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CBDH Study Guide - BTA Certified Blockchain Developer Hyperledger Updated: 2024

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Exam Code: CBDH BTA Certified Blockchain Developer Hyperledger Study Guide January 2024 by Killexams.com team

CBDH BTA Certified Blockchain Developer Hyperledger

This exam is a 70 question multiple-choice exam that lasts 1.5 hours and is a performance-based evaluation of Hyperledger development skills and knowledge. Internet access is not provided during the exam, nor is any course material or study guides.

Scores and Reporting

Official scores for exams come immediately following the exam from Pearson VUE. A passing score is 70%. exam results are reported PASS/FAIL and you will be provided your percentage. Blockchain Training Alliance does not report scores on individual items, nor will it provide additional information upon request.



The BTA Certified Blockchain Developer Hyperledger Fabric (CBDH) exam is an elite way to demonstrate your knowledge and skills in this emerging space. Additionally, you will become a member of a community of Blockchain leaders. With certification comes monthly industry updates via email and video.



The CBDH exam is a 70 question multiple-choice exam that lasts 1.5 hours and is a performance-based evaluation of Hyperledger Fabric development skills and knowledge. Internet access is not provided during the exam, nor is any course material or study guides.



A person who holds this certification demonstrates their ability to:

Plan and prepare production-ready applications for the Hyperledger blockchain

Write, test, and deploy secure chain code

Understand how to use Hyperledger Composer to rapidly build Hyperledger applications

Write chain code using either Go or NodeJS

This exam will prove that a student completely understands how to:

Create a Hyperledger model

Build proper access controls for blockchain assets via .acl

Implement a Hyperledger ".bna" banana

Write and compile smart contracts as chain code

Deploy smart contracts on channels in the private network
BTA Certified Blockchain Developer Hyperledger
BlockChain Hyperledger Study Guide

Other BlockChain exams

CBBF Certified Blockchain Business Foundations
CBDE BTA Certified Blockchain Developer Ethereum
CBDH BTA Certified Blockchain Developer Hyperledger
CBSA BTA Certified Blockchain Solution Architect
CBSP BTA Certified Blockchain Security Professional

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BlockChain
CBDH
BTA Certified Blockchain Developer – Hyperledger
http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CBDH
Question: 119
What Hyperledger sponsored tool is a new open-source application development framework, which simplifies the creation of Hyperledger Fabric blockchain
applications, thus reducing the time and complexity of development.
The tool aims at helping users to create blockchain applications based on Hyperledger Fabric without needing to know the low-level (Go Programming)
details involved in blockchain networks?
A. Hyperledger Quilt
B. Hyperledger Composer
C. Hyperledger Explorer
D. Hyperledger Cello
Answer: B
Explanation:
There is a new open-source application development framework, which simplifies the creation of Hyperledger Fabric blockchain applications, thus reducing
the time and complexity of development. The tool aims at helping users to create blockchain applications based on Hyperledger Fabric without needing to
know the low-level (Go Programming) details involved in blockchain networks.
Question: 119
What Hyperledger sponsored tool is a new open-source application development framework, which simplifies the creation of Hyperledger Fabric blockchain
applications, thus reducing the time and complexity of development.
The tool aims at helping users to create blockchain applications based on Hyperledger Fabric without needing to know the low-level (Go Programming)
details involved in blockchain networks?
A. Hyperledger Quilt
B. Hyperledger Composer
C. Hyperledger Explorer
D. Hyperledger Cello
Answer: B
Explanation:
There is a new open-source application development framework, which simplifies the creation of Hyperledger Fabric blockchain applications, thus reducing
the time and complexity of development. The tool aims at helping users to create blockchain applications based on Hyperledger Fabric without needing to
know the low-level (Go Programming) details involved in blockchain networks.
Question: 120
The CA (Certificate Authority) in Hyperledger Fabric issues the certificates. These certificates are used for identity validation and for transmission of
encrypted data that only the owner (person, organization or software) of a specific certificate is able to decrypt and read.
What types of certificates are issued by the CA?
A. tcert
B. ecert
C. rootcert
Answer: ABC
Explanation:
Rootcert, tcert and ecert. As The CA (Fabric CA by default) issues a root certificate (rootCert) to each member (organization or individual) that is authorized
to join the network. The CA also issues an enrollment certificate (eCert) to each member component, server-side applications and occasionally end users.
Each enrolled user is granted an allocation of transaction certificates (tCerts). Each tCert authorizes one network transaction.
Question: 120
The CA (Certificate Authority) in Hyperledger Fabric issues the certificates. These certificates are used for identity validation and for transmission of
encrypted data that only the owner (person, organization or software) of a specific certificate is able to decrypt and read.
What types of certificates are issued by the CA?
A. tcert
B. ecert
C. rootcert
Answer: ABC
Explanation:
Rootcert, tcert and ecert. As The CA (Fabric CA by default) issues a root certificate (rootCert) to each member (organization or individual) that is authorized
to join the network. The CA also issues an enrollment certificate (eCert) to each member component, server-side applications and occasionally end users.
Each enrolled user is granted an allocation of transaction certificates (tCerts). Each tCert authorizes one network transaction.
Question: 121
The gossip data dissemination protocol performs which three functions? (Choose three.)
A. Manages peer discovery and channel membership
B. Disseminates ledger data across all peers on the channel
C. Manages channel membership only
D. Sync ledger state across all peers on any channel
E. Sync ledger state across all peers on the channel
F. Manages peer discovery only
Answer: ABE
Explanation:
Gossip Protocol The gossip data dissemination protocol performs three functions Manages peer discovery and channel membership Disseminates ledger data
across all peers on the channel Syncs ledger state across all peers on the channel.
Reference: https://hyperledger-fabric.readthedocs.io/en/v1.1.0-alpha/gossip.html
Question: 121
The gossip data dissemination protocol performs which three functions? (Choose three.)
A. Manages peer discovery and channel membership
B. Disseminates ledger data across all peers on the channel
C. Manages channel membership only
D. Sync ledger state across all peers on any channel
E. Sync ledger state across all peers on the channel
F. Manages peer discovery only
Answer: ABE
Explanation:
Gossip Protocol The gossip data dissemination protocol performs three functions Manages peer discovery and channel membership Disseminates ledger data
across all peers on the channel Syncs ledger state across all peers on the channel.
Reference: https://hyperledger-fabric.readthedocs.io/en/v1.1.0-alpha/gossip.html
Question: 122
The Hyperledger Fabric framework is implemented on what programming environment?
A. C++
B. Node.js
C. Go
D. PHP
E. Javascript
F. Python
Answer: C
Reference: https://hyperledger-fabric.readthedocs.io/en/release-1.3/prereqs.html
Question: 122
The Hyperledger Fabric framework is implemented on what programming environment?
A. C++
B. Node.js
C. Go
D. PHP
E. Javascript
F. Python
Answer: C
Reference: https://hyperledger-fabric.readthedocs.io/en/release-1.3/prereqs.html
Question: 123
When creating a network according to an organization’s structure and also bootstrap a channel what are the following artifacts we would need to generate?
A. Genesis Block, License File and Anchor Peer Configs for each organization.
B. Genesis Block, ledger Configuration and Anchor Peer Configs for each organization.
C. Genesis Block, Channel Configuration and Anchor Peer Configs for each organization.
D. Genesis Block, Channel Configuration and Anchor MSP Configs for each organization.
Answer: C
Explanation:
To create a network according to an organization’s structure, and to bootstrap a channel, we will need to generate the following artifacts: A genesis block,
containing organization-specific certificates that serve to initialize the Fabric blockchain. Channel configuration information. Anchor peer configurations for
each organization. An anchor peer serves as a fulcrum within an organization, for cross-organization ledger syncing using the Fabric gossip protocol.
Question: 123
When creating a network according to an organization’s structure and also bootstrap a channel what are the following artifacts we would need to generate?
A. Genesis Block, License File and Anchor Peer Configs for each organization.
B. Genesis Block, ledger Configuration and Anchor Peer Configs for each organization.
C. Genesis Block, Channel Configuration and Anchor Peer Configs for each organization.
D. Genesis Block, Channel Configuration and Anchor MSP Configs for each organization.
Answer: C
Explanation:
To create a network according to an organization’s structure, and to bootstrap a channel, we will need to generate the following artifacts: A genesis block,
containing organization-specific certificates that serve to initialize the Fabric blockchain. Channel configuration information. Anchor peer configurations for
each organization. An anchor peer serves as a fulcrum within an organization, for cross-organization ledger syncing using the Fabric gossip protocol.
Question: 124
Which Hyperledger tool would you select to invoke, deploy or query blocks, transactions and associated data, network information (name, status, list of
nodes), chain codes and transaction families, as well as other relevant information stored in the ledger?
A. Hyperledger Quilt
B. Hyperledger Cello
C. Hyperledger Caliper
D. Hyperledger Explorer
Answer: D
Explanation:
Hyperledger explorer: Hyperledger explorer, which was originally contributed by IBM, Intel, and DTCC, can view, invoke, deploy or query blocks,
transactions and associated data, network information (name, status, list of nodes), chain codes and transaction families, as well as other relevant information
stored in the ledger.
Question: 124
Which Hyperledger tool would you select to invoke, deploy or query blocks, transactions and associated data, network information (name, status, list of
nodes), chain codes and transaction families, as well as other relevant information stored in the ledger?
A. Hyperledger Quilt
B. Hyperledger Cello
C. Hyperledger Caliper
D. Hyperledger Explorer
Answer: D
Explanation:
Hyperledger explorer: Hyperledger explorer, which was originally contributed by IBM, Intel, and DTCC, can view, invoke, deploy or query blocks,
transactions and associated data, network information (name, status, list of nodes), chain codes and transaction families, as well as other relevant information
stored in the ledger.
Question: 125
Blockchain services consists of three major components.
What are they? (Select three.)
A. Consensus Manager
B. Distributed Ledger
C. Peer to Peer Protocol
D. Reputation Manager
E. Membership Services
Answer: ABC
Explanation:
1. P2P Protocol is implemented over HTTP/2 standards and uses Google RPC.. P2P components define messages used by peer nodes, from point to point to
multicast. 2. Distributed Ledger manages the world state and the transaction log in the blockchain. 3. Consensus Manager defines the interface between the
consensus algorithm and the other Hyperledger components.
Question: 125
Blockchain services consists of three major components.
What are they? (Select three.)
A. Consensus Manager
B. Distributed Ledger
C. Peer to Peer Protocol
D. Reputation Manager
E. Membership Services
Answer: ABC
Explanation:
1. P2P Protocol is implemented over HTTP/2 standards and uses Google RPC.. P2P components define messages used by peer nodes, from point to point to
multicast. 2. Distributed Ledger manages the world state and the transaction log in the blockchain. 3. Consensus Manager defines the interface between the
consensus algorithm and the other Hyperledger components.
Question: 126
Level DB is the default database for Hyperledger Fabric and is particularly appropriate when ledger states comprise what type of data?
A. Complex key-value pairs
B. Rich Queries
C. JSON data pairs
D. Simple key-value pairs
Answer: D
Explanation:
Simple key-value pairs – LevelDB is the default and is particularly appropriate when ledger states are simple key-value pairs. A LevelDB database is closely
co-located with a network node – it is embedded within the same operating system process. CouchDB is a particularly appropriate choice when ledger states
are structured as JSON documents because CouchDB supports the rich queries and update of richer data types often found in business transactions.
Implementationwise, CouchDB runs in a separate operating system process, but there is still a 1:1 relation between a network node and a CouchDB instance.
All of this is invisible to chaincode.
Reference: https://hyperledger-fabric.readthedocs.io/en/release-1.3/ledger/ledger.html
Question: 126
Level DB is the default database for Hyperledger Fabric and is particularly appropriate when ledger states comprise what type of data?
A. Complex key-value pairs
B. Rich Queries
C. JSON data pairs
D. Simple key-value pairs
Answer: D
Explanation:
Simple key-value pairs – LevelDB is the default and is particularly appropriate when ledger states are simple key-value pairs. A LevelDB database is closely
co-located with a network node – it is embedded within the same operating system process. CouchDB is a particularly appropriate choice when ledger states
are structured as JSON documents because CouchDB supports the rich queries and update of richer data types often found in business transactions.
Implementationwise, CouchDB runs in a separate operating system process, but there is still a 1:1 relation between a network node and a CouchDB instance.
All of this is invisible to chaincode.
Reference: https://hyperledger-fabric.readthedocs.io/en/release-1.3/ledger/ledger.html
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BlockChain Hyperledger Study Guide - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CBDH Search results BlockChain Hyperledger Study Guide - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CBDH https://killexams.com/exam_list/BlockChain A beginner’s guide to blockchain APIs

What are blockchain APIs, and why are they important?

Blockchain APIs, or application programming interfaces, are software interfaces that allow developers to interact with a blockchain network. Users can query and manipulate blockchain data, including transactions, smart contracts and other blockchain assets, using the functions and protocols APIs offer.

For instance, APIs can supply developers access to the consensus algorithms that are utilized by blockchain networks, enabling them to test and optimize their blockchain applications by understanding how the network comes to a consensus on transactions and blocks. They can evaluate how well their applications work with various consensus techniques by simulating various network situations. This can assist developers in locating possible problems and resolving them before releasing their applications on the blockchain network itself.

Blockchain APIs are crucial because they allow programmers to build decentralized apps (DApps) that communicate with blockchain networks. By granting developers access to blockchain data and functionality, they are empowered to build applications that can execute transactions, store information, and execute smart contracts on the blockchain.

For instance, the Algorand API is a blockchain application programming interface that provides developers with access to the Algorand blockchain. It offers resources and tools to assist developers in creating and deploying DApps while enabling developers to create applications on the Algorand blockchain network.

Similarly, Coinbase API provides developers with access to the Coinbase platform, allowing them to create and manage digital wallets, query transaction data, and buy and sell cryptocurrencies.

Related: How to use Ganache for blockchain project development

How do blockchain APIs work?

Blockchain APIs work by allowing developers to interact with blockchain networks and access their data and functions through a standardized interface. Here are the steps involved in the working of blockchain APIs:

Choose a blockchain network

Developers must select the blockchain network with which they want to communicate. Bitcoin, Hyperledger and Ethereum are among the examples.

Identify the API endpoint

When choosing a blockchain network, developers must decide which API endpoint they will use to communicate with the network. An API endpoint is a URL that a developer can use to access a specific function or service offered by an API. The Ethereum network, for instance, offers a number of API endpoints, including Infura and Alchemy.

Infura offers a dependable and expandable API infrastructure for the Ethereum and IPFS networks, whereas Alchemy provides a similar service for several blockchain networks, including Polygon, Ethereum and BNB Smart Chain. Both services supply developers access to a variety of features and services, such as blockchain data querying, smart contract interaction and transaction administration.

Authenticate API access

Developers must use the necessary credentials or tokens to authenticate their access to the API endpoint. As a result, the blockchain network can be accessed safely and legally.

Send API requests

Following authentication, developers can use the API endpoint to send API requests to the blockchain network. Sending transactions to the network, requesting information from the network and carrying out smart contracts are all examples of API queries.

Receive API responses

A blockchain network will reply to an API request by giving data or a confirmation of the activity taken. For instance, asking the Bitcoin network about a wallet’s balance will reveal the wallet’s balance.

The transaction and wallet data on a blockchain network is often public and can be linked back to the user, which can raise privacy concerns. To help protect user data, many blockchain networks have implemented privacy safeguards, including encryption and anonymity. 

Developers should also take precautions to ensure the security and privacy of their users’ data by putting robust authentication and authorization restrictions, data encryption and other security practices into place.

Analyze and utilize API data

After receiving an API response, developers can examine and make use of the data in accordance with their requirements. For instance, the API response developers receive could include information about the current state of the smart contract, such as its balance or the values of its variables. Then, a developer creating a DApp can alter the program’s state using the API response.

How developers can use API responses to create customized experiences for DApp users

This kind of interaction with an API is necessary for building sophisticated apps that make use of external data sources or network resources. It enables programmers to create complex programs that may respond to current events and offer their customers individualized experiences.

Types of blockchain APIs

There are several types of blockchain APIs available, each designed to serve a specific purpose within the blockchain ecosystem. The common types of blockchain APIs are explained in the sub-sections below. However, depending on the blockchain network and use case, there may be other types of APIs available as well.

Node API

Access to a node on a blockchain network is made possible by a node API. Developers can submit transactions to the network and get data from the node, including transactions and blocks. To create decentralized applications and communicate with the blockchain network, node APIs are generally employed.

Smart contract API

Smart contracts are self-executing contracts that have the terms of the contract stated in lines of code. A smart contract API provides access to smart contracts on a blockchain network. It allows developers to create, deploy and execute smart contracts, as well as interact with them. Smart contract APIs are typically used to build DApps that require smart contract functionality, such as decentralized finance (DeFi) applications

Wallet API

With the help of a wallet API, developers can control Bitcoin transactions by having access to a blockchain wallet. It enables users to monitor transaction history, transmit and receive cryptocurrencies, and check wallet balances. Applications that require cryptocurrency payments, including e-commerce platforms, are frequently built using wallet APIs.

Market data API

Real-time market data for cryptocurrencies and other digital assets is accessible through a market data API. It can be used to get market parameters such as trade volumes, trade prices and other metrics. Building applications that need real-time market information, such as trading platforms, often uses market data application programming interfaces.

Identity API

A blockchain network’s identification API offers a mechanism to confirm the users’ identities. It can be applied to numerous blockchain applications to manage digital identities and verify users. Identity APIs are frequently used to create applications, like online voting systems, that demand user authentication and verification.

How are DApps created using blockchain APIs?

DApps are created using blockchain APIs by leveraging the unique properties of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, immutability and transparency, to build applications that can operate in a trustless environment without intermediaries. The steps to create DApps using blockchain APIs are explained below.

Retrieving blockchain data

Retrieving data from the blockchain is the first step in using a blockchain API. This can include information about transactions, blocks, addresses and more. Developers can submit HTTP queries with particular parameters to the endpoint of the blockchain API to get data, and they will receive responses in JSON format.

JSON stands for JavaScript Object Notation. It is a lightweight format for storing and exchanging data between different applications. It is based on a subset of the JavaScript programming language and is easy for both humans and machines to read and write.

Because JSON is a text-based format that web browsers and other applications can easily parse and interpret, it is frequently used for data transmission between a server and a web application.

Parsing and processing data

Once data is retrieved from the blockchain, it needs to be parsed and processed to be useful. Decoding transactional data, confirming digital signatures and other tasks may be involved.
Depending on the documentation for the blockchain API, developers can analyze and process the data using programming languages like JavaScript, Python or Go.

Building smart contracts

Developers can create smart contracts at this stage by utilizing blockchain application programming interfaces and programming languages like Solidity or Vyper. The blockchain API can be used to deploy the smart contract to the blockchain network after it has been created.

In order to do this, a transaction must be created that contains the smart contract’s bytecode as well as any other data necessary for the transaction. Bytecode is a low-level representation of code that can be executed by a computer’s virtual machine, often used in the context of programming languages that compile to bytecode instead of machine code.

A private key that corresponds to a public address on the blockchain network must be used to sign the transaction. The blockchain API can be used to broadcast the transaction to the network once it has been signed.

The network will examine the transaction and, if it is legitimate, will process it before deploying the smart contract to the blockchain. After being launched, the smart contract can run its code on the blockchain network and communicate with other network nodes.

Sending transactions

Transactions can also be sent to the blockchain network using blockchain APIs. This step includes sending cryptocurrency, making changes to smart contracts or carrying out other blockchain operations. The blockchain API allows developers to sign transactions with their private keys, broadcast them to the network, and get confirmation that they were successfully executed.

Creating blockchain applications

Finally, DApps that operate on the blockchain network can be built using blockchain APIs. Blockchain APIs allow programmers to establish smart contracts, retrieve, process and store data on the blockchain, as well as interface with other blockchain network nodes to develop robust and safe applications. This step involves combining the previous steps to create a functional and secure DApp.

How developers can create and deploy smart contracts using blockchain APIs

Revolutionizing blockchain development with decentralized APIs (dAPIs)

For decentralized applications, it is critical to access the range of services that web APIs offer, from providing asset price data to executing conventional financial transactions. However, intermediary-based interfacing solutions prevalent today are centralized, not secure and expensive. This is where decentralized APIs, or dAPIs, play a key role.

DAPIs use decentralized infrastructure to eliminate the issues mentioned above. By leveraging blockchain technology, dAPIs offer a secure, decentralized way for applications to access data and services without relying on a centralized server. This means that dAPIs are securer, more scalable and more cost-effective than traditional APIs.

However, dAPIs should not be confused with Chainlink as it uses a decentralized network of nodes, called Chainlink nodes, to retrieve data from external sources and feed it into smart contracts. The nodes are incentivized to provide accurate and reliable data through a system of reputation scores and financial incentives. 

On the other hand, API3 uses Airnode to build, manage and monetize dAPIs at scale. Airnode is a Web3 middleware and the Web3 oracle solution for the API economy to connect any web API directly to any blockchain application. A decentralized API is a collection of APIs that resemble real-world business services, connected to the blockchain via middleware. These APIs are consolidated into a single oracle service that can be accessed by users on the blockchain. The governance of the dAPI is decentralized, ensuring transparent oversight of the resulting service. 

Therefore, while Chainlink is a decentralized oracle service that provides smart contracts with external data, API3 focuses on building decentralized APIs that provide high-quality data feeds directly to dApps without the need for a middleman. This approach enables dApps to access and integrate real-world data in a secure and efficient manner, while also minimizing the risk of data manipulation or tampering.

How to choose the right blockchain API

Choosing the right blockchain API depends on several factors, including the project requirements, the blockchain platform being used, and the API provider’s features and pricing. A few considerations when choosing a blockchain API are listed below:

  • Blockchain platform: Choose an API that is appropriate for your chosen blockchain platform. Look for an Ethereum-specific API, for instance, if you are building on Ethereum.
  • Data retrieval: Consider the types of data that the API can retrieve and how it can be accessed. Make sure the API can return the data one requires in an accessible way.
  • Security: Search for an API that places a high priority on encryption, allows for safe access and has defenses in place against hackers and other online risks.
  • Scalability: One should confirm that the API can support their project’s size. Take into account the API’s capacity for requests, response speed and handling large amounts of data.
  • Support and documentation: Choose an API with thorough developer support and documentation. Look for tools that can assist one in resolving problems and making the most of the API, such as tutorials, code samples and developer communities.
  • Pricing: Lastly, take into account the API’s pricing plan and how it works with your project budget. While some APIs have set subscription costs or transaction fees, others have free tiers or usage-based pricing.

By considering these factors and evaluating different blockchain API providers, developers can choose the right API that fits their project requirements and budget.

Benefits of using blockchain APIs

Using blockchain APIs can provide numerous benefits to developers and businesses that are leveraging blockchain technology. For instance, blockchain application programming interfaces can make dealing with the blockchain much simpler, which makes it straightforward for developers to create blockchain-based apps. A lot of the complexity associated with blockchain technology is abstracted away through APIs, which offer a straightforward and standardized way to communicate with the blockchain.

Blockchain APIs can also supply users access to a plethora of data that has been saved on the blockchain. This information can be used to develop new business models, automate procedures and enable trustless transactions. Businesses can learn a lot about their operations and customer behavior by utilizing the data provided by blockchain application programming interfaces.

In addition, blockchain APIs can assist companies and programmers in ensuring the integrity and security of their applications. Systems that are secure and impervious to tampering that can guard against fraud and other types of harmful behavior can be built using the transparency and immutability of the blockchain.

Finally, blockchain APIs can assist companies and developers in keeping abreast of the most recent trends and advancements in the blockchain sector. Businesses may access the most recent research and industry best practices by utilizing the knowledge of blockchain API providers, which will assist them to stay on top of trends and remain competitive.

Challenges of implementing blockchain APIs

Although blockchain APIs have many advantages, implementing them might be difficult. The intricacy of blockchain technology itself, which can be challenging for developers to understand and work with, is one of the major obstacles. Longer development delays and higher expenses may follow from this.

The lack of standardization among various blockchain networks and application programming interfaces is another difficulty. As a result, in order to create applications that can communicate with various blockchain networks, developers may need to become familiar with and proficient with a variety of APIs.

Also, a strong infrastructure is needed for the successful operation of blockchain application programming interfaces, including a secure database, fast internet and dependable servers. Implementing blockchain APIs may become more expensive and challenging as a result of these constraints.

The regulatory environment that surrounds blockchain technology is another difficulty. Blockchain application legality differs greatly between nations and regions, which might lead to ambiguity and impede adoption.

Finally, while using blockchain APIs, data security and privacy are major issues. Sensitive data may be disclosed or compromised since blockchain technology is transparent and decentralized. To ensure that data is transmitted and stored safely and that only authorized parties have access to it, developers must take extra security measures.

Related: How Web3 resolves fundamental problems in Web2

The future of blockchain APIs

The future of blockchain APIs looks promising as more businesses and developers recognize the benefits of blockchain technology. As the use of blockchain continues to grow and evolve, so will the demand for blockchain APIs to support these new use cases.

Integration of blockchain APIs with other cutting-edge technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI), represents one possible area for growth. Developers may build robust and secure apps that take advantage of the benefits of both blockchain and IoT/AI by merging both technologies.

The development of cross-chain interoperability protocols, which enable communication between various blockchains, is another area of development. This will open up new options for businesses and developers by fostering greater collaboration and innovation across various blockchain platforms. 

Band Protocol is a platform that aggregates and connects real-world data and APIs to smart contracts across different blockchain networks. Similarly, ChainAPI's integration platform enables API providers to make their APIs compatible with blockchain technology. These developments signify the beginning of an exciting and transformative era for both blockchain and API ecosystems.

One may anticipate seeing more standardization in the creation and application of blockchain protocols as the demand for blockchain APIs increases. Businesses will find it simpler to embrace blockchain technology as a result, and various blockchain platforms will become more interoperable.

Finally, one can anticipate that the development of blockchain application programming interfaces will place a greater emphasis on privacy and security. Blockchain APIs must offer strong security features to secure sensitive data and stop unwanted access as data breaches and cyberattacks increase in frequency and sophistication.

Fri, 03 Nov 2023 22:14:00 -0500 en text/html https://cointelegraph.com/learn/a-beginners-guide-to-blockchain-apis
A beginner's guide to understanding the layers of blockchain technology

Understanding the layers of the blockchain

If you've looked into cryptocurrencies or blockchain in any way, you've probably come across terms like layer one and layer two protocols. Are you curious about what these layers are and why they exist? Let's discuss blockchain layer architecture in this article.

Blockchain technology is a one-of-a-kind mix of several current technologies — cryptography, game theory and so on — with a wide range of possible applications such as cryptocurrencies. Encoding and decoding data is a mathematical and computational discipline known as cryptography. The study of the mathematical models of strategic interaction among rational decision-makers is known as game theory. Blockchain eliminates intermediaries, lowers costs and improves efficiency by bringing transparency and security.

Without the oversight of a central authority, distributed ledger technology (DLT) keeps information Tested by cryptography among a group of users who agreed through a predetermined network protocol. Combining these technologies fosters trust between people or parties who would otherwise have no motive to do so. They make it possible for blockchain networks to exchange value and data between users securely.

Due to the lack of a centralized authority, blockchains must be very safe. They must also be extremely scalable to handle increasing users, transactions and other data. Layers were born out of the requirement for scalability concurrent to the preservation of top-notch security.

What is blockchain scalability?

The phrase "scaling" in blockchain technology refers to an increase in the system throughput rate, which is measured in transactions per second. With the widespread adoption of cryptocurrencies in everyday life, blockchain layers are now required to Excellerate network security, recordkeeping and other functions.

The number of transactions handled by a system per second is referred to as "throughput." While Visa's VisaNet electronic payment network can process over 20,000 transactions per second, Bitcoin's (BTC) main chain cannot handle more than seven transactions per second.

The blockchain is the first layer in a decentralized ecosystem. Layer two is a third-party integration used in conjunction with layer one to enhance the number of nodes and, as a result, system throughput. Many layer two blockchain technologies are currently being implemented. Smart contracts are used in these solutions to automate transactions.

Blockchain developers are attempting to broaden the scope of blockchain management as Bitcoin becomes a more significant force in the commercial world. They hope to reduce processing times and increase TPS by developing blockchain layers and optimizing layer two scalability.

The blockchain trilemma

The blockchain trilemma refers to the commonly held notion that, in terms of decentralization, security and scalability, decentralized networks can only provide two of the three benefits at any given time.

Computer scientists devised the consistency, availability and partition tolerance (CAP) theorem in the 1980s to express possibly the most significant of these difficulties. The CAP theorem states that decentralized data storage, such as blockchain, can only satisfy two of the three guarantees mentioned above simultaneously.

This theorem has evolved into the blockchain trilemma in the context of the current distributed networks. The widely held notion is that public blockchain infrastructure must sacrifice security, decentralization or scalability.

As a result, the holy grail of blockchain technology is to create a network with impenetrable security over a broadly decentralized network while also handling internet-scale transactional throughput.

Before delving into the trilemma's dynamics, let's define scalability, security and decentralization in general terms:

  • The blockchain's scalability refers to its ability to handle a higher volume of transactions.

  • Security refers to the ability to secure data on the blockchain from various types of assaults and the blockchain's defense against double-spending.

  • Decentralization is a type of network redundancy that ensures that the network is not controlled by fewer entities.

The blockchain trilemma
 

The interplay among scalability, security and decentralization

To settle a transaction, the network must first agree on its validity. The agreement may take some time if the system has a large number of members. As a result, we can show that scalability is inversely proportional to decentralization when security parameters are identical.

Scalability vs. decentralization

Now, assuming that two proof-of-work blockchains have the same degree of decentralization and consider security to be the blockchain's hash rate. The confirmation time decreases as the hash rate rises, and scalability rises as security improves. As a result, scalability and security are proportionate with constant decentralization.

Scalability vs. security

As a result, a blockchain cannot optimize for all three desired features simultaneously, forcing it to make trade-offs. Ethereum is the most recent example of the trilemma in action. The Ethereum platform has seen a boom in usage due to the growth of decentralized finance (DeFi) applications this summer. Ethereum can only grow to a certain point. 

Due to the increased demand, transaction fees have risen to the point where some people cannot engage with the blockchain. Increased Ethereum fees are an example of the trilemma, as we can see that Ethereum did not scale without sacrificing security or decentralization.

The focus of Ethereum was on decentralization and security, with the number of transactions per second being limited (scalability). To encourage miners to prioritize their transactions, users paid higher fees. Similarly, decentralization and security have taken precedence over scalability in Bitcoin.

It's no secret that the scalability of blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum is currently limited. Therefore, a global community of start-ups, corporations and technologists is working frantically on layer one and layer two solutions to solve the blockchain trilemma. 

Layer one blockchain networks are designed for speed, security and expansion. Layer two refers to technology enhancements and products that can be utilized to expand the scalability of existing blockchain networks. Getting the perfect balance between the two layers might be a game-changer for blockchain adoption and the expansion of decentralized networks.

Developers are approaching the issue from a variety of perspectives. The increased block size in Bitcoin Cash (BCH) was an attempt to Excellerate Bitcoin's scalability. However, there is no evidence that it is becoming more popular. 

Bitcoin is seeking to tackle the problem by adding a layer to the existing blockchain layer. The layer two solutions will bundle numerous transactions together and only query the base layer blockchain once in a while, according to the idea behind scaling solutions. Ethereum is taking a hybrid approach, with sharding scaling the base layer blockchain and the community anticipating several layer two solutions to boost throughput even further.

The layered structure of the blockchain architecture

In the case of blockchain architecture's distributed network, each network participant maintains, authorizes and updates new entries. A collection of blocks with transactions in a specific order represents the structure of blockchain technology. These lists can be saved as a flat file (in txt format) or a simple database. Blockchain architecture can take public, private or consortium forms.

The layered architecture of blockchain is categorized into six layers.

Layered structure of the blockchain architecture

Hardware infrastructure layer 

The blockchain's content is stored on a server in a data center somewhere on this lovely globe. Clients request content or data from application servers while browsing the web or utilizing any apps, which is known as the client-server architecture.

Clients can now connect with peer clients and share data. A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is a large group of computers that share data. Blockchain is a peer-to-peer network of computers that computes, validates and records transactions in an orderly manner in a shared ledger. As a result, a distributed database is created, storing all data, transactions and other pertinent data. A node is a computer in a P2P network.

Data layer

A blockchain's data structure is expressed as a linked list of blocks in which transactions are ordered. The data structure of the blockchain consists of two fundamental elements: pointers and a linked list. A linked list is a list of chained blocks with data and pointers to the previous block. 

Pointers are variables that refer to the position of another variable, and a linked list is a list of chained blocks with data and pointers to the previous block. The Merkle tree is a binary tree of hashes. Each block contains the root hash of the Merkle tree and information like the preceding block's hash, timestamp, nonce, block version number and current difficulty goal. 

For blockchain systems, a Merkle tree provides security, integrity and irrefutability. The blockchain system is built on Merkle trees, cryptography and consensus algorithms. Because it is the first in the chain, the genesis block, i.e., the first block, does not contain the pointer. 

To protect the security and integrity of the data contained in blockchain, transactions are digitally signed. A private key is used to sign transactions, and anyone with the public key may verify the signer. The digital signature detects information manipulation. Because the data that is encrypted is also signed, digital signatures ensure unity. As a result, any manipulation will render the signature invalid.

The data cannot be discovered because it is encrypted. It cannot be tampered with again, even if it is caught. The sender's or owner's identity is also protected by a digital signature. As a result, a signature is legally linked to its owner and cannot be disregarded.

Network layer

The network layer, commonly referred to as the P2P layer, is responsible for inter-node communication. Discovery, transactions and block propagation are all handled by the network layer. Propagation layer is another name for this layer. 

This P2P layer ensures that nodes can find one other and interact, disseminate and synchronize to keep the blockchain network in a legitimate state. A P2P network is a computer network in which nodes are distributed and share the workload of the network to achieve a common purpose. The blockchain's transactions are carried out by nodes.

Consensus layer

The consensus layer is essential for blockchain platforms to exist. The consensus layer is the most necessary and critical layer in any blockchain, whether it is Ethereum, Hyperledger or another. The consensus layer is in charge of validating the blocks, ordering them and guaranteeing that everyone agrees. 

Essential elements of the consensus layer

Application layer

Smart contracts, chaincode and decentralized applications (DApps) make up the application layer. The application layer protocols are further subdivided into the application and the execution layers. The application layer comprises the programs that end-users utilize to communicate with the blockchain network. Scripts, application programming interfaces (APIs), user interfaces and frameworks are all part of it.

The blockchain network serves as the back-end technology for these applications, and they communicate with it via APIs. Smart contracts, underlying rules and chaincode are all part of the execution layer. 

Although a transaction moves from the application layer to the execution layer, it is validated and executed at the semantic layer. Applications supply instructions to the execution layer, which executes transactions and ensures the blockchain's deterministic nature.

Blockchain layers explained

Layer 0

Blockchain layer zero is made up of components that help to make blockchain a reality. It's the technology that allows Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other blockchain networks to function. Layer 0 components include the internet, hardware, and connections that will enable layer one to run smoothly.

Layer one 

This is the foundation layer, and its security is based on its immutability. The Ethereum network, or layer one, is what people allude to when they say Ethereum. This layer is in charge of consensus processes, programming languages, block time, dispute resolution, and the rules and parameters that maintain a blockchain network's basic functionality. It is also known as the implementation layer. Bitcoin is an example of a layer one blockchain.

Problems with layer one

These scaling solutions boost the network's throughput when used together. However, with the growing number of blockchain users, layer one appears to be falling short. The archaic and clumsy proof-of-work consensus process is still in use on the layer one blockchain.

While this approach is more secure than others, it is limited by its speed. Miners are required to solve cryptographic algorithms using computational power. As a result, more computational power and time are required in the long run. Also, the workload on layer one blockchain has increased as the number of users has grown. Processing speeds and capacities have slowed as a result.

Possible solutions

Proof-of-stake is an alternate consensus that Ethereum 2.0 will adopt. This consensus approach certifies new transaction data blocks based on the staking collateral of network participants, resulting in a more efficient procedure.

Sharding is a scaling solution for the burden on the layer one blockchain problem. Simply said, sharding divides the task of validating and authenticating transactions into smaller, easier-to-manage chunks. As a result, the workload can be distributed over the network to use more nodes' computing capability. Because the network processes these shards in parallel, several transactions can be processed both sequentially and simultaneously.

Layer two 

The overlapping networks that sit on top of the base layer are known as L2 solutions. Protocols make use of layer two to increase scalability by removing some interactions from the base layer. As a result, smart contracts on the primary blockchain protocol only deal with deposits and withdrawals and ensure that off-chain transactions follow the regulations. Bitcoin's Lightning Network is an example of a layer two blockchain.

So, what is the difference between layer one and layer two blockchain? The blockchain is the first layer in a decentralized ecosystem. Layer two is a third-party integration used in conjunction with layer one to enhance the number of nodes and, as a result, system throughput. Many layer two blockchain technologies are being implemented at present.

Layer two scaling solutions

Layer two protocols have exploded in popularity in recent years, and they're proving to be the most effective approach to solving scaling issues in PoW networks, in particular. Various layer two scaling solutions are explained in the sections below.

Nested blockchain

A nested layer two blockchain runs on top of another. In essence, layer one establishes the settings, whereas layer two conducts the procedures. On a single mainchain, there might be several blockchain tiers. Consider it a typical business structure. 

Rather than having one person (e.g., the manager) conduct all of the work, the manager delegated tasks to subordinates, who then reported back to the management when they were finished. As a result, the manager's workload is reduced while scalability is improved. The OMG Plasma Project, for example, works as a level two blockchain for Ethereum's level one protocol, allowing for cheaper and faster transactions.

State channels

A state channel improves total transaction capacity and speed by facilitating two-way communication between a blockchain and off-chain transactional channels via various approaches. To validate a transaction over a state channel, the miner does not need to be involved right away.

Instead, it's a network-adjacent resource that's protected via a multi-signature or smart contract mechanism. The ultimate "state" of the "channel" and all its inherent transitions are posted to the underlying blockchain when a transaction or batch of transactions is completed on a state channel. 

State channels examples include Bitcoin Lightning and Ethereum's Raiden Network. In the trilemma tradeoff, state channels supply up some decentralization in exchange for increased scalability.

Sidechains

A sidechain is a transactional chain that runs alongside the blockchain and is used for massive bulk transactions. Sidechains have their consensus method, which can be adjusted for speed and scalability, and a utility token is frequently utilized as a part of the data transfer mechanism between side and main chains. The main chain's principal function is to provide general security and dispute resolution.

In several important ways, sidechains differ from state channels. To begin with, sidechain transactions are not private between participants; instead, they are published openly on the ledger. Furthermore, security breaches on sidechains do not affect the mainchain or other sidechains. Building a sidechain from the ground up necessitates a significant amount of time and work.

Rollups

Rollups are layer two blockchain scaling solutions that perform transactions outside of the layer one network and then upload the data from the transactions to the layer two blockchain. Layer one can keep rollups secure because the data is on the base layer.

Two alternative security models for rollups

Users benefit from rollups since they help to boost transaction throughput, open participation and lower gas costs.

Layer three 

The application layer is often referred to as layer three or L3. The L3 projects act as a user interface while masking the technical aspects of the communication channel. L3 applications are what supply blockchains their real-world applicability, as explained in the layered structure of the blockchain architecture.

Can the blockchain trilemma be solved?

The issues faced by distributed data storage, from which blockchains arose, were passed down to blockchains. To better comprehend these difficulties and related problems, the term "blockchain trilemma" was coined to group them.

Even though the word "trilemma" has remained, the blockchain trilemma is merely a conjecture. This hypothesis is suspected to be accurate based on early data, but it has been neither proved nor disproved. More research needs to be done, even though layer one and layer two solutions have already had some success.

The bottom line

One of the reasons why crypto mainstream adoption is now impossible in the blockchain business is scalability. As the demand for cryptocurrencies grows, so will the pressure to expand blockchain protocols. Because both blockchain levels have their own set of restrictions, the eventual solution will be to develop a system that can solve the scalability trilemma.

Layer one is critical since it serves as the foundation for decentralized systems. The underlying blockchain's scalability issues are addressed via layer two protocols. Unfortunately, most layer three protocols (DApps) currently run only on layer one, bypassing layer two. It's no surprise that these systems aren't performing as well as we'd want.

Layer three applications are essential because they help to develop real-world use cases for blockchains. They will, however, not capture nearly as much value as their foundation blockchain, in contrast to legacy networks.

Fri, 10 Mar 2023 22:35:00 -0600 en text/html https://cointelegraph.com/learn/a-beginners-guide-to-understanding-the-layers-of-blockchain-technology
Mastering the blocks: A guide to Blockchain variants No result found, try new keyword!Blockchain’s decentralized nature powers apps, making it a widespread technology today. People’s trust has grown as a result of blockchain technology’s rising popularity and intriguing ... Tue, 19 Dec 2023 23:12:00 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ IBM Just Launched Blockchain Beyond Currency

Blockchain has the potential to become an integral part of our future. Essentially, it's a decentralized digital ledger that's secured by cryptography and boasts transparency that's unparalleled in any digital platform. Though initially linked to cryptocurrency, the technology has since seen various applications beyond Bitcoin.

Click to View Full Infographic

Blockchain networks are employed in the financial sector, in universal basic income (UBI) programs, and even for humanitarian purposes. A number of institutions have begun investing in research and development of other blockchain-based applications, exploring its potential use in various transaction-based industries. Indeed, the technology has the potential to be as disruptive as the internet itself.

IBM saw that potential when it introduced IBM Blockchain last year. The goal of that public cloud service was to supply customers the means to build secure blockchain networks. On Sunday, IBM launched its own "Blockchain as a Service," and it's the first enterprise-ready implementation of IBM Blockchain.

The blockchain is based on The Linux Foundation's open source Hyperledger Fabric. "Think of it as an operating system for marketplaces, data-sharing networks, micro-currencies, and decentralized digital communities," explains Hyperledger on its website. "It has the potential to vastly reduce the cost and complexity of getting things done in the real world."

Through Hyperledger, IBM is offering a set of cloud-based services to help customers create, deploy, and manage blockchain networks, according to Jerry Cuomo, VP of blockchain technology at IBM. “Some time ago, we and several other members of the industry came to view that there needs to be a group looking after, governing, and shepherding technology around blockchain for serious business,” he told TechCrunch.

Though open source, Hyperledger promises to be secure and safe. "Only an Open Source, collaborative software development approach can ensure the transparency, longevity, interoperability, and support required to bring blockchain technologies forward to mainstream commercial adoption," they explained. "That is what Hyperledger is about – communities of software developers building blockchain frameworks and platforms."

To satisfy enterprise users, IBM adds another layer of security services using the IBM cloud. The computing giant also claims that their blockchain network is built around a highly auditable way of tracking all activity. This gives administrators a trail they can follow in case something goes wrong, like in the unlikely event that the network could be breached.

IBM's vision for blockchain isn't just limited to enterprise use. In 2015, IBM and Samsung presented a proof-of-concept for a blockchain-based, decentralized Internet of Things (IoT) called Autonomous Decentralized Peer-to-Peer Telemetry (ADEPT). It's a testament to just how much potential blockchain has. Ultimately, the technology puts digital security and transparency on a whole new level, one that we'll need as we push further into a future of extreme connectivity.


Thu, 23 Mar 2017 07:46:00 -0500 text/html https://futurism.com/ibm-just-launched-blockchain-beyond-currency
60% of pharma companies using or trying blockchain - survey

Six out of ten pharma companies are using or experimenting with blockchain, according to a new study.

According to the not-for-profit organisation The Pistoia Alliance, 60% of pharmaceutical and life science professionals are either using or experimenting with blockchain today, compared to 22% when asked in 2017.

However, 40% are not currently looking at implementing, or have no plans to implement blockchain, according to the survey of 170 senior pharma and life science professionals this year.

The biggest barriers identified to adoption are access to skilled blockchain personnel (55%), and that blockchain is too difficult to understand (16%).

These factors underline why The Pistoia Alliance is calling for the life science and pharmaceutical industries to collaborate over the development and implementation of blockchain.

Blockchain is an open, distributed ledger of information that is saved across several different servers, and is constantly growing as computers cryptographically discover the next “block” of information in the chain.

Data is protected in any given block as they cannot be altered retroactively without alteration of blocks, requiring consensus of the majority of the network.

Famously employed to administer the bitcoin cryptocurrency, blockchain can be used to create a secure repository for sensitive healthcare information such as clinical trial data.

The survey showed life science and pharmaceutical professionals are becoming more aware of the capabilities of blockchain.

Respondents believed the greatest opportunities for using blockchain lie in the medical supply chain (30%), electronic medical records (25%), clinical trials management (20%), and scientific data sharing (15%).

Of the benefits of blockchain, life science and pharmaceutical professionals believe the most significant is the immutability of data (73%). Significantly, for an industry with tight regulations, 39% also believe the transparency of the blockchain system is its best feature.

However, almost a fifth (18%) of professionals believe using blockchain adds no value beyond a traditional database, showing there is some reluctance in the industry to use the technology.

The Pistoia Alliance said that some of the misconceptions about blockchain can be overcome with greater education of those in industry.

Richard Shute, consultant for The Pistoia Alliance, said “We are currently focusing on educating scientists and researchers about the potential uses of blockchain technologies outside of the supply chain, particularly in R&D. At The Pistoia Alliance, we want to support our members’ initiatives in blockchain, as well as provide a secure global forum for partnerships and collaboration.”

  • The Pistoia Alliance is holding a Blockchain Bootcamp on 8th – 9th October in Boston as part of its drive to educate the life science industry about the technology.
Thu, 27 Sep 2018 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://pharmaphorum.com/news/60-of-pharma-companies-using-or-trying-blockchain-survey
A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae

Written by the Priests and Pastoral Associates of Priests for Life

 

This study guide is based on the Vatican Translation of Humanae Vitae

 

Table of Contents:

 

Forward

Introduction to the Study Guide

Summary of the Introduction to the Encyclical and Section I: New Aspects of the Problem and Competency of the Magisterium

A Summary of Section II. Doctrinal Principles

Summary of Section III. Pastoral Directives 

Essay: Finding Our Way Back Home

Essay: Life, Purity and Humanae Vitae

Essay: The Transmission of Life -- On Whose Terms?

The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony

Glossary of Terms

 

Foreword

 

A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae


Fr. Frank Pavone, National Director, Priests for Life

 

Forty years is not a long time in Church history. Indeed, we are still living in the moment of Humanae Vitae (issued on July 25, 1968), and of the challenge it presents to the world.

Humanae Vitae does not identify the key problem of our day in the realm of sex or birth or "the pill," but rather in the myth that we can be God. Pope Paul writes at the beginning of the document, "But the most remarkable development of all is to be seen in man's stupendous progress in the domination and rational organization of the forces of nature to the point that he is endeavoring to extend this control over every aspect of his own life -- over his body, over his mind and emotions, over his social life, and even over the laws that regulate the transmission of life” (n.2).

 

The Pope here is painting a wider vision of the problem. We think everything belongs to us, but the reality is that we belong to God. "Humanae Vitae" means "Of human life." Human life came from God, belongs to God, and goes back to God. "You are not your own," St. Paul declares. "You have been bought, and at a price" (1 Cor. 6:19-20). Sex and having children are aspects of a whole cluster of realities that make up our lives and activities. We suffer from the illusion that all of these activities belong to us. “This is my life, my body, my choice.

 

The problem we face is not that our society is obsessed with sex. Rather, it is afraid of it-- afraid of the total reality and power of what it represents, where it comes from, and where it leads. Sex properly understood requires that we acknowledge God who made it. More than that, sex can never be separated from its purpose: to insert us into this immense, powerful movement of life and love that started when God said "Let there be light" (Genesis 1:3) and culminates when the Spirit and the Bride say "Come, Lord Jesus!" (Revelation 22:17).

 

Sexual activity means so much that it is wrong to diminish its message or deny its full reality: it belongs in the context of committed love (sealed by marriage) and openness to life precisely because this is the only context great enough to hold its message and reflect the greater reality to which the gift of sexuality points us and to which it commits us.

 

This is a reality that is bigger than all of us. It is the self-giving which starts in the Trinity, and is revealed in a startling way on the Cross, and then challenges each of us in our daily interaction with others, with God, and with our own eternal destiny. It is so real and so big that it is scary. That's why so many today are afraid of the full reality and meaning of sex. That's why Pope Paul VI wrote Humanae Vitae.

 

That is also why our Priests for Life pastoral team wrote this Study Guide. We have also established a special website, www.HumanaeVitae40.com, to promote the teachings of this document. It is our daily prayer that this effort will lead many believers to understand, embrace, and proclaim the beautiful truth of human life. 

 

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY GUIDE

 

James J. Pinto, Jr., M.E.V.
Editor: A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae 

 

This Study Guide will be most effective if one first thoroughly familiarizes himself with its content and layout. Review the table of contents and the location of each section listed. The Study Guide is to be used by an individual or group as a side by side companion with the text  of Humanae Vitae included in this booklet. The three Essays offer unique insight with questions for further discussion. The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony presents a riveting and practical witness to why Humanae Vitae is the wholesome truth.

 

The Glossary assists the reader in clarifying some key terms contained in the Encyclical. Glossary terms are listed by the number/paragraph in which they first appear. The terms will be marked with an *asterisk in the Humanae Vitae text as a note to the reader that the term is contained in the Glossary. 

 

After practicing Fr. Pavone’s Foreword one should read the Summary of the Introduction and Section I, followed by the practicing of the Introduction and Section I. of Humanae Vitae itself. After completing the Introduction and Section I. of Humanae Vitae; the reader answers the series of questions below the Summary of the Introduction and Section I.  The sequence followed for the Introduction and Section I is repeated for each following section: practicing the Study Guide Section Summary, practicing of the corresponding Encyclical section itself and returning to the Study Guide questions for that particular section. The questions are meant to refer the reader back to particular paragraphs/numbers (n.or n.n.) of that section where he/she will find the answers. One may work on the answers to these questions while practicing the paragraph/number, or, wait until he/she has read the entire section and then complete the answers. Continual returning to the text of the encyclical helps emphasize that the document itself is the primary source of instruction and the basis for individual and group applications. 

 

The three Essays have several questions at their conclusion to help foster reflection and discussion. A personal witness to the truth and wisdom of Humanae Vitae is presented in The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony. 

 

This Study Guide is meant to be a “springboard” to delve more deeply into Humanae Vitae and its themes, in order to stimulate reflection, and a lifestyle of holiness. 

 

For those considering the possibility of facilitating a study group, this study guide lends itself to a discussion study group method of learning. While a leader/facilitator encourages the group and keeps it “on track”, it is the individual sharing and group dynamic that contribute most to the learning process. The facilitator is not a lecturer, neither is he there to supply all the answers. The facilitator seeks to shepherd the group learning process and does everything possible to solicit their contributions. Members interact and learn from everyone, including the facilitator. A Facilitator’s Guide is available through Priests for Life at www.HumanaeVitae40.com. The Facilitator’s Guide seeks to assist you in leading a group and lays out suggested study sessions.

 

It is our hope, that on the fortieth anniversary of Humanae Vitae, this study guide will assist in promoting the Church’s clear and authoritative word on transmitting human life. May all who hear this true, prophetic and lovely word be assured that: the Church has always issued appropriate documents on the nature of marriage, the correct use of conjugal rights, and the duties of spouses. These documents have been more copious in recent times. (n.4)

 

Mon, 25 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.catholicnewsagency.com/resource/55671/a-study-guide-to-humanae-vitae
Does Blockchain Tech Have a Future in Health Care?

By Stephen P. Williams

Proponents of blockchain technology say we’re on the cusp of a revolution in health care. They envision a future where doctors and institutions share medical records easily, and patients control their personal data rather than letting tech companies harvest our data for free and sell it for profit. If the concept of Web3 -- a blockchain and cryptocurrency-based internet that grows to naturally displace our current World Wide Web -- proves out, it could make their visions reality.

But others in the health care industry, even if they see the need for a revolution, fear that blockchain currently has too many blindspots to be effective. “In my opinion, although I think the impact of blockchain technology will be huge in the health care system in the future, a successful and scaling solution is likely to be years ahead of us,” says Lukas S. Vogel, MD and blockchain expert in Baden-Baden, Germany.

Blockchain came into the popular consciousness when it served as the foundation for Bitcoin, the cryptocurrency that was invented in 2008. Ever since, the technology has been misunderstood, both by the cult-like fanatics who believe it is the cure-all for every problem the world faces, and the narrow-minded cranks who say it serves only to support pyramid schemes, gangsters, and tyrants.

Let’s leave these fanatics and cranks to their Twitter wars, and approach blockchain and health care from the middle ground. First, a blockchain primer:

Blockchain is software, it’s as simple as that. This software is a digital version of the old green account books your grandparents might have used to track cents spent and cents earned. Except that instead of just two columns -- debit and credit -- blockchains (there are many blockchains, with many more to come) have three: debit, credit, and verification. This triple entry accounting system requires no auditors, verifiers, or gatekeepers. Because every transaction is public and immutable, no one can change the data without triggering alarms throughout the system. Once a transaction is registered on a blockchain, that fact remains there forever. It is associated with a specific blockchain address, but those addresses can remain anonymous.The real data -- such as written documents, videos, or test results -- are stored “off chain,” in data banks, because blockchains are designed to record ownership, rather than store data.

No one owns these public blockchains; one innovation is that they are controlled by participants in the chain. Private, or enterprise, blockchains are owned by consortiums or companies, such as IBM, and they are more centralized.

To use public and private blockchains creatively, companies build apps (called dApps in blockchain lingo). The dApps generally track ownership of digital property, such as cryptocurrency tokens or health records.

At the moment, a number of health care companies, including IBM, SAP, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Patientory, and Nebula Genomics are using enterprise blockchains for focused tasks such as:

  • Verification of credentials
  • Sharing medical records
  • Tracking costs and payments
  • Tracking organs and transplants
  • Following the pharmaceutical supply chain

According to some industry experts, it’s possible (though not guaranteed) that some very useful applications will become widely used in the next 5 years. There’s a big push to supply patients and doctors sovereign ID’s, so that they can control their identity, reputation, records, and other data. Right now, we medical consumers supply our data away.

“Now, the records are owned by the hospital or other corporation, which can sell the data -- you still have to ask for permission to access your own data,” says Jose Morey, the North Carolina-based chief medical officer for a medical technology company.

Giving patients control over their own data won’t be an easy task. Even putting aside technical issues, it would require a huge amount of cooperation between companies that don’t have much of an incentive to cooperate. “It’s very hard to solve the health care problems,” says John Bass, founder and CEO of Hash Health, a Nashville-based venture studio that’s building new digital health startups. “That takes enterprises that are willing to work together. It takes new management techniques. It takes systems change.”

Widespread adoption for this technology won’t be easy, and it might even be harmful. Here are the most important potential drawbacks:

Cryptocurrency

A cryptocurrency is a digital coin, such as Bitcoin, that’s tracked and certified by a blockchain. There are no real physical coins. Rather, the digital coins are stored, as lines of code, in digital wallets that can only be unlocked on your computer or device with a private digital key. Bitcoin and ether are the two most used cryptocurrencies. The worth of each is highly volatile, rising or dropping in value by thousands of percent in a year.

Many business innovators, including in health care, believe that crypto coins could be used to incentivize behaviors -- in health care, perhaps, you’d receive the hospital’s branded cryptocurrency if you showed that you exercised three times a week, as your doctor instructed. This concept is not far-fetched or technically difficult, though no hospitals are yet using it.

“There are regulatory questions around the normal crypto stuff, outside of health care. The coins that would be used in health care are even more complex without having to worry about that,” Bass says.

Web3 believers would like to incentivize patients to be healthy, share their records, and do other things by paying them with cryptocurrency. But there’s a good chance that speculators would enter that ecosystem and possibly manipulate the value of the coins. Plus, the IRS and the SEC have not yet settled on specific rules about coins, tokens, and NFTs. There is a real risk that new regulations will severely hamper companies’ ability to use these incentives.

NFTs

Nonfungible tokens, or NFTs, are similar to crypto coins, except that each NFT is one of a kind. So far, NFTs have been used as art objects: you buy a token that says you own a picture, and the investment can appreciate just like an real picture (Except you can’t hang it in your house).

But the tokens can serve well to register permanent records of your identity, medical records, and other health care data. The information is sharable, as you wish. You could own the NFT that has all of your exercise data, for instance, and use it to share relevant information with your physical therapist, or sell your data to a research company. The biggest problem now is that acquiring and storing NFTs requires some technical skills, and the user experience right now is too cumbersome to onboard a lot of people.

Security

Blockchains are nearly impossible to hack. The Bitcoin blockchain has never been hacked, and the Ethereum chain was only hacked once, soon after its inception. Given its current size, it's extremely unlikely that it could happen again. However, the dApps built on top of blockchains to manage data, IP, ID, and other functions are sometimes vulnerable to sophisticated hacking. And when, if ever, quantum computing becomes common, that technology will be powerful enough to crack the cryptologic codes on blockchains.

Until that time, users are quite susceptible to hackers running phishing schemes. While blockchains themselves can’t be hacked, people can be tricked into surrendering the secret phrase that gives them access to their private wallets. Sharing those phrases is like sharing the code to your secure vault. Once someone has that, they can steal any coins or NFTs in your digital wallet, and also steal your health records and other info. Given the nature of the technology, the thefts would be registered immutably on the blockchain. But since blockchains are amoral, the blockchain wouldn't do anything about it.

Distributed Autonomous Organizations (DAOs)

DAOs are groups of people organized on the blockchain who use cryptocurrency as a funding mechanism, and make most big decisions by voting. They have no central leader or authority. These organizations with minimal hierarchy have only been around for a decade or so, but recently DAO’s have exploded in popularity among startups in all sectors. Some health care innovators now are interested in funding their ventures with DAOs, or organizing patients with rare diseases to raise funds to research medicines for their disease. This is important because many less common treatments and illnesses are not of interest to venture capitalists and others who want giant returns from huge products. Yet most everyone is waiting until DAOs are less risky, and easier to explain to stakeholders. No one has really nailed the user experience of DAO’s yet. They are like 1970s communes, but with lots of money and a focus on business. They communicate through chat rooms in an online platform called Discord.

“The Discord servers are pure chaos,” Bass says. “Asking a health care provider to join Discord would be sort of a joke.”

Cross Chain Portability

While there are dApps that help transmit data from one chain to another, the level of interoperability between chains that would be necessary for transforming the American health system simply doesn’t yet exist. For example, it’s important that a hospital that uses one chain be able to share data with a doctor who uses another. At the moment, that is sometimes difficult. The health care system will not be unified until this is more possible.

Credentialing

Blockchain seems to offer the perfect solution to a credentialing, which is a common health care problem. Every physician has a relationship with four or five health systems and payers. Each of those businesses must certify that the physician is who she says she is. This process now is mostly analog and can take months, and has to be reconfirmed every 2 years. No hospital shares this data, so each hospital has to do it for themselves. This is a perfect use case for the efficiencies of blockchain, and some companies are working on it. In the meantime, companies pay millions of dollars for more traditional certification services every year.

A good way to store a doctor's credentials would be on NFTs stored in digital wallets. But that might be too technologically challenging for today’s doctors because of the technical savvy required.

“If you created a self sovereign wallet for a physician right now they wouldn't know what to do with it,” Bass says.

The Environment

Many knowledgeable people are concerned about the amount of energy the computers of two of the largest chains, Bitcoin and Ethereum, use to verify and secure “blocks” of data on the chain. This is currently a very real issue. However, Bitcoin participants are increasingly switching to using renewable energy, because it's cheaper and sustainable. And Ethereum is expected to start using a different blockchain technology, called proof of stake, this year, which will reduce its electricity usage by more than 90%. There are a number of other chains, both public and private, that already use this low energy method of certifying data.

It seems certain that blockchain is going to have an impact on health care. The technology might even lead to a revolution in health care, where data is private and charges are billed transparently. Where organ transplants run smoothly and equitably, and payment friction is reduced. It’s all possible, but the technology definitely has to leap some hurdles before it can happen for real.

Editor’s Note: Stephen P. Williams is a co-founder of Evertunes Studio, which builds coins and NFTs for art and money games. In his spare time he collects and sells fine-art NFTs, using ether and other currencies.

Thu, 10 Feb 2022 18:43:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/features/blockchain-healthcare
Study Abroad Study Abroad

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ESF Education Abroad is devoted to making transformational international experiences accessible to all ESF students regardless of major, cost, identity, or other defining factors. We do this by working with students on an individual basis to find the opportunities that best fit their personal needs and goals.

ESF students have hundreds of education abroad programs to choose from! Programs vary in length from one week up to a full academic year and are located all over the world, so there is something for everyone! Start to browse programs below, and please reach out to oie@esf.edu with any questions or to start planning your experience abroad.

Programs

Program Details
ESF Short-Term Programs Travel abroad with an ESF faculty member and your classmates! Most short-term courses are between one to three weeks in length and take place over spring or summer break.
ESF Exchange Programs Spend a semester or summer abroad with one of ESF's university partners.
ESF Partner Study Abroad Study abroad for a winter, summer, or semester with one of ESF's recommended study abroad providers, any other SUNY institution or through another study abroad program provider. Many of these programs are immersive or field-based opportunities. Short-term, summer, and semester programs are all available!

 

Quick Tips

Before researching programs, think about your goals for education abroad. What type of experience are you hoping to have and what are you most interested in learning? What type of opportunities do you have limited access to in Syracuse and how might you gain those abroad? Use these questions to help guide you to better understand what it is you want out of your international experience and how you might be able to find a program that fits those criteria.

In addition to thinking about what is important to you, take some time to recognize what is not important to you. When choosing a education abroad program, it can be easier to find a "perfect" match if you understand what you are willing to compromise. Are financials the most the important piece to you? Specific classes for your major? Perhaps a research course in a specific field? Rank the things that are most important to you so we can help you find that "perfect" opportunity.

You never know where you might find recommendations, advice or input. Ask your classmates, professors, advisors, parents, guardians, coaches, etc. You never know what you might discover. Don't forget to visit OIE as well – we serve as the repository for all of the different opportunities in front of you and can help guide you when you're not sure where to even start.

Fri, 14 Aug 2020 12:08:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.esf.edu/studyabroad/index.php
This South Korean entrepreneur is making waves in blockchain analysis

[Source]

Meet Ju Ki-young, a South Korean tech entrepreneur who co-founded the blockchain analysis firm CryptoQuant.

About Ju: Born in 1992, Ju, an alumnus of Pohang University of Science and Technology, co-founded CryptoQuant with fellow alumni in April 2019. Before becoming its CEO and entering the blockchain sphere, he was a software engineer who offered analyses for businesses.

What CryptoQuant does: CryptoQuant, which South Korea's Chosun Daily dubs as the "Bloomberg of Crypto," provides on-chain and market data gathered from blockchain and major cryptocurrency exchange platforms. The company keeps track of every transaction that occurs in the market.

Making a name: Using on-chain data analysis, CryptoQuant says it was the first to notice the impending crash of the Terra-Luna cryptocurrency in May 2022 and the potential bankruptcy of FTX months after.

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Ju raised the red flag in an X post, pointing out how Terraform Labs' nonprofit, Luna Foundation Guard, transferred around 37,000 Bitcoins (approximately $1.59 billion in today's exchange) to Gemini, a cryptocurrency exchange. A few days after making the post, Terraform Labs' Luna, the sister token of stablecoin TerraUSD, crashed to virtually $0.

With its success, CryptoQuant signed a partnership deal with the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME Group), the world’s largest derivatives and options exchange, as the latter’s on-chain data provider in July of the same year.

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Helping solve crimes: Ju hopes that CryptoQuant could also aid governments and financial authorities in tracking cyber financial crimes. In 2019, the company used its expertise to uncover the e-wallets of those involved in the “Nth Room” scandal, leading to the arrest of masterminds Cho Ju-bin, Moon Hyung-wook and others.

Trending on NextShark: Korean restaurant worker shares PSA for non-Asians in viral TikTok

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Wed, 03 Jan 2024 09:32:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://news.yahoo.com/south-korean-entrepreneur-making-waves-233257775.html
Uh Oh: Blockchain May Not Be as Secure as We Thought

Blockchain has the potential to transform our world. Experts insist the technology is "bigger than the internet," but we may want to take a beat before we put everything from our money to our health records on blockchains. According to a new study, the technology isn't nearly as secure as we thought.

Back in 2009, Bitcoin set the blockchain revolution in motion giving any two parties, anywhere, a way to quickly and securely transfer money.

Some blockchains, most notably Ethereum, take the utility of Bitcoin to the next level by incorporating smart contracts, which automate the process.

For example, say you want to buy 10 ether tokens, but only if the price drops below $600 per token. Smart contracts are set up to execute specific actions when they encounter a specific situation, so you could set one up to buy 10 ether when the price drops.

That's not all they can do: while smart contracts can be as simple as the above, they can also be far more complicated. You could also set up a smart contract to buy ether if the cost hits below $600 per token, and you have an account balance above $10,000, and it's a Friday.

Smart contracts are essential for industries outside of finance that want to take advantage of the blockchain technology. For example, if healthcare systems wanted to put medical records on a blockchain, it could use smart contracts to ensure only medical professionals are granted access to them.

While it all sounds good in theory, there is some bad news: a team of computing experts from the National University of Singapore and University College London published a study that details a surprising number of security flaws in smart contracts.

The group analyzed roughly one million smart contracts using a custom-built tool called MAIAN. The team was looking for contracts attackers could manipulate to lock funds indefinitely, force to leak funds randomly, or simply kill.

Their analysis tool flagged 34,200 contracts. It even found the flaw in the Parity blockchain app that rendered $169 million worth of ether inaccessible to owners back in July 2017. The team then manually analyzed 3,759 contracts and found they could exploit vulnerabilities in 3,686 of them.

Determining that roughly 3.4 percent of smart contracts could be vulnerable to attackers is huge. Sure, the centralized technologies we currently use to manage our finances and other important records aren't ironclad. However, if we're going to go through all the trouble of transitioning to a blockchain-supported digital economy, building a better system for record keeping isn't enough.

We should strive to build the best system. Using tools like MAIAN to expose current weaknesses is a good place to start.

Disclosure: Several members of the Futurism team, including the editors of this piece, are personal investors in a number of cryptocurrency markets. Their personal investment perspectives have no impact on editorial content.


Fri, 02 Mar 2018 05:17:00 -0600 text/html https://futurism.com/blockchain-security-smart-contracts




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