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CCCP-001 Certified Cloud Computing Professional (CCP)

The Cloud Certified Professional (CCP) program offers 7 certification tracks, each dedicated to a specialized field of practice within the cloud computing industry. Visit the CCP Matrix page for an overview of the certification tracks and their associated CCP courses. Use this matrix to plan your path to accreditation!

Exams that are passed with a grade that is 10 or more percentage points greater than the passing grade are considered to have been passed with honors. For example, if an exams passing grade is 70%, then a grade of 80% or higher is required for the test to be considered to have been passed with honors.

Whether you pass exams with a regular passing grade or with an honors grade is shown in your test history on your AITCP account. If you pass all exams within a certification track with honors, a special version of the certificate is issued indicating that the accreditation was attained with honors and displaying a special gold-colored seal.

The Cloud Certified Professional (CCP) curriculum from Arcitura is comprised of 21 course modules. Course delivery options can include private on-site workshops, live virtual training, public workshops or self-paced training via Study Kits or eLearning. Each module is a one-day course when taught by a Certified Trainer or can take 10-14 hours to complete via self-study.

Fundamental Cloud Computing
Concepts, terminology, technologies, benefits, challenges, SLAs and business cost metrics associated with cloud computing are covered, along with SaaS, IaaS, PaaS delivery models, common cloud deployment models, and cloud characteristics.

Cloud Technology Concepts
This course covers a range of subjects related to cloud computing mechanisms, cloud security threats and controls, and essential cloud technologies. Also addressed are testing, cloud storage, industry standards, and emerging technologies and trends.

Cloud Technology Lab

A hands-on lab during which participants apply practices, mechanisms, and technologies to design cloud-based service architectures in order to solve a set of complex problems.

Fundamental Cloud Architecture

This course delves into the technology architecture of cloud platforms and cloud-based solutions and services by exploring a series of new cloud computing mechanisms and their utilization via a set of cloud computing design patterns.

Advanced Cloud Architecture

Advanced technology architecture subjects are addressed in this course with a focus on complex cloud-based solution design, including the incorporation of hybrid cloud deployment models, compound design patterns, and solution architectures that span cloud and on-premise environments.

Cloud Architecture Lab

A hands-on lab during which participants apply the patterns, models, concepts, techniques, and mechanisms covered in previous courses, in order to complete a series of architectural and design exercises.

Fundamental Cloud Security

This course dives into the implementation technologies behind the cloud security mechanisms first introduced in Module 2, and further explores how these mechanisms and associated security technologies can be configured and combined to establish a cloud security architecture.

Advanced Cloud Security

Complex security subjects are addressed by this course, which introduces a set of security design patterns that address the application of cloud security mechanisms and technologies in order to establish sophisticated, custom security controls for preventative and reactionary responses to common threats and attacks.

Cloud Security Lab

A hands-on lab during which participants apply the patterns, concepts, techniques, and mechanisms covered in previous courses, in order to complete a series of exercises that present real-world security problems.

Fundamental Cloud Governance

This course explains IT governance as it pertains to the evolution and regulation of cloud computing environments and assets. Numerous models and framework components are explored to establish structured models for identifying and associating cloud governance precepts and processes to cloud project stages.

Advanced Cloud Governance

This course builds upon the fundamental models and framework components and identifies and describes numerous cloud governance precepts and processes for cloud project Define, Build, Test, Deliver, Operate, Consume and End Stages.

Cloud Governance Lab

A hands-on lab during which participants apply the cloud governance framework components, models, precepts and processes covered in previous courses, in order to complete a series of exercises.

Fundamental Cloud Storage

This course expands upon the cloud storage subjects introduced in Module 2 by further exploring cloud storage devices, structures, and technologies from a more technical and implementation-specific perspective. A set of cloud storage mechanisms and devices are established, along with in-depth coverage of NoSQL and cloud storage services.

Advanced Cloud Storage

A number of advanced subjects are introduced in this course, including persistent storage, redundant storage, cloud-attached storage, cloud-remote storage, cloud storage gateways, cloud storage brokers, Direct Attached Storage (DAS), Network Attached Storage (NAS), Storage Area Network (SAN), various cloud storage-related design patterns, and the overall information lifecycle management as it applies specifically to cloud-hosted data.

Cloud Storage Lab

A hands-on lab during which participants apply the patterns, concepts, practices, devices, and mechanisms covered in previous courses, in order to complete a series of exercises that pertain to solving cloud storage problems and creating cloud storage architectures.

Fundamental Cloud Virtualization

Core subject areas pertaining to the fundamental virtualization mechanisms and types used within contemporary cloud computing platforms are explored, along with various key performance indicators and related metrics.

Advanced Cloud Virtualization

A range of specialized and advanced design patterns that build upon Module 16 to explore virtualization-related reliability, performance and integration, as well as combinations of mechanisms are covered, whereby the problem scenario, application, and solution are presented for each individual design pattern.

Cloud Virtualization Lab

A hands-on lab during which participants apply the models, concepts, and techniques covered in previous courses, in order to complete a series of complex exercises that enable participants to demonstrate proficiency in applying design patterns to solve common problems in cloud-based environments.
Certified Cloud Computing Professional (CCP)
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Certified Cloud Computing Professional (CCCP)
Question: 191
Which of the following, in conjunction with IPSec, can be configured to provide secure
access to files on a NAS?
Answer: B
Question: 192
A system administrator is planning storage infrastructure to store backup copies of
virtual machines that are at least SGB in size. Which of the following file systems can
be used in this scenario? (Select TWO).
Answer: C, E
Question: 193
Which of the following can be used to enable out-of-band management of a Windows-
based host?
Answer: A
Question: 194
An administrator notices that the mouse does not perform as expected within a VM.
Which of the following might Boost the performance of the mouse?
A. Install a 64-bit OS within the guest.
B. Enable USB port mapping.
C. Replace the mouse on the host server.
D. Install the virtualization guest software.
Answer: D
Question: 195
A recently deployed VM is running a Human Resource (HR) application on the HR
network. Workstations in the accounting department can access the Internet and other
accounting servers, but are unable to ping the new VM. Which of the following must be
enabled for the accounting department to access this HR application?
A. The computers must be granted read rights to the VM.
B. Replace the accounting workgroup switch.
C. VLAN routing should be enabled on the router.
D. Disable port security on the HR workgroup switch.
Answer: C
Question: 196
An administrator deployed a VM that is hosting an internal website. Users report they
are unable to access the new website. Which of the following should the network
administrator do to test whether web traffic is being sent and received?
A. Browse to any website
B. Ping the VM's IP address
C. Ping the VM's loopback address
D. Telnet to port 80
Answer: D
Question: 197
Which of the following would be used to advertise a public IP address on redundant
WAN circuits?
Answer: A
Question: 198
A company has deployed a website which is mirrored at a secondary datacenter. Which
of the following should be changed to route users to the secondary datacenter in case of
a primary site failure?
A. Virtual address
B. DNS record
C. ARP table
D. Disaster recovery plan
Answer: B
Question: 199
A security administrator is being hired to perform a penetration test of a third-party
cloud provider as part of an annual security audit. Which of the following is the FIRST
step that must be performed?
A. Attempt known exploits
B. Scan for vulnerabilities
C. Research publicized incidents
D. Get written permission
Answer: D
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GAQM Professional history - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CCCP-001 Search results GAQM Professional history - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CCCP-001 https://killexams.com/exam_list/GAQM 10 Best Brothers In Boxing History, Ranked No result found, try new keyword!The Chavez name remains royalty in Mexican boxing circles. Leon and Michael Spinks made Olympic and professional history together. At the 1976 Olympics, light heavyweight Leon captured gold while ... Thu, 05 Oct 2023 09:30:00 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ The Worldwide History of Tattoos
Thai Devotee Prays
A tattooed devotee prays at the annual tattoo festival at Wat Bang Phra in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Omar Havana / Getty Images

Humans have been marking their skin for thousands of years. Around the world, across cultures, tattoos have held countless different significances. Ancient Siberian nomads, Indigenous Polynesians, Nubians, Native South Americans and Greeks all used tattoos—and for a variety of reasons: to protect from evil; declare love; signify status or religious beliefs; as adornments and even forms of punishment.

Joann Fletcher, an honorary archaeology research fellow at the University of York in the United Kingdom, studies tattooing’s mark on history and culture. She specializes in ancient Egyptians, who she says were long thought to be the earliest tattoo artists, thanks to the discovery of tattooed mummies. That changed in 1991, with the excavation of Ötzi the Iceman, a 5,300-year-old, frozen mummy near the Italian-Austrian border, whose body is adorned with ink.

In the millennia since Ötzi was inked, tattoos have proliferated worldwide. According to a study by the Pew Research Center, 32 percent of people in the United States have at least one tattoo, and many of those Americans share common motivations. Sixty-nine percent of tattooed adults in the U.S. say they got inked to “honor or remember someone or something,” while 47 percent say they wanted to make a statement about the beliefs, and 32 percent say they got tattooed to Boost their personal appearance. Turns out, many of our historical counterparts around the world had similar motivations.

Fletcher told Smithsonian magazine all about tattoos’ functions, prevalence and endurance in cultures around the world.

Ozti the Iceman
Reconstruction of the Iceman by Alfons & Adrie Kennis South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology / Ochsenreiter

What is the earliest evidence of tattoos?

In terms of tattoos on actual bodies, the earliest known examples were for a long time Egyptian and were present on several female mummies dated to circa 2000 B.C.E.. But following the more latest discovery of the Iceman from the area of the Italian-Austrian border in 1991 and his tattoo patterns, this date has been pushed back a further thousand years when he was carbon-dated at around 5,200 years old.

Can you describe the tattoos on the Iceman and their significance?

Following discussions with my colleague Professor Don Brothwell of the University of York, one of the certified who examined him, the distribution of the tattooed dots and small crosses on his lower spine and right knee and ankle joints correspond to areas of strain-induced degeneration, with the suggestion that they may have been applied to alleviate joint pain and were therefore essentially therapeutic. This would also explain their somewhat ‘random’ distribution in areas of the body which would not have been that easy to display had they been applied as a form of status marker.

Otzi's Tattoos
Tattoos on the body of Ötzi, the Tyrolean Iceman South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology / EURAC / Samadelli / Staschitz

What is the evidence that ancient Egyptians had tattoos?

There’s certainly evidence that women had tattoos on their bodies and limbs from figurines circa 4000-3500 B.C.E. to occasional female figures represented in tomb scenes circa 1200 B.C.E. and in figurine form circa 1300 B.C.E., all with tattoos on their thighs. Also small bronze implements identified as tattooing tools were discovered at the town site of Gurob in northern Egypt and dated to circa 1450 B.C.E.. And then, of course, there are the mummies with tattoos, from the three women already mentioned and dated to circa 2000 B.C.E. to several later examples of female mummies with these forms of permanent marks found in Greco-Roman burials at Akhmim.

What function did these tattoos serve? Who got them and why?

Because this seemed to be an exclusively female practice in ancient Egypt—[though recent finds prove at least one man was inked]—mummies found with tattoos were usually dismissed by the (male) excavators who seemed to assume the women were of “dubious status,” described in some cases as “dancing girls.” The female mummies had nevertheless been buried at Deir el-Bahari (opposite modern Luxor) in an area associated with royal and elite burials, and we know that at least one of the women described as “probably a royal concubine” was actually a high-status priestess named Amunet, as revealed by her funerary inscriptions.

Egyptian Bowl
This blue bowl (circa 1300 B.C.E.), housed in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in Leiden, Amsterdam, features a musician tattooed with an image of the household deity Bes on her thigh. Joann Fletcher

And although it has long been assumed that such tattoos were the mark of prostitutes or were meant to protect the women against sexually transmitted diseases, I personally believe that the tattooing of ancient Egyptian women had a therapeutic role and functioned as a permanent form of amulet—[an ornament meant to protect its wearer]—during the very difficult time of pregnancy and birth. This is supported by the pattern of distribution, largely around the abdomen, on top of the thighs and the breasts, and would also explain the specific types of designs, in particular the net-like distribution of dots applied over the abdomen. During pregnancy, this specific pattern would expand in a protective fashion in the same way bead nets were placed over wrapped mummies to protect them and “keep everything in.” The placing of small figures of the household deity Bes at the tops of their thighs would again suggest the use of tattoos as a means of safeguarding the actual birth, since Bes was the protector of women in labor, and his position at the tops of the thighs a suitable location. This would ultimately explain tattoos as a purely female custom.

Who made the tattoos?

Although we have no explicit written evidence in the case of ancient Egypt, it may well be that the older women of a community would create the tattoos for the younger women, as happened in 19th-century Egypt and happens in some parts of the world today.

Bronze Tattooing Implements
Small bronze tattooing implements (circa 1450 B.C.E.) from Gurob, Egypt, at the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology in London. Joann Fletcher

What instruments did they use?

It is possible that an implement best described as a sharp point set in a wooden handle, dated to circa 3000 B.C.E. and discovered by archaeologist W.M.F. Petrie at the site of Abydos may have been used to create tattoos. Petrie also found the aforementioned set of small bronze instruments circa 1450 B.C.E.—resembling wide, flattened needles—at the ancient town site of Gurob. If tied together in a bunch, they would provide repeated patterns of multiple dots.

These instruments are also remarkably similar to much later tattooing implements used in 19th-century Egypt. The English writer William Lane (1801-1876) observed, “the operation is performed with several needles (generally seven) tied together: with these the skin is pricked in a desired pattern: some smoke black (of wood or oil), mixed with milk from the breast of a woman, is then rubbed in.... It is generally performed at the age of about 5 or 6 years, and by [Romani] women.”

What did these tattoos look like?

Most examples on mummies are largely dotted patterns of lines and diamond patterns, while figurines sometimes feature more naturalistic images. The tattoos occasionally found in tomb scenes and on small female figurines which form part of cosmetic items also have small figures of the dwarf god Bes on the thigh area.

What were they made of? How many colors were used?

Usually, a dark or black pigment such as soot was introduced into the pricked skin. It seems that brighter colors were largely used in other ancient cultures, such as the Inuit who are believed to have used a yellow color along with the more usual darker pigments.

What has surprised you the most about ancient Egyptian tattooing?

That it appears to have been restricted to women during the purely dynastic period, i.e. pre-332 B.C.E.. Also, the way in which some of the designs can be seen to be very well placed, once it is accepted they were used as a means of safeguarding women during pregnancy and birth.

5,000-year-old tattoos from Ancient Egypt I Curator's Corner S3 Ep 6 #CuratorsCorner

Can you describe the tattoos used in other ancient cultures and how they differ?

Among the numerous ancient cultures who appear to have used tattooing as a permanent form of body adornment, the Nubians to the south of Egypt are known to have used tattoos. The mummified remains of women of the indigenous C-group culture found in cemeteries near Kubban circa 2000-15000 B.C.E. were found to have blue tattoos, which in at least one case featured the same arrangement of dots across the abdomen noted on the aforementioned female mummies from Deir el-Bahari. The ancient Egyptians also represented the male leaders of the Libyan neighbors circa 1300-1100 B.C.E. with clear, rather geometrical tattoo marks on their arms and legs and portrayed them in Egyptian tomb, temple and palace scenes.

Pazyryk Tattooed Arm
Tattoo on the arm of a Pazyryk tribal chief, Altai Mountains, 5th century B.C.E. The Hermitage Museum

The Scythian Pazyryk of the Altai Mountain region were another ancient culture which employed tattoos. In 1948, the 2,400-year-old body of a Scythian male was discovered preserved in ice in Siberia, his limbs and torso covered in ornate tattoos of mythical animals. Then, in 1993, a woman with tattoos, again of mythical creatures on her shoulders, wrists and thumb and of similar date, was found in a tomb in Altai. The practice is also confirmed by the Greek writer Herodotus circa 450 B.C.E., who stated that amongst the Scythians and Thracians “tattoos were a mark of nobility, and not to have them was testimony of low birth.”

Accounts of the ancient Britons likewise suggest they too were tattooed as a mark of high status, and with “divers [sic] shapes of beasts” tattooed on their bodies, the Romans named one northern tribe “Picti,” literally “the painted people.”

Greek Vase
Greek vase (circa 450-440 B.CE.) depicting the death of Orpheus by a tattooed Thracian ArchaiOptix, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Yet amongst the Greeks and Romans, the use of tattoos or “stigmata“ as they were then called, seems to have been largely used as a means to mark someone as “belonging” either to a religious sect or to an owner in the case of slaves or even as a punitive measure to mark them as criminals. It is therefore quite intriguing that during Ptolemaic times when a dynasty of Macedonian Greek monarchs ruled Egypt, the pharaoh himself, Ptolemy IV (221-205 B.C.E.), was said to have been tattooed with ivy leaves to symbolize his devotion to Dionysus, Greek god of wine and the patron deity of the royal house at that time. The fashion was also adopted by Roman soldiers and spread across the Roman Empire until the emergence of Christianity, when tattoos were felt to “disfigure that made in God’s image” and so were banned by the Emperor Constantine (C.E. 306-373).

We have also examined tattoos on mummified remains of some of the ancient pre-Columbian cultures of Peru and Chile, which often replicate the same highly ornate images of stylized animals and a wide variety of symbols found in their textile and pottery designs. One stunning female figurine of the Nazca culture has what appears to be a huge tattoo right around her lower torso, stretching across her abdomen and extending down to her genitalia and, presumably, once again alluding to the regions associated with birth. Then on the mummified remains which have survived, the tattoos were noted on torsos, limbs, hands, the fingers and thumbs, and sometimes facial tattooing was practiced.

Nazca figurine
This female figurine from Nazca, Peru, is now displayed at the Regional Museum of Ica Joann Fletcher

With extensive facial and body tattooing used among Native Americans, such as the Cree, the mummified bodies of a group of six Greenland Inuit women 1475 C.E. also revealed evidence for facial tattooing. Infrared examination revealed that five of the women had been tattooed in a line extending over the eyebrows, along the cheeks and in some cases with a series of lines on the chin. Another tattooed female mummy, dated 1,000 years earlier, was also found on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, her tattoos of dots, lines and hearts confined to the arms and hands.

Chiribaya Head
This mummified head of a woman from the pre-Inca Chiribaya culture, located at the Azapa Museum in Arica, Chile, is adorned with facial tattoos on her lower left cheek. Joann Fletcher

Evidence for tattooing is also found amongst some of the ancient mummies found in China’s Taklamakan Desert circa 1200 B.C.E., although during the later Han Dynasty (202 B.C.E.-C.E. 220), it seems that only criminals were tattooed.

Japanese men began adorning their bodies with elaborate tattoos in the late 3rd century. The elaborate tattoos of the Polynesian cultures are thought to have developed over millennia, featuring highly elaborate geometric designs, which in many cases can cover the whole body. Following James Cook’s British expedition to Tahiti in 1769, the islanders’ term “tatatau” or “tattau,” meaning to hit or strike, gave the west our modern term “tattoo.” The marks then became fashionable among Europeans, particularly so in the case of men such as sailors and coalminers, with both professions which carried serious risks and presumably explaining the almost amulet-like use of anchors or miner’s lamp tattoos on the men’s forearms.

What about modern tattoos outside of the western world?

Modern Japanese tattoos are real works of art, with many modern practioners, while the highly skilled tattooists of Samoa continue to create their art as it was carried out in ancient times, prior to the invention of modern tattooing equipment. Various cultures throughout Africa also employ tattoos, including the fine dots on the faces of Berber women in Algeria, the elaborate facial tattoos of Wodaabe men in Niger and the small crosses on the inner forearms which mark Egypt’s Christian Copts.

Chiribaya Mummy's Hand
The tattooed right hand of a Chiribaya mummy is displayed at El Algarrobal Museum, near the port of Ilo in southern Peru. The Chiribaya were farmers who lived from 900 to 1350 C.E.. Joann Fletcher

What do Maori facial designs represent?

In the Maori culture of New Zealand, the head was considered the most important part of the body, with the face embellished by incredibly elaborate tattoos or "moko," which were regarded as marks of high status. Each tattoo design was unique to that individual and since it conveyed specific information about their status, rank, ancestry and abilities, it has accurately been described as a form of ID card or passport, a kind of aesthetic bar code for the face. After sharp bone chisels were used to cut the designs into the skin, a soot-based pigment would be tapped into the open wounds, which then healed over to seal in the design. With the tattoos of warriors given at various stages in their lives as a kind of rite of passage, the decorations were regarded as enhancing their features and making them more attractive to the opposite sex.

Although Maori women were also tattooed on their faces, the markings tended to be concentrated around the nose and lips. Although Christian missionaries tried to stop the procedure, the women maintained that tattoos around their mouths and chins prevented the skin becoming wrinkled and kept them young; the practice was apparently continued as recently as the 1970s.

The Resurgence of Maori Ta Moko: NEEDLES & PINS (Clip)

Why do you think so many cultures have marked the human body and did their practices influence one another?

In many cases, it seems to have sprung up independently as a permanent way to place protective or therapeutic symbols upon the body, then as a means of marking people out into appropriate social, political or religious groups, or simply as a form of self-expression or fashion statement.

Yet, as in so many other areas of adornment, there was of course cross-cultural influences, such as those which existed between the Egyptians and Nubians, the Thracians and Greeks and the many cultures encountered by Roman soldiers during the expansion of the Roman Empire in the final centuries B.C.E. and the first centuries C.E.. And, certainly, Polynesian culture is thought to have influenced Maori tattoos.

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Tue, 17 Oct 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/tattoos-worldwide-history-144038580/
Certified Automation Professional (CAP)

The ISA Certified Automation Professional® (CAP®) certification is a mark of career excellence that affirms your commitment to quality and demonstrates your expertise and knowledge of automation and controls. ISA CAP certification provides you with a non-biased, third-party, objective assessment and confirmation of your skills and expertise as an automation professional.

Who Are CAPs?

ISA CAP logo
CAPs are individuals who have proven they possess an extensive knowledge of automation and controls and that they have the expertise and qualifications to excel in their fields. As automation professionals who work in process automation and manufacturing automation industries around the globe, CAPs are responsible for direction, definition, design, development/application, deployment, documentation and support of software and equipment systems used in control systems, manufacturing information systems, systems integration, and operational consulting.

CAP Certification Requirements

To become an ISA CAP, you must meet certain education and work experience requirements, pass an exam, and commit to the ISA Code of Conduct. Learn more about CAP requirements.

CAP Body of Knowledge

The CAP Body of Knowledge (BOK) encompasses the full scope of knowledge, skills, and abilities needed for competent job performance. It defines automation project domains, the tasks within the domains, and the knowledge and skills required to complete the tasks. View the CAP Body of Knowledge.

How to Apply

There is no application form to fill out for CAP certification. Simply complete the following steps:

  1. Commit to the ISA Code of Conduct.
  2. Meet CAP certification criteria, qualifications, and conditions.
  3. Acknowledge that you are subject to a random application verification audit.
  4. Agree to provide the supporting documents proving your qualifications if you are audited.
  5. Pay the test fee.

Upon paying the test fee, the application process is complete, and you have acknowledged that you meet the requirements listed above in numbers 1–3.

Next Steps

  1. Watch for an email from our testing provider, Meazure Learning (candidatesupport@meazurelearning.com). Expect to receive it fifteen days before your test window. The email will include information about how to schedule your test online or at a test center. NOTE: If you have attended a CAP review course and wish to apply for CAP certification, you must also meet the requirements listed above in numbers 1–3. Since the application fee is included in the cost of the CAP review course, you will receive an test invitation within three business days after completing the review course.
  2. Schedule and take your exam. You will be notified whether you pass or not immediately upon completing the exam.
  3. Watch for an email summarizing your test results. If you pass your exam, you will also receive your digital badge and you will be listed in the ISA Credential Directory.
  4. Watch for an email from certification@isa.org regarding an audit. You will only receive this email if you have been randomly selected to be audited. If you do not receive this email, you do not need to do anything. Audits are conducted three times per year, so it may take several months after completing your test to receive an email if you have been selected for an audit.

Click the button below to add the test fee to your cart.

Add CAP test Fee to Cart

About the Exam

You can take the CAP test online from your office or home if the testing environment meets the requirements and your computer meets specifications. You can also take the test at a Scantron test center. The CAP test has 150 multiple-choice questions and is four hours long. Learn more about Certification Exams and Testing.

How to Prepare

We highly recommend taking the Certified Automation Professional (CAP) test Review Course (EC00). ISA has also developed an extensive library of training courses, study guides and publications that are built around the technologies and subjects covered on the CAP exam. These resources have been developed and reviewed by subject matter experts. Learn more about the review course and the additional resources here.

Reference to Standards and Codes

The aspects of automation covered on the CAP test reflect the tasks performed in the range of practice settings throughout the United States. Familiarity with the following standards and codes is recommended. download the Reference to Standards and Codes (PDF).

  • ISA Standards
  • IEEE Standards
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards
  • National Electrical Code (NEC)
  • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Standards
  • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standards
  • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Standards
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Codes and Federal Regulations
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Standards
  • US Food and Drug Administration Regulations
  • American Petroleum Institute (API) Standards

For International applicants, note that the validation study for the exams was done in the United States, so there may be questions on the test that reference US standards and codes.

Have Questions?

For assistance with certification or certificate programs, contact us at certifications@isa.org.

For frequently asked questions, visit the following pages:

Important Announcement for CAPs and CCSTs

We are pleased to announce that our Certified Automation Professional® (CAP)® and Certified Control System Technician® (CCST®) certification programs have a brand-new look! Please check your Badgecert account to access your new logo.

Thu, 16 Nov 2023 04:46:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.isa.org/certification/cap
Causes of the Civil War

Causes of the Civil War

The causes of the Civil War and its cost to a young nation.

More from Wes about the causes of the Civil War.

What led to the outbreak of the bloodiest conflict in the history of North America?

A common explanation is that the Civil War was fought over the moral issue of slavery.

In fact, it was the economics of slavery and political control of that system that was central to the conflict.

A key issue was states' rights.

The Southern states wanted to assert their authority over the federal government so they could abolish federal laws they didn't support, especially laws interfering with the South's right to keep slaves and take them wherever they wished.

Another factor was territorial expansion.

The South wished to take slavery into the western territories, while the North was committed to keeping them open to white labor alone.

Meanwhile, the newly formed Republican party, whose members were strongly opposed to the westward expansion of slavery into new states, was gaining prominence.

The election of a Republican, Abraham Lincoln, as President in 1860 sealed the deal. His victory, without a single Southern electoral vote, was a clear signal to the Southern states that they had lost all influence.

Feeling excluded from the political system, they turned to the only alternative they believed was left to them: secession, a political decision that led directly to war.

Causes of the Civil War

The causes of the Civil War and its cost to a young nation.

Tue, 30 May 2023 00:50:00 -0500 text/html https://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/feature/causes-of-the-civil-war/
Welcome to History

Native American peoples inhabited and visited the landscape encompassed within Wyoming for centuries prior to the founding of the University of Wyoming (UW) in 1887 and we would like to acknowledge the Arapaho, Cheyenne, Crow, Lakota, Shoshone, and Ute, on whose land we stand today.

Long committed to the history of the American West, the History Department at UW is uniquely positioned to situate this field in a global context. Drawing on expertise ranging from Europe, East and Central Asia, Africa, and the Americas, we strive to explore historical questions with thematic as well as comparative approaches. Our goal is to supply students a truly global perspective on history.


 At the most basic level, history teaches how to assess evidence, to access conflicting interpretations, to arrive at convincing arguments, and to speak and write about these arguments to a wide variety of audiences. These skills make history one of the foremost majors that graduate and professional schools and employers seek when they admit graduate students or hire employees. Viewed from a practical perspective, a history degree provides lifelong skills that are in demand in fields ranging from teaching and law to government and business administration. History is a very useful degree.

History is a foundational discipline that blends the methodologies and perspective of the humanities and social sciences in order to engage with the history of human culture on a global scale. UW's History degree program emphasizes interdisciplinary teaching and research and provides course work, research experiences, and internships on both American and international topics. The History program offers a Bachelor of Arts degree major and minor, and a Master of Arts degree.


Who hasn’t heard someone say, “I just love history?” Maybe that person is you? History is a vibrant and fascinating study of people, events, and institutions in the past and, for many people, that’s reason enough to earn a history degree. But there are larger and more practical reasons to choose history as your major. Here are a few of those reasons that historian Peter Stearns complied for the American Historical Association:

  • History Helps Us Understand People and Societies
  • History Helps Us Understand Change
  • History Helps Us Understand How the Society We Live in Came to Be
  • History Provides Identity
  • Studying History Is Essential for Good Citizenship

In addition to the historical content obtained in your coursework, a degree in History also provides excellent training in rigorous analysis and research skills, and the oral and written skills necessary to achieve success in any top-flight professional career. Typical career paths for History graduates include work in museums and archives, national security agencies (the FBI, CIA, and NSA all love to recruit History B.A. students), and the Department of State. The History major is also excellent preparation for various professional schools, such as law and medicine, as well as post-graduate work in the humanities and social sciences.  We pride ourselves on placing our graduates in highly competitive careers and post-graduate masters and doctoral programs.


Bachelor's Degree (B.A.)

The History Department Faculty has identified the specific objectives of its undergraduate curriculum. The following are the learning outcomes that each History major should learn. We are continuously and actively assessing our program to ensure that these learning outcomes are being met.

1. Students shall be able to demonstrate critical thinking skills by analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating historical information from multiple sources.

2. Students will develop the ability to distinguish between different culturally historical perspectives.

3. Students will produce well researched written work that engages with both primary sources and the secondary literature.

4. Students will develop an informed familiarity with multiple cultures.

5. Students will employ a full range of historical techniques and methods.

6. Students will develop an ability to convey verbally their historical knowledge.

7. Students will demonstrate their understanding of historical cause and effect along with their knowledge of the general chronology of human experience.

8. Students will develop an understanding of the concepts of historical theary and/or conceptual frameworks and be able to use these in their own studies. 


Graduate Degrees (M.A. and M.A.T.)

The History Department offers two distinct graduate programs. Any field of study offered by the Department can be accommodated within either degree program.

The M.A. degree is designed to prepare the student for employment opportunities and PhD-level work. This degree program is also suitable for students interested in careers as community college instructors as well as for lifelong learners who seek formal advanced education.


Students who graduate with an M.A. in History will be able to:

1. Demonstrate an understanding of the theories and methodologies of the discipline of History.

2. Demonstrate a critical understanding of the historiography of their field of specialization.

3. Demonstrate some understanding of comparative and/or thematic methods, approaches, and theories.

4. Conduct original research based on primary sources and construct an argument based on that research.

5. Write graduate-level expository prose and orally present their ideas at an advanced level.


The M.A.T. degree is designed to enhance the teaching of history and related disciplines by secondary and middle school teachers. This is a non-thesis degree, designed to provide breadth of preparation rather than specialization. Applicants are expected to have already completed their certification and pedagogy courses.

Students who graduate with an M.A.T. in History will be able to:

1. Demonstrate the significance of historical subjects with reference to broader historical context, historiographic trends, or contemporary relevance.

2. Construct original historical arguments using a blend of primary and secondary source material.

3. Demonstrate a superior quality of writing both in terms of mechanics and in developing an argument effectively.

4. Convey a broad understanding of historical material suitable for teaching.

Thu, 10 Aug 2023 03:19:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.uwyo.edu/history/index.html
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Candidates can elect to complete just the first level of the program - resulting in the ECA designation, or to continue on for the remaining two levels, at which point they will have earned the CEP designation. The CEP designation is granted to individuals who have passed all three exams, and have demonstrated mastery of equity compensation related issues in all of the core disciplines. The CEP Institute also offers an test solely focused on accounting; the Advanced Equity Compensation Accounting Certificate (AECA) exam is for financial reporting professionals in any organization that offers equity compensation, as well as the accounting professionals who are required to verify proper expensing under ASC 718 and other standards.

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If you are a current ECA/CEP who'd like to share your story, we'd love to hear from you. We are excited to be sharing your stories on the CEPI LinkedIn page and would love to hear a bit about how the CEPI has helped you throughout your journey.

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Wed, 15 Nov 2023 11:46:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.scu.edu/execed/individuals/cepi/
History of Walmart: Timeline and Facts No result found, try new keyword!Walmart's history is dotted with memorable moments and history-making events. Here's a timeline snapshot of Walmart over the past 57 years: Walmart opens its first store in Rogers, Ark. Tue, 14 Nov 2023 10:00:00 -0600 text/html https://www.thestreet.com/markets/history-of-walmart-15092339 History Department

Historians are society’s storytellers — and its most vital critics. They work at finding the truth about the past and pay close attention to the diversity of the human experience.

History students at Hope cultivate a deeper understanding of the past through rigorous courses with first-rate teachers. You can expect your professors to know you by name, and you can develop the best learning experience for you — whether working one-on-one with faculty on a research project based on your interests or gaining valuable workplace skills through a local internship.

We prepare our scholars for leadership and service in a global society through on-campus mentorship opportunities and complementary off-campus study programs.

Within our two major and two minor programs we:

  • Offer courses that cover a wide range of time periods, regions and themes
  • Make writing a significant component of all coursework
  • Emphasize the critical analysis of primary sources as part of historical research
  • Engage students in collaborative research experiences with faculty members
  • Cultivate a diverse scholarly community

Students can join Phi Alpha Theta, the history honor society, apply for scholarships and attend monthly department colloquia. Every year we support student presentations at the Celebration for Undergraduate Research and Creative Performance and honor students through various departmental awards.

Recent student summer scholarshipHistory students in Paris

Recent Blog Posts

  1. Dr. Wayne Tan, Associate Professor of History, Receives Two Book Awards

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  2. History Course Preview – Spring 2024

    Posted by Michelle VanDenend

    Advising week starts October 16thRegistration begins  October 30th Take a look at our upcoming o...

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  3. “With Their Own Eyes” 

    Posted by Fred Johnson

    Hearing about the man who’d dedicated his life to eliminating the cancer of slavery from the Un...

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Wed, 25 Oct 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://hope.edu/academics/history/
Our History

The Smithsonian Institution was established with funds from James Smithson (1765–1829), a British scientist who left his estate to the United States to found “at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge.” On August 10, 1846, the U.S. Senate passed the act organizing the Smithsonian Institution, which was signed into law by President James K. Polk.

Congress authorized acceptance of the Smithson bequest on July 1, 1836, but it took another ten years of debate before the Smithsonian was founded. Once established, the Smithsonian became part of the process of developing an American national identity—an identity rooted in exploration, innovation, and a unique American style. That process continues today as the Smithsonian looks toward the future.

James Smithson and the Founding of the Smithsonian

James Smithson
James Smithson, c. 1765-1829
Artist: Hattie Elizabeth Burdette

Smithson, the illegitimate child of a wealthy Englishman, had traveled much during his life, but had never once set foot on American soil. Why, then, would he decide to supply the entirety of his sizable estate—which totaled half a million dollars, or 1/66 of the United States' entire federal budget at the time—to a country that was foreign to him?

Some speculate it was because he was denied his father's legacy. Others argue that he was inspired by the United States' experiment with democracy. Some attribute his philanthropy to ideals inspired by such organizations as the Royal Institution, which was dedicated to using scientific knowledge to Boost human conditions. Smithson never wrote about or discussed his bequest with friends or colleagues, so we are left to speculate on the ideals and motivations of a gift that has had such significant impact on the arts, humanities, and sciences in the United States.

Visitors can pay homage to Smithson with a visit to his crypt, located on the first floor of the Smithsonian Castle.

Learn more about James Smithson »

Smithsonian Institution General History

James Polk
James Knox Polk, 2 Nov 1795-15 Jun 1849
Artist: Max Westfield

Smithson died in 1829, and six years later, President Andrew Jackson announced the bequest to Congress. On July 1, 1836, Congress accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust. In September 1838, Smithson's legacy, which amounted to more than 100,000 gold sovereigns, was delivered to the mint at Philadelphia. Recoined in U.S. currency, the gift amounted to more than $500,000.

After eight years of sometimes heated debate, an Act of Congress signed by President James K. Polk on Aug. 10, 1846, established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian. Since its founding, more than 175 years ago, the Smithsonian has become the world's largest museum, education, and research complex, with 21 museums, the National Zoo, and nine research facilities.

Learn more about our history from Smithsonian Institution Archives »

Architectural History & Historic Preservation Division »

Wed, 23 Aug 2023 21:04:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.si.edu/About/History
What Is Professional Liability Insurance?

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

Mishaps happen. But mistakes made during the course of running your business could be costly and result in a lawsuit. For example, if you fail to deliver by a deadline or a client says your professional advice resulted in financial harm, you may face legal challenges.

A claim against your company—even without merit—can result in expensive legal fees and be financially devastating.

What Is Professional Liability Insurance?

Professional liability insurance is a form of business liability insurance that covers your small business against claims of mistakes in professional services, even if the claim has no merit. Also known as “errors and omissions insurance,” professional liability insurance can be a key component of the best small business insurance policies.

How Does Professional Liability Coverage Work?

If someone claims your business made a mistake, your professional liability insurance will cover your legal fees, settlements and judgments up to your policy’s limit. For example, if you’re sued because of a mistake that causes your client to lose money, you’ll be covered for your legal costs and settlement.

What Does Professional Liability Insurance Cover?

As good as your company may be, mistakes are bound to happen. That’s why it’s worth considering adding professional liability insurance to a small business insurance policy.

Professional liability insurance is also known as errors and omissions insurance. It covers the costs associated with claims of professional mistakes, including legal fees, court judgments and settlements, and other types of fees, such as licensing board penalties.

Professional Liability Insurance Examples

Here are some examples of mistakes that could prompt a client to sue your company.

  • Incorrect or inaccurate advice: A financial consultant provides advice that results in lost revenue.
  • Misrepresentation: A contractor fails to complete a renovation on time, resulting in a client being unable to open their business and losing revenue.
  • Negligence: A lawyer fails to file a complaint on behalf of their client within the statute of limitations, resulting in the client losing money in both legal expenses and a potential award had the case gone to trial.
  • Violation of good faith and fair dealing: A realtor fails to disclose key information to the buyer.
  • Copyright infringement: A website designer unintentionally uses a copyrighted image without permission.

What Does Professional Liability Insurance Not Cover?

Here are some common exclusions found in a professional liability insurance policy:

  • Bodily injury or property damage. Accidental injuries and property damage caused to others (such as a client who slips in your store) is covered by the general liability portion of your business insurance policy.
  • Client information or customer data. If you want coverage for cyber attacks and problems such as data breaches, stolen information and cyber extortion, you’ll need to buy cyber liability insurance.
  • Employment practices. Lawsuits arising out of claims of violation of your employees rights, such as wrongful termination or harassment are covered by employment practices liability insurance policy.
  • Illnesses and injuries. Injuries and illnesses suffered by your employees while performing work-related tasks are covered under workers compensation insurance.
  • Intentional or dishonest acts. This includes illegal acts and purposeful wrongdoing. Losses caused by international or dishonest acts are also not covered.
  • Patents and trade secrets that you obtain without the owner’s permission are not covered by professional liability insurance if you are sued. A general liability policy might cover some costs if you steal intellectual property.

Cost of Professional Liability Insurance

Professional liability insurance costs an average of $61 per month, according to Insureon. About a third (32%) of Insureon small business policyholders pay less than $50 a month—or $600 a year—for professional liability insurance.

Your professional liability insurance costs will depend on a handful of factors:

  • Your industry.
  • The size of your company and number of employees.
  • Your revenue.
  • The common risks that your industry faces.
  • Your business location.
  • Your claims history.
  • The coverage limits that you choose.

What Is the Difference Between General Liability and Professional Liability?

There are some key differences between general liability insurance and professional liability insurance:

  • General liability insurance covers accidental injuries and property damage caused to others. For example, if a customer slips on spilled liquid in your store and sprains their knee, your general liability insurance covers their medical expenses and legal costs if you are sued.
  • Professional liability insurance covers claims of mistakes you made in the course of running your business. For example, if you are sued because you missed a deadline and caused your client financial harm, your professional liability insurance covers your legal costs, judgments and settlements.

Who Needs Professional Liability Insurance?

In some states, you may be required to buy professional liability insurance if your licensing board requires it. For example, real estate agents are required to show proof of professional liability insurance before they get their real estate license in more than 10 states.

Here are some examples of the types of businesses that could benefit from professional liability insurance:

  • Accountants
  • Architects
  • Consultants
  • Content marketers
  • Counselors
  • Engineers
  • Graphic designers
  • Health care professionals
  • Insurance professionals
  • Personal trainers
  • Investment advisors
  • Real estate agents
  • Stockbrokers
  • Tax preparers
  • Technology professionals

How Much Does Professional Liability Insurance Cost?

Professional liability insurance costs an average of $61 per month, according to Insureon. Less than a third (32%) of Insureon small business policyholders pay less than $50 per month or $600 per year for professional liability insurance.

Your professional liability insurance costs will depend on a handful of factors:

  • Your industry
  • The size of your company and number of employees
  • Your revenue
  • The common risks that your industry faces
  • Your business location
  • Your claims history
  • The coverage limits that you choose

How to Find the Best Professional Liability Insurance

Know How Much Coverage You Need

It’s important to figure out how much you’ll need based on your industry, size of your company and level of risk. It’s a good idea to speak with an independent insurance agent who can help you select the appropriate coverage amount.

The limits of professional liability insurance can range from $250,000 to $2 million. Most Insureon policyholders (63%) purchase a $1 million professional liability insurance policy.

Compare Insurance Quotes

Doing side-by-side shopping by comparing business insurance quotes from a few different insurance companies will help you determine what policy covers your bases at a reasonable cost.

Look for Discounts

Some insurance companies offer a discount for bundling professional liability insurance with other types of small business insurance.

Business Insurance Made Simple

Compare Free Quotes From Top Insurers at Simply Business. Get a Policy in Under 10 Minutes.

Professional Liability FAQs

What are the two main types of professional liability policies?

The two main types of professional liability policies are claims-made and occurrence-based. Most professional liability insurance policies are claims-made, which cover claims reported during the policy period. An occurrence-based policy means you’ll be covered for claims that happen during your policy period, even if the claim is reported after your policy expires.

What is proof of professional liability insurance?

A certificate of liability insurance is proof that you have professional liability insurance. Your client or profession may require this. A certificate of liability insurance includes basic information such as your coverage limits, name of your insurance company, policy number, and policy start and end date.

Your insurer should provide you with a certificate of liability insurance at no cost. If you lose your certificate or need another copy, you can typically get one through your insurer’s online portal or by contacting your insurance company.

Is professional liability insurance the same as errors and omissions?

Professional liability insurance is the same as errors and omissions insurance. It’s a form of small business insurance that covers your business against claims of mistakes in professional services, such as services that are inaccurate, late or never delivered. It covers your legal costs, judgments and settlements.

Is professional liability insurance tax deductible?

Small business owners can generally deduct the cost of business insurance from their taxable income, including professional liability insurance.

Other types of business insurance premiums that may be tax deductible include general liability insurance, commercial property insurance, commercial auto insurance and workers compensation insurance. But certain types of premiums cannot be deducted, such as premiums on disability insurance that covers your lost income or loan protection insurance. It’s a good idea to consult with a tax professional.

Tue, 31 Oct 2023 19:58:00 -0500 Jackie Lam en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/advisor/business-insurance/professional-liability-insurance/

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