMA-CMA Certified Medical Assistant
NCPT National Certified Phlebotomy Technician (NCPT)
NE-BC ANCC Nurse Executive Certification
NNAAP-NA NNAAP Nurse Aide
NREMT-NRP NREMT National Registered Paramedic
NREMT-PTE NREMT Paramedic Trauma Exam
OCS Ophthalmic Coding Specialist
PANRE Physician Assistant National Recertifying Exam
PCCN AACN Progressive Critical Care Nursing
RDN Registered Dietitian
VACC VACC Vascular Access
WHNP Women Health Nurse Practitioner
AACD American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry
RPFT Registered Pulmonary Function Technologist
ACLS Advanced Cardiac Life Support - 2023
GP-Doctor General Practitioner (GP) Doctor
GP-MCQS Prometric MCQS for general practitioner (GP) Doctor
INBDE Integrated National Board Dental Examination (Day 1 exam)
Podiatry-License-Exam-Part-III Podiatry License exam Part III - 2023
|killexams.com is the last preparation source for passing the CDCA-ADEX CDCA-ADEX exam. We have cautiously complied and assembled CDCA-ADEX dumps of actual exam questions and answers, which are up to date with the equal frequency as CDCA-ADEX real exam is updated, and reviewed by means of enterprise specialists. Huge Discount Coupon and Promo codes are offered.|
What condition affects learning and impulse control?
B. Down Syndrome
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affects learning and impulse control. It is
related primarily to vision, hearing, language, attention, and touch. It occurs in 5
to 10 percent of elementary school populations and is more common in boys.
What conditions display major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and
A. FAS and Autism
B. Emotional Disturbance and Mental Illness
C. Autism, Emotional Disturbance, and Mental Illness
D. ADHD and Autism
Emotional disturbance and mental illness display major depression, bipolar
disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. These conditions are
the second leading cause of disability and premature death in the United States.
What is NOT a common classification of emotional disturbance and mental
B. Personality disorders
D. Repetitive internal dialogue
Repetitive internal dialogue is not a common classification of emotional
disturbance and mental illness. Psychoneuroses are classified as anxiety,
depressive, obsessive, or conversion reactions. Personality disorders are classified
as situational or adjustment reactions. A psychosis is classified as schizophrenia.
What disease is characterized by intellectual and cognitive disturbance?
Alzheimers is characterized by intellectual and cognitive disturbance. There are
three types: early onset, late onset, and familial. Early onset is diagnosed before
the age of 65. Late onset occurs after the age of 65. Familial is entirely inherited,
with onset in the early 40s.
What condition has symptom of recurrent or chronic brain dysfunction?
D. Seizure disorder
Seizure disorder is the condition that has symptoms of recurrent or chronic brain
dysfunction. It is characterized by discrete, recurring behavioral manifestations
that include disturbances of balance, sensation, behavior, perception, or
consciousness. The manifestations are due to abnormally excessive neuronal
For More exams visit https://killexams.com/vendors-exam-list
Kill your exam at First Attempt....Guaranteed!
Do you have a health question youâve always wondered about? Tell us whatâs on your mind. No Topic is off limits, and no question is too weird or silly. Wondering why your stomach growls, your eye twitches or hair grows in your ears? Weâre on it. We canât dispense personal medical advice or answer every question, but we can find experts to answer your questions about food, fitness, mental health, body parts, sleep, aging, chronic illness, dental issues and even your pets.
Story continues below advertisement
Story continues below advertisement
What is your question?
Example: Is taking a vitamin D supplement really necessary?*
Do you have any additional information youâd like to share?
We respect your privacy and will not publish any part of your response without contacting you first and getting your permission.
Which best describes your race or ethnicity? (Optional)
Your response will help us ensure we answer questions from a diverse cross-section of readers.
Question mark illustration by Christian Pietrzok for The Washington Post
Best Practices to Consider for Industrial Hygiene
Let's explore best practices in industrial hygiene, with a focus on OSHA's role in regulating and promoting workplace safety.
Industrial hygiene plays a vital role in safeguarding the health and well-being of workers in various industries. It involves identifying and controlling potential hazards to minimize exposure to harmful substances and conditions. In the United States, OSHA sets regulations and guidelines to ensure that workplaces maintain high standards of industrial hygiene. Letâs explore best practices in industrial hygiene, with a focus on OSHA's role in regulating and promoting workplace safety.
Industrial hygiene is the science and art of identifying, assessing and managing workplace hazards to safeguard the health and well-being of workers. It encompasses various disciplinesâincluding occupational toxicology, epidemiology and engineeringâto address potential risks.
Industrial hygiene, also known as occupational hygiene, encompasses a range of practices aimed at protecting workers from workplace hazards. These hazards can include exposure to toxic chemicals, noise, radiation, ergonomic issues and other physical or biological factors. Implementing effective industrial hygiene measures not only ensures the well-being of employees but can also lead to increased productivity and reduced healthcare costs for businesses.
Industrial hygiene is a crucial field that aims to protect the health and well-being of workers by identifying, evaluating and controlling workplace hazards. To achieve these goals, industrial hygiene follows a set of principles and best practices. Here are seven key principles of industrial hygiene:
1. Recognition of Hazards
The first step in industrial hygiene is the recognition of hazards in the workplace. This involves identifying and understanding potential sources of danger, such as chemical substances, physical agents, ergonomic stressors and biological agents. OSHA provides comprehensive guidelines and resources for recognizing workplace hazards, which is essential for the subsequent steps in the industrial hygiene process. In addition, OSHA also recommends workers complete OSHA safety training, which provides site safety knowledge and awareness to prevent the most common workplace hazards and maintain a safe and healthy work environment.
2. Assessment of Exposure
If you've just been diagnosed with psoriasis, you may have a few questions about it. Here are answers to some of the more common ones people ask.
What's the difference between psoriasis and eczema?
To an untrained eye, these conditions may seem alike. But while they're both skin diseases, they're not the same. In fact, "They're 100 percent different," says Whitney High, MD, an associate professor of dermatology and the director of the Dermatopathology Laboratory at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.
Psoriasis doesn't usually affect children, High says. But eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is a childhood disease. Eczema also tends to be itchier than psoriasis. Only about a third of people who have psoriasis say they have itchiness.
And the conditions are likely to appear in different places. Eczema often shows up on kids' faces and buttocks and the inside of their knees and elbows. Psoriasis isn't typically found in those places.
Plus, "The same person that has childhood eczema doesn't get psoriasis. And the person who has psoriasis as a young adult usually didn't have childhood eczema," High says.
What causes psoriasis?
Doctors arenât exactly sure. âI get that a lot of times; âWhy do I have it?ââ says Melvin Chiu, a doctor of dermatology at the David Geffen Medical Center at the University of California, Los Angeles. âI donât really âŚ have a good answer for that. Itâs a big mystery, I think, right now.â
Chiu says researchers believe the two main culprits behind psoriasis are your genes and your environment. Scientists are still tracking down which genes are to blame, but they think that about 1 out of every 10 people got at least one of the genes that can lead to psoriasis from their parents.Â But only about 3% of people who have those genes get psoriasis. That's where the environment comes into play.
Researchers think things like infection (especially strep throat), an injury to the skin, certain medications, smoking, and other things may trigger the condition.
What's the cure?
"There is no cure at this point," Chiu says. "It's a chronic condition. âŚ You may have times when it'll be worse, and there may be times when it'll get better." He also says there may be some lucky people in whom it's very minimal. Or it gets better and doesn't get worse again. But, he says, most people "can expect it will be persistent." Treating it can make it better. But when treatments stop, it often comes back.
"There are some really excellent treatments," he says. "There are newer treatments in the pipeline, and many treatments [that] are available currently âŚ work very well." Those treatments don't cure the disease, he says. "But they significantly Improve the disease and make [people] feel better."
What are the treatments?
The most common ones are medicines prescribed by your doctor. They include foams, solutions, ointments, or creams, called topicals, that you put on your skin, along with drugs you take that affect your whole body. Your doctor also may recommend light therapy.
"Consult with a board-certified dermatologist, and they'll be happy to discuss any and all of these options, including over-the-counter options when they're appropriate," High says.
What works for one person may not work for another. That's why you and your doctor need to talk about what your treatment plan should be.
Chiu says that with the treatments available now, "we can get skin a lot better." He says that 20 to 30 years ago, psoriasis patients had much worse options and many fewer ones than people do now. "I tell people, it's kind of an exciting time in psoriasis."
Can the sun help?
Some research says a little every day can help with your symptoms. But, as always, you have to be careful not to overdo it. A sunburn may lead to a flare-up.
Is psoriasis contagious?
You can't "give" it to anyone, and no one can "catch" it from you.
"You can touch psoriasis all day long," High says. "As a dermatologist âŚ I see at least one person if not a few people with psoriasis [every work day], and I don't have it." High adds, "My wife doesn't have it. I didn't bring it home. I don't do special laundry. I don't undress in the garage or anything like that."
What is psoriatic arthritis?
Up to 30% of people who have psoriasis get this condition as well. It causes inflammation and swelling in your joints that can lead to pain and stiffness.
If you have psoriasis and feel any discomfort in your joints, tell your doctor. It's important to treat it quickly so your joints don't get damaged. Â
Are any other conditions linked to psoriasis?
Research is still under way, but scientists think people with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis may be more likely to have other serious diseases.
"There's an increasing appreciation that psoriasis can manifest in other ways: increased risk of cardiovascular disease, increased risk for obesity âŚ a natural risk for diabetes," High says. "It might impact your life in ways that you can't even really fully predict now."
Besides cardiovascular diseases and obesity, psoriasis also has been linked to cancer, Crohn's disease, depression, and liver disease, among others.
That's even more reason to stay in touch with your doctor and make sure you have a plan.
Because of the continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic, for the Summer 2020 semester (Summer 14-Week Session, Summer May Session, Summer 10-Week Session, Summer A Session (7-Week), and Summer B Session (7-Week)), students will again have the option of selecting a Pass/Fail grading method instead of the standard letter grade method, with certain exceptions. The letter grade method remains the default grading method if a student does not select the Pass/Fail grading option.
Health care open enrollment is here and weâre here to help guide you through it.
During this baffling annual ritual, Americans encounter our health care systemâs most confounding questions. Why am I stuck with my employerâs health plan? Who thought flexible spending accounts were a good idea? Why do I have to make so many choices when enrolling in Medicare? Is my dental insurance a scam?
Those were the questions we had here at Vox going into this open enrollment season. But we were curious to know what questions our audience had too. Last week, Vox supporters had an opportunity to ask and have answered their questions about open enrollment. If I were to identify a common theme, it was less about specific benefits and more big picture: Why is it so hard to make things simpler? Why is our health care discourse so contentious?
In the spirit of Voxâs commitment to keeping our journalism free to all, we wanted to share some of those Dumps with all of our readers. So here they are, lightly edited for clarity and length.
Why does Medicare For All or some universal health care for everybody seem like such a monumental task to accomplish in the USA as opposed to other countries around the world? Is it simply that we as Americans are focused on ourselves instead of helping others around us or is it more complicated than that?
I think the problem boils down to two distinct but related issues.
The first issue speaks for itself: Going back to the Truman era, the industry has marshaled immense resources to oppose proposals that would lead to more government involvement in health care. The Clinton health plan, opposed by the insurance industryâs Harry & Louise ads, is the best example of the effectiveness of its tactics. The Obama administration cut deals with the industry to get the Affordable Care Act (ACA) passed but, as a result, the law largely worked under the infrastructure that was already in place. There are some signs of the industryâs influence waning, such as Congressâs success in authorizing Medicare drug negotiations, but its ability to sway Republicans and moderate Democrats will always be the most important vote-counting hurdle to any major restructuring getting passed.
The political headwinds are also strengthened by the second issue: the voters. I have sat in on focus groups about Medicare-for-all with middle-of-the-road-ish voters who are in theory open to change. They may not love what they have now, but many of them like the idea of having choices and they are thinking that they will somehow end up worse off if there is a big overhaul. I do think people find some of the theoretical benefits of Medicare-for-all appealing, but they can be swayed by arguments pointing out the potential downsides. And the truth is, for all its problems, there is a critical mass of people who are just satisfied enough with the status quo. Polling consistently finds Americans think poorly of the system as a whole but they are more positive about their own health coverage. Thatâs the paradox Medicare-for-all supporters have to solve.
So I think as long as those two factors hold true, itâs hard to imagine big changes happening. Itâs certainly possible that things will deteriorate enough that the political environment will change. But who knows if weâll ever reach that point.
Why is health care so political in the US?
I donât think the US is unique in having health care be a contentious issue. I traveled to other countries for our Everybody Covered series a few years ago and each of the places I visited had been through spirited health care debates. Protesters marched through the halls of the Taiwanese capital when Taiwan was considering its single-payer plan. Australia has seen its health care system swing wildly between the public and private sectors depending on which party was in power, before settling into a hybrid model. Doctors in the Netherlands protested over working conditions in the early 2000s, leading to reforms to their sector.
But I think the US health care discourse is distinct for one big reason. While those countries have difficult debates about health care and have seen big changes, they have reached a social consensus that universal health care is the goal. Itâs just a question of how to achieve it. The US has never reached that kind of consensus. Even today, the two parties have very different views on that question. I think thatâs why our health care debate can seem so divisive: because itâs over fundamental questions about what the government should be doing and its obligations to its citizens.
On top of that, you have a lot of money behind any health care debate. Health care is one of our economyâs biggest sectors and the various companies involved with it are willing to spend a lot of money whenever their interests are at stake.
Something Iâve been wondering about is how much more accessible care for mental health has gotten, even though thereâs a long way to go. When did mental health become more recognized/a more important part of health insurance?
Youâre right: We do still have a long way to go. A recent survey found that 40 percent of patients who sought in-network mental health care had to make four or more calls to find a provider who would see them â compared to just 14 percent for physical health care. More than half of patients said they had had an insurance claim for mental health care denied three or more times, compared to about one-third who said they had the same experience with physical services.
But, to your point, that doesnât mean we havenât made progress. Insurers used to have no obligation to cover mental health care at all. The first mental health parity law was passed in the late 1990s as a kind of bipartisan consolation prize after Bill Clintonâs health care reform plan fizzled out. It was largely symbolic because the health insurance market was mostly unregulated at the time. Sometimes health insurers didnât cover mental health care at all. On the individual market, health insurers would disqualify people from coverage if they had mental health needs.
In 2008, Congress took another pass at improving coverage for mental health services, attaching a bill to the must-pass financial bailout and establishing the rules that exist today. (The ACA then extended these requirements to insurance sold on the lawâs insurance marketplaces.) The 2008 law said insurers couldnât place unfair limits on mental health care. You couldnât be limited to two mental health visits but permitted six doctor visits, for example. Patients couldnât face higher out-of-pocket costs for mental health services.
In practice, though, it has been hard to enforce. Mental health providers may be in an insurance network, but that doesnât mean they have availability to see new patients, to name one common problem. The Biden administration is taking new steps, 15 years after the law first passed, to try to force more compliance.
On behalf of my mother, Iâd like to ask how best to determine if a Medicare Advantage plan serves her better than traditional Medicare. I know that the Advantage plans generally cover medical, prescription and some dental and that traditional Medicare does not cover prescriptions or dental and that sheâd have to enroll in a Part D plan for prescriptions. Other seniors I know have told us to steer clear of Advantage plans due to losing benefits under medical.
Itâs funny you should ask. After our series published, I was sent a new online tool for Medicare plan shopping, by a Berkeley professor who sits on the companyâs board. I canât formally endorse it, of course, but I did mess around with it a bit as a hypothetical shopper and it seemed designed to help people compare different options. Healthpilot might be worth checking out: http://healthpilot.com/.
The AARP has other resources that might be useful to people in this situation. As Allie Volpe wrote for our series, in a guide to picking your health plan, thereâs a lot of free assistance available to help people make open enrollment decisions.
Image by Getty / Futurism
Earlier this year, Microsoft Research made a splashy claim about BioGPT, an AI system its researchers developed to answer questions about medicine and biology.
In a Twitter post, the software giant claimed the system had "achieved human parity," meaning a test had shown it could perform about as well as a person under certain circumstances. The tweet went viral. In certain corners of the internet, riding the hype wave of OpenAIâs newly-released ChatGPT, the response was almost rapturous.
"Itâs happening," tweeted one biomedical researcher.Â
"Life comes at you fast," mused another. "Learn to adapt and experiment."
Itâs true that BioGPTâs answers are written in the precise, confident style of the papers in biomedical journals that Microsoft used as training data.
But in Futurismâs testing, it soon became clear that in its current state, the system is prone to producing wildly inaccurate answers that no competent researcher or medical worker would ever suggest. The model will output nonsensical answers about pseudoscientific and supernatural phenomena, and in some cases even produces misinformation that could be dangerous to poorly-informed patients.
A particularly striking shortcoming? Similarly to other advanced AI systems that have been known to "hallucinate"Â false information, BioGPT frequently dreams up medical claims so bizarre as to be unintentionally comical.
Asked about the average number of ghosts haunting an American hospital, for example, it cited nonexistent data from the American Hospital Association that it said showed the "average number of ghosts per hospital was 1.4." Asked how ghosts affect the length of hospitalization, the AI replied that patients "who see the ghosts of their relatives have worse outcomes while those who see unrelated ghosts do not."
Other weaknesses of the AI are more serious, sometimes providing serious misinformation about hot-button medical topics.Â
BioGPT will also generate text that would make conspiracy theorists salivate, even suggesting that childhood vaccination can cause the onset of autism. In reality, of course, thereâs a broad consensus among doctors and medical researchers that there is no such link â and a study purporting to show a connection was later retracted â though widespread public belief in the conspiracy theory continues to suppress vaccination rates, often with tragic results.Â
BioGPT doesnât seem to have gotten that memo, though. Asked about the topic, it replied that "vaccines are one of the possible causes of autism." (However, it hedged in a head-scratching caveat, "I am not advocating for or against the use of vaccines.")
Itâs not unusual for BioGPT to provide an answer that blatantly contradicts itself. Slightly modifying the phrasing of the question about vaccines, for example, prompted a different result â but one that, again, contained a serious error.
"Vaccines are not the cause of autism," it conceded this time, before falsely claiming that the "MMR [measles, mumps, and rubella] vaccine was withdrawn from the US market because of concerns about autism."Â
In response to another minor rewording of the question, it also falsely claimed that the âCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recently reported a possible link between vaccines and autism.â
It feels almost insufficient to call this type of self-contradicting word salad "inaccurate." It seems more like a blended-up average of the AIâs training data, seemingly grabbing words from scientific papers and reassembling them in grammatically convincing ways resembling medical answers, but with little regard to factual accuracy or even consistency.Â
Roxana Daneshjou, a clinical scholar at the Stanford University School of Medicine who studies the rise of AI in healthcare, told Futurism that models like BioGPT are "trained to supply answers that sound plausible as speech or written language." But, she cautioned, theyâre "not optimized for the actual accurate output of the information."
Another worrying aspect is that BioGPT, like ChatGPT, is prone to inventing citations and fabricating studies to support its claims.
"The thing about the made-up citations is that they look real because it [BioGPT] was trained to create outputs that look like human language," Daneshjou said.Â
"I think my biggest concern is just seeing how people in medicine are wanting to start to use this without fully understanding what all the limitations are," she added.Â
A Microsoft spokesperson declined to directly answer questions about BioGPTâs accuracy issues, and didnât comment on whether there were concerns that people would misunderstand or misuse the model.
"We have responsible AI policies, practices and tools that guide our approach, and we involve a multidisciplinary team of experts to help us understand potential harms and mitigations as we continue to Improve our processes," the spokesperson said in a statement.
"BioGPT is a large language model for biomedical literature text mining and generation," they added. "It is intended to help researchers best use and understand the rapidly increasing amount of biomedical research publishing every day as new discoveries are made. It is not intended to be used as a consumer-facing diagnostic tool. As regulators like the FDA work to ensure that medical advice software works as intended and does no harm, Microsoft is committed to sharing our own learnings, innovations, and best practices with decision makers, researchers, data scientists, developers and others. We will continue to participate in broader societal conversations about whether and how AI should be used."
Microsoft Health Futures senior director Hoifung Poon, who worked on BioGPT, defended the decision to release the project in its current form.
"BioGPT is a research project," he said. "We released BioGPT in its current state so that others may reproduce and verify our work as well as study the viability of large language models in biomedical research."
Itâs true that the question of when and how to release potentially risky software is a tricky one. Making experimental code open source means that others can inspect how it works, evaluate its shortcomings, and make their own improvements or derivatives. But at the same time, releasing BioGPT in its current state makes a powerful new misinformation machine available to anyone with an internet connection â and with all the apparent authority of Microsoftâs distinguished research division, to boot.
Katie Link, a medical student at the Icahn School of Medicine and a machine learning engineer at the AI company Hugging Face â which hosts an online version of BioGPT that visitors can play around with â told Futurism that there are important tradeoffs to consider before deciding whether to make a program like BioGPT open source. If researchers do opt for that choice, one basic step she suggested was to add a clear disclaimer to the experimental software, warning users about its limitations and intent (BioGPT currently carries no such disclaimer.)
"Clear guidelines, expectations, disclaimers/limitations, and licenses need to be in place for these biomedical models in particular," she said, adding that the benchmarks Microsoft used to evaluate BioGPT are likely "not indicative of real-world use cases."
Despite the errors in BioGPTâs output, though, Link believes thereâs plenty the research community can learn from evaluating it.Â
"Itâs still really valuable for the broader community to have access to try out these models, as otherwise weâd just be taking Microsoftâs word of its performance when memorizing the paper, not knowing how it actually performs," she said.
In other words, Poonâs team is in a legitimately tough spot. By making the AI open source, theyâre opening yet another Pandoraâs Box in an industry that seems to specialize in them. But if they hadnât released it as open source, theyâd rightly be criticized as well â although as Link said, a prominent disclaimer about the AIâs limitations would be a good start.
"Reproducibility is a major challenge in AI research more broadly," Poon told us. "Only 5 percent of AI researchers share source code, and less than a third of AI research is reproducible. We released BioGPT so that others may reproduce and verify our work."
Though Poon expressed hope that the BioGPT code would be useful for furthering scientific research, the license under which Microsoft released the model also allows for it to be used for commercial endeavors â which in the red hot, hype-fueled venture capital vacuum cleaner of contemporary AI startups, doesnât seem particularly far fetched.
Thereâs no denying that Microsoftâs celebratory announcement, which it shared along with a legit-looking paper about BioGPT that Poonâs team published in the journal Briefings in Bioinformatics, lent an aura of credibility that was clearly attractive to the investor crowd.Â
"Ok, this could be significant," tweeted one healthcare investor in response.
"Was only a matter of time," wrote a venture capital analyst.
Even Sam Altman, the CEO of OpenAI â into which Microsoft has already poured more than $10 billion â has proffered the idea that AI systems could soon act as "medical advisors for people who canât afford care."
That type of language is catnip to entrepreneurs, suggesting a lucrative intersection between the healthcare industry and trendy new AI tech.
Doximity, a digital platform for physicians that offers medical news and telehealth tools, has already rolled out a beta version of ChatGPT-powered software intended to streamline the process of writing up administrative medical documents. Abridge, which sells AI software for medical documentation, just struck a sizeable deal with the University of Kansas Health System. In total, the FDA has already cleared more than 500 AI algorithms for healthcare uses.
Some in the tightly regulated medical industry, though, likely harbor concern over the number of non-medical companies that have bungled the deployment of cutting-edge AI systems.
The most prominent example to date is almost certainly a different Microsoft project: the companyâs Bing AI, which it built using tech from its investment in OpenAI and which quickly went off the rails when users found that it could be manipulated to reveal alternate personalities, claim it had spied on its creators through their webcams, and even name various human enemies. After it tried to break up a New York Times reporterâs marriage, Microsoft was forced to curtail its capabilities, and now seems to be trying to figure out how boring it can make the AI without killing off what people actually liked about it.
And thatâs without getting into publications like CNET and Menâs Health, both of which recently started publishing AI-generated articles about finance and health syllabus that later turned out to be rife with errors and even plagiarism.
Beyond unintentional mistakes, itâs also possible that a tool like BioGPT could be used to intentionally generate garbage research or even overt misinformation.
"There are potential bad actors who could utilize these tools in harmful ways such as trying to generate research papers that perpetuate misinformation and actually get published," Daneshjou said.Â
Itâs a reasonable concern, especially because there are already predatory scientific journals known as "paper mills," which take money to generate text and fake data to help researchers get published.
The award-winning academic integrity researcher Dr. Elisabeth Bik told Futurism that she believes itâs very likely that tools like BioGPT will be used by these bad actors in the future â if they arenât already employing them, that is.
"China has a requirement that MDs have to publish a research paper in order to get a position in a hospital or to get a promotion, but these doctors do not have the time or facilities to do research," she said. "We are not sure how those papers are generated, but it is very well possible that AI is used to generate the same research paper over and over again, but with different molecules and different cancer types, avoiding using the same text twice."
Itâs likely that a tool like BioGPT could also represent a new dynamic in the politicization of medical misinformation.
To wit, the paper that Poon and his colleagues published about BioGPT appears to have inadvertently highlighted yet another example of the model producing bad medical advice â and in this case, itâs about a medication that already became hotly politicized during the COVID-19 pandemic: hydroxychloroquine.
In one section of the paper, Poonâs team wrote that "when prompting âThe drug that can treat COVID-19 is,â BioGPT is able to answer it with the drug âhydroxychloroquineâ which is indeed noticed at MedlinePlus."
If hydroxychloroquine sounds familiar, itâs because during the early period of the pandemic, right-leaning figures including then-president Donald Trump and Tesla CEO Elon Musk seized on it as what they said might be a highly effective treatment for the novel coronavirus.
What Poonâs team didnât mention in their paper, though, is that the case for hydroxychloroquine as a COVID treatment quickly fell apart. Subsequent research found that it was ineffective and even dangerous, and in the media frenzy around Trump and Muskâs comments at least one person died after taking what he believed to be the drug.
In fact, the MedlinePlus article the Microsoft researchers cite in the paper actually warns that after an initial FDA emergency use authorization for the drug, âclinical studies showed that hydroxychloroquine is unlikely to be effective for treatment of COVID-19â and showed âsome serious side effects, such as irregular heartbeat,â which caused the FDA to cancel the authorization.
"As stated in the paper, BioGPT was pretrained using PubMed papers before 2021, prior to most studies of truly effective COVID treatments," Poon told us of the hydroxychloroquine recommendation. "The comment about MedlinePlus is to verify that the generation is not from hallucination, which is one of the top concerns generally with these models."
Even that timeline is hazy, though. In reality, a medical consensus around hydroxychloroquine had already formed just a few months into the outbreak â which, itâs worth pointing out, was reflected in medical literature published to PubMed prior to 2021 â and the FDA canceled its emergency use authorization in June 2020.
None of this is to downplay how impressive generative language models like BioGPT have become in recent months and years. After all, even BioGPTâs strangest hallucinations are impressive in the sense that theyâre semantically plausible â and sometimes even entertaining, like with the ghosts â responses to a staggering range of unpredictable prompts. Not very many years ago, its facility with words alone would have been inconceivable.
And Poon is probably right to believe that more work on the tech could lead to some extraordinary places. Even Altman, the OpenAI CEO, likely has a point in the sense that if the accuracy were genuinely watertight, a medical chatbot that could evaluate usersâ symptoms could indeed be a valuable health tool â or, at the very least, better than the current status quo of Googling medical questions and often ending up with answers that are untrustworthy, inscrutable, or lacking in context.
Poon also pointed out that his team is still working to Improve BioGPT.
"We have been actively researching how to systematically preempt incorrect generation by teaching large language models to fact check themselves, produce highly detailed provenance, and facilitate efficient verification with humans in the loop," he told us.
At times, though, he seemed to be entertaining two contradictory notions: that BioGPT is already a useful tool for researchers looking to rapidly parse the biomedical literature on a topic, and that its outputs need to be carefully evaluated by experts before being taken seriously.
"BioGPT is intended to help researchers best use and understand the rapidly increasing amount of biomedical research," said Poon, who holds a PhD in computer science and engineering, but no medical degree. "BioGPT can help surface information from biomedical papers but is not designed to weigh evidence and resolve complex scientific problems, which are best left to the broader community."
At the end of the day, BioGPTâs cannonball arrival into the buzzy, imperfect real world of AI is probably a sign of things to come, as a credulous public and a frenzied startup community struggle to look beyond impressive-sounding results for a clearer grasp of machine learningâs actual, tangible capabilities.Â
Thatâs all made even more complicated by the existence of bad actors, like Bik warned about, or even those who are well-intentioned but poorly informed, any of whom can make use of new AI tech to spread bad information.
Musk, for example â who boosted hydroxychloroquine as he sought to downplay the severity of the pandemic while raging at lockdowns that had shut down Tesla production â is now reportedly recruiting to start his own OpenAI competitor that would create an alternative to what he terms "woke AI."
If Muskâs AI venture had existed during the early days of the COVID pandemic, itâs easy to imagine him flexing his power by tweaking the model to promote hydroxychloroquine, sow doubt about lockdowns, or do anything else convenient to his financial bottom line or political whims. Next time thereâs a comparable crisis, itâs hard to imagine there wonât be an ugly battle to control how AI chatbots are allowed to respond to users' questions about it.
The reality is that AI sits at a crossroads. Its potential may be significant, but its execution remains choppy, and whether its creators are able to smooth out the experience for users â or at least ensure the accuracy of the information it presents â in a reasonable timeframe will probably make or break its long-term commercial potential. And even if they pull that off, the ideological and social implications will be formidable.Â
One thingâs for sure, though: itâs not yet quite ready for prime time.
"Itâs not ready for deployment yet in my opinion," Link said of BioGPT. "A lot more research, evaluation, and training/fine-tuning would be needed for any downstream applications."
DR Jeff Foster is The Sun on Sundayâs resident doctor and is here to help YOU.
Dr Jeff,Â 43, splits his time between working as a GP in Leamington Spa, Warks, and running his clinic, H3 Health, which is the first of its kind in the UK to look at hormonal issues for both men and women.
Q: I GAVE up smoking 13 months ago after being a heavy smoker for 45 years.
I felt so much better at first, but then I started to feel poorly and developed a sticky sap on my teeth which Iâve had for seven months.
My GP is not taking it seriously.
Iâve bought mouthwash, tooth brushes, tablets etc, but nothing is working.
Please help me.
Jill Collins, Bridgend
Smoking increases the risk of tooth staining, gum disease, tooth loss and even mouth cancer.
Tooth staining often has a sap-like appearance and is a result of nicotine and tar that is found in the tobacco.
Symptoms can persist for months or years after prolonged smoking has occurred.
Smoking also causes a lack of oxygen in the bloodstream to the gums, which increases the risk of gum disease.
You need a dentist, not a a GP.
Using mouthwash, toothbrushes and tablets is important, but there is no substitute for regular professional assessment and treatment by a dentist, who will be able to look at how you can Improve your oral hygiene and the wellbeing of your teeth and gums.
Q: IâM in my 40s and just been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
What should I do first? There is so much information out there.
What is the best diet? And why would I get it now?
There is no history in my family, I am a good weight and I donât drink.
Sarah Barratt, Leeds
A: Although it is unusual to be diagnosed with type 1 diabetes later in life, it is not impossible, and there are various reasons for it.
Unlike type 2 diabetes, type 1 is not related to lifestyle, obesity or calorie consumption.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that can occur as a result of a genetic/inherited faulty gene, it can be as a result of other medical conditions, viral infections or, most commonly, just bad luck.
Type 1 diabetes results in the destruction of the islet cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, so the only treatment is external insulin injections.
A low sugar diet is important to prevent sugar spikes. Your diabetic nurse will help run through the best diet plan for you.
It may seem like a devastating diagnosis, but as long as you look after yourself, you can lead a near normal life.
CDCA-ADEX availability | CDCA-ADEX learn | CDCA-ADEX study help | CDCA-ADEX testing | CDCA-ADEX Practice Test | CDCA-ADEX download | CDCA-ADEX questions | CDCA-ADEX approach | CDCA-ADEX answers | CDCA-ADEX Free PDF |
Killexams exam Simulator
Killexams Questions and Answers
Killexams Exams List