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CAP Certified Authorization Professional

Exam Title : ISC2 Certified Authorization Professional (CAP)
Exam ID : CAP
Exam Duration : 180 mins
Questions in exam : 125
Passing Score : 700/1000
Exam Center : Pearson VUE
Real Questions : ISC2 CAP Real Questions
VCE VCE exam : ISC2 CAP Certification VCE Practice Test

Information Security Risk Management Program (15%)
Understand the Foundation of an Organization-Wide Information Security Risk Management Program
- Principles of information security
- National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF)
- RMF and System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) integration
- Information System (IS) boundary requirements
- Approaches to security control allocation
- Roles and responsibilities in the authorization process
Understand Risk Management Program Processes
- Enterprise program management controls
- Privacy requirements
- Third-party hosted Information Systems (IS)
Understand Regulatory and Legal Requirements
- Federal information security requirements
- Relevant privacy legislation
- Other applicable security-related mandates
Categorization of Information Systems (IS) (13%)
Define the Information System (IS)
- Identify the boundary of the Information System (IS)
- Describe the architecture
- Describe Information System (IS) purpose and functionality
Determine Categorization of the Information System (IS)
- Identify the information types processed, stored, or transmitted by the Information System (IS)
- Determine the impact level on confidentiality, integrity, and availability for each information type
- Determine Information System (IS) categorization and document results
Selection of Security Controls (13%)
Identify and Document Baseline and Inherited Controls
Select and Tailor Security Controls
- Determine applicability of recommended baseline
- Determine appropriate use of overlays
- Document applicability of security controls
Develop Security Control Monitoring Strategy
Review and Approve Security Plan (SP)
Implementation of Security Controls (15%)
Implement Selected Security Controls
- Confirm that security controls are consistent with enterprise architecture
- Coordinate inherited controls implementation with common control providers
- Determine mandatory configuration settings and verify implementation (e.g., United States Government Configuration Baseline (USGCB), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) checklists, Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), Security Technical Implementation Guides (STIGs), Center for Internet Security (CIS) benchmarks)
- Determine compensating security controls
Document Security Control Implementation
- Capture planned inputs, expected behavior, and expected outputs of security controls
- Verify documented details are in line with the purpose, scope, and impact of the Information System (IS)
- Obtain implementation information from appropriate organization entities (e.g., physical security, personnel security
Assessment of Security Controls (14%)
Prepare for Security Control Assessment (SCA)
- Determine Security Control Assessor (SCA) requirements
- Establish objectives and scope
- Determine methods and level of effort
- Determine necessary resources and logistics
- Collect and review artifacts (e.g., previous assessments, system documentation, policies)
- Finalize Security Control Assessment (SCA) plan
Conduct Security Control Assessment (SCA)
- Assess security control using standard assessment methods
- Collect and inventory assessment evidence
Prepare Initial Security Assessment Report (SAR)
- Analyze assessment results and identify weaknesses
- Propose remediation actions
Review Interim Security Assessment Report (SAR) and Perform Initial Remediation Actions
- Determine initial risk responses
- Apply initial remediations
- Reassess and validate the remediated controls
Develop Final Security Assessment Report (SAR) and Optional Addendum
Authorization of Information Systems (IS) (14%)
Develop Plan of Action and Milestones (POAM)
- Analyze identified weaknesses or deficiencies
- Prioritize responses based on risk level
- Formulate remediation plans
- Identify resources required to remediate deficiencies
- Develop schedule for remediation activities
Assemble Security Authorization Package
- Compile required security documentation for Authorizing Official (AO)
Determine Information System (IS) Risk
- Evaluate Information System (IS) risk
- Determine risk response options (i.e., accept, avoid, transfer, mitigate, share)
Make Security Authorization Decision
- Determine terms of authorization
Continuous Monitoring (16%)
Determine Security Impact of Changes to Information Systems (IS) and Environment
- Understand configuration management processes
- Analyze risk due to proposed changes
- Validate that changes have been correctly implemented Perform Ongoing Security Control Assessments (SCA) - Determine specific monitoring tasks and frequency based on the agency’s strategy
- Perform security control assessments based on monitoring strategy
- Evaluate security status of common and hybrid controls and interconnections Conduct Ongoing Remediation Actions (e.g., resulting from incidents, vulnerability scans, audits, vendor updates) - Assess risk(s)
- Formulate remediation plan(s)
- Conduct remediation tasks
Update Documentation
- Determine which documents require updates based on results of the continuous monitoring process
Perform Periodic Security Status Reporting
- Determine reporting requirements
Perform Ongoing Information System (IS) Risk Acceptance
- Determine ongoing Information System (IS)
Decommission Information System (IS)
- Determine Information System (IS) decommissioning requirements
- Communicate decommissioning of Information System (IS)
Certified Authorization Professional
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CAP Certified Authorization Professional is the ultimate preparation source for passing the CAP CAP exam. We have carefully complied and assembled CAP real exam questions and answers, which are updated with the same frequency as real CAP exam is updated, and reviewed by industry experts. Huge Discount Coupon and Promo codes are offered for great discount.
Certified Authorization Professional
Question: 384
An authentication method uses smart cards as well as usernames and passwords for
authentication. Which of the following authentication methods is being referred to?
A. Anonymous
B. Multi-factor
C. Biometrics
D. Mutual
Answer: B
Question: 385
In 2003, NIST developed a new Certification & Accreditation (C&A) guideline known as FIPS
199. What levels of potential impact are defined by FIPS 199? Each correct answer represents a
complete solution. Choose all that apply.
A. Low
B. Moderate
C. High
D. Medium
Answer: A, C, D
Question: 386
Which of the following is NOT an objective of the security program?
A. Security organization
B. Security plan
C. Security education
D. Information classification
Answer: B
Question: 387
Walter is the project manager of a large construction project. He'll be working with several
vendors on the project. Vendors will be providing materials and labor for several parts of the
project. Some of the works in the project are very dangerous so Walter has implemented safety
requirements for all of the vendors and his own project team. Stakeholders for the project have
added new requirements, which have caused new risks in the project. A vendor has identified a
new risk that could affect the project if it comes into fruition. Walter agrees with the vendor and
has updated the risk register and created potential risk responses to mitigate the risk. What
should Walter also update in this scenario considering the risk event?
A. Project contractual relationship with the vendor
B. Project communications plan
C. Project management plan
D. Project scope statement
Answer: C
Question: 388
During which of the following processes, probability and impact matrix is prepared?
A. Plan Risk Responses
B. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
C. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
D. Monitoring and Control Risks
Answer: C
Question: 389
During qualitative risk analysis you want to define the risk urgency assessment. All of the
following are indicators of risk priority except for which one?
A. Symptoms
B. Cost of the project
C. Warning signs
D. Risk rating
Answer: B
Question: 390
Which of the following statements about Discretionary Access Control List (DACL) is true?
A. It is a rule list containing access control entries.
B. It specifies whether an audit activity should be performed when an object attempts to access a
C. It is a list containing user accounts, groups, and computers that are allowed (or denied) access
to the object.
D. It is a unique number that identifies a user, group, and computer account
Answer: C
Question: 391
Which of the following is used to indicate that the software has met a defined quality level and is
ready for mass distribution either by electronic means or by physical media?
Answer: B
Question: 392
Which of the following processes is a structured approach to transitioning individuals, teams,
and organizations from a current state to a desired future state?
A. Configuration management
B. Procurement management
C. Change management
D. Risk management
Answer: C
Question: 393
A security policy is an overall general statement produced by senior management that dictates
what role security plays within the organization. What are the different types of policies? Each
correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.
A. Systematic
B. Regulatory
C. Advisory
D. Informative
Answer: B, C, D
Question: 394
Which of the following is a standard that sets basic requirements for assessing the effectiveness
of computer security controls built into a computer system?
Answer: A
Question: 395
Which of the following statements correctly describes DIACAP residual risk?
A. It is the remaining risk to the information system after risk palliation has occurred.
B. It is a process of security authorization.
C. It is the technical implementation of the security design.
D. It is used to validate the information system.
Answer: A
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Employment Authorization Information

This webpage is meant to help University community members navigate the complex issues encountered when pursuing immigration sponsorship (see the contents listed below).  This webpage, however, does not address all the issues that may arise when pursuing sponsorship.  To that end, if there are further questions upon reviewing this webpage, questions should be directed to the Office of Legal Affairs (937-229-4333 or 

Immigration sponsorship, that is, taking the necessary steps to enable a foreign national the ability to hold employment in the United States, is a complex process governed by multiple federal agencies.  Typically, most international employees (faculty or staff) begin work at the University in a temporary "nonimmigrant" status afforded by an H-1B, J-1, or F-1 practical training (aka OPT) approved petitions/visas.  Where employment is anticipated to be long-term, departments may wish to consider attempting to obtain permanent residence or "immigrant status" for an international employee.  See Permanent Residency for more details.

Table of Contents

1.   H-1B Specialty Occupation Worker for Permanent Faculty/Staff

2.   H-1B Fees

3.   H-1B Step-by-Step Process

4.   Changing Status

5.   H-1B Extension

6.   Changes in Position

7.   Portability

8.   Departure

9.   Permanent Residency

10.  Legal Representation

11.  Important Contact Information

12.  Faculty Teaching Positions

13.  Staff Positions

14.  Exemptions from the Labor Certification Requirement

15.  Permanent Resident and "7th Year" H-1B Extensions

1.  H-1B Specialty Occupation Worker for Permanent Faculty/Staff

The H-1B Specialty Occupation Worker nonimmigrant classification allows an internal hire to work in the U.S. in a position considered to be in a "specialty occupation."  This means the position must require highly specialized knowledge and skills to perform the position and require a bachelor's degree or its equivalent.  In addition, the employer must pay the prevailing wage or higher and attest to certain working conditions under U.S. Department of Labor laws.

The process to apply for an H-1B is complex due to U.S. labor and immigration laws and regulations that protect the foreign worker from abuse and ensure jobs for U.S. workers.  The amount of time it takes to get an approved H-1B status is often difficult to estimate because processing times of the government agencies fluctuate and change without notice.

The employer, not the foreign national, applies to the government agencies for the H-1B classification.  Documentation must be provided to demonstrate the employer is paying the required wage rate and meeting the required working conditions; that the job is a specialty occupation; and that the foreign national meets the requirements for the job.  These materials and related forms are compiled into an “H-1B petition” and submitted to the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) for approval of the H-1B.

2.  H-1B Fees

Sponsorship costs are borne by the relevant UD host department.  Costs to obtain temporary work authorization, H-1B, which lasts for 3 years and can be extended for a second 3-year term, range between $950 and $4200.  Permanent work authorization - the green card, which (at UD) typically is sought after someone already has an H-1B – can cost an additional $10,000 to $15,000.

3.  H-1B Step-by-Step Process

H-1B petitions are typically processed by outside counsel in coordination with the UD’s Office of Legal Affairs (OLA).  The hiring department is responsible for the immigration processing fees associated with an H-1B, including outside counsel fees.  As noted above, costs to obtain an H-1B, which lasts for 3 years and can be extended for a second 3-year term, range between $950 and $4200. 

Once all the appropriate approvals have been made by the University personnel, the international hire will need to submit materials to the OLA to prepare an H-1B petition.  It takes approximately 5 to 8 months to get an H-1B approval notice after OLA receives the necessary materials.  The amount of time varies primarily because government agencies' processing times fluctuate and change without notice.  Other factors that also impact the processing time are whether a department chooses to pay an additional fee to USCIS for quicker processing, or if there are problems with the offered salary or materials submitted.  The steps below describe the process.

The petition materials are reviewed by OLA for the required items to begin processing the H-1B petition.   

(Estimate 1 week)

OLA prepares a Labor Condition Application if the offered salary meets, or is greater than, the prevailing wage determination.

(Estimate 1 week)

The relevant UD host department is required by law to post the LCA at the work-site(s) for 10 business days.  The LCA should be posted in 2 conspicuous locations where wage and hour postings are typically posted, i.e., HR and relevant UD host department bulletin boards.

The department verifies the LCA has been posted, and OLA submits the LCA to the DOL to get their official certification of approval.

(DOL estimated processing time is 7 to 10 days)

OLA completes the I-129 forms and compiles the certified LCA and related supporting documentation for submission to USCIS.

(Estimate 1 week)

OLA express mails the H-1B petition to USCIS.

USCIS's estimated processing time is 5 to 8 months when UD (borne by the relevant host department) pays the standard $460* processing fee.  For quicker processing, the employer can pay an additional “Premium Processing Fee” of $1440* to USCIS for processing in 15 days.  (Please note that paying the USCIS Premium Processing fee will not quicken the processing of the steps listed above.)

* Fee subject to change

USCIS mails the approved H-1B petition to OLA and OLA will forward the approval and related materials to the relevant UD host department and the employee.

4.  Changing Status

If an individual is currently in another nonimmigrant classification (e.g., F-1, J-1, H-4, etc.) and is changing to H-1B status, that person will need to wait until USCIS approves the H-1B petition before he/she can begin working in H-1B status.  Some individuals who are in the J status are subject to a 2-year home-country return requirement called 212(e).  If so, the individual will need to apply for a waiver of 212(e) or have served the 2-year requirement before being granted H-1B status.  Applications for the waiver can be done concurrently while the person’s H-1B case is being prepared.  However, final approval from the U.S. Department of State showing that the waiver has been received must be included with the individual’s H-1B petition when it is submitted to USCIS.  Timing of the waiver application should be carefully considered since it may impact the person’s current situation.  Consult with OLA about the waiver process before applying.

If an individual is currently on F-1 OPT, he/she may also be eligible for additional time on OPT if his/her OPT is in one of the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) fields.  

5.  H-1B Extension

To continue employment at the University of Dayton beyond the current H-1B petition end date, another H-1B petition must be submitted to USCIS to extend the H-1B status of an international employee.  The maximum period for H-1B status is 6 years unless an individual is currently in the permanent residence process.  See Permanent Residency for more details.

An H-1B petition for an extension requires all the same procedures and materials listed in the H-1B Step by Step Section takes approximately 5 to 8 months.  It is the responsibility of the internal employee (whether it is faculty or staff) to inform OLA of the expiration of his/her immigration status at 6 months before that status expires.

Since the individual is in the H-1B status, the employee can continue to work as long as OLA has received the official receipt notice from USCIS before the current H-1B petition expires.  The receipt notice is received approximately 3 weeks after the petition is submitted to USCIS.  However, the official H-1B approval notice is required for re-entry after travel outside the United States and needed if and when applying for a U.S. visa stamp.

6.  Changes in Position

An H-1B petition is job and employer-specific and therefore any substantial change in the position such as job title, requirements, or duties, requires the change be submitted through an H-1B petition to USCIS.  Even if the position is in the same department at UD, a change in previously approved employment H-1B petition must be submitted before the international employee can start working in the new position.  Since the employee is in the H-1B status, the employee can begin working in their new position after the OLA receives the official H-1B receipt notice from USCIS and on or after the requested start date of the petition.  The change in employment H-1B petition takes approximately 5 to 8 months.  Notification as soon as possible to OLA by either the Office of the Provost or Human Resources and the managing supervisor is strongly recommended to mitigate any interruptions in employment.  

7.  Portability

If an H-1B holder wants to change from another employer to employment at UD, a new H-1B petition must be submitted to USCIS before the employee can start working at UD.  USCIS portability regulations allow the individual to start working at the new employer when the USCIS official receipt notice is received, and it is on or after the requested start date of the H-1B petition.

USCIS has established a new grace period that allows up to 60 consecutive days, or until the existing validity period ends, whichever is shorter, to remain in the U.S.  When the grace period is applicable and invoked, an individual may not work during the grace period, and the grace period only applies one time per authorized nonimmigrant validity period (time period between the visa issuance and the expiration date).  Arrangements should be made with the former employer and the University of Dayton to accommodate the move.  The portability petition takes 4 to 7 months.  It is important to note that there is still no grace period for H-1B visa holders whose employment ends on the same ending date of their approval notice, Form I-797.   Click here for information about the I-797.

8.  Departure

Termination of employment

Early termination by the department before the end date of the H-1B Approval Notice will result in the department being responsible for paying for the reasonable cost of return transportation to the home country.

New H-1B Grace Period

Effective January 17, 2017, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) amended its regulations and issued an action called the “Final Rule” (81 FR 82398) that provides various benefits to H-1B visa holders.  It is important to note that there is still no grace period for H-1B visa holders whose employment ends on the same ending date of their approval notice, Form I-797.  However, the final rule is still consistent with the current practice where “Customs and Border Protection officers may annotate a Form I-94 entry stamp in a passport when admitting an individual in H-1B classification to reflect a grace period of up to 10 days at the end of the period of stay.”  The final rule goes on to explain that “under existing regulations, DHS does not consider 10-day grace periods to be automatically provided, rather, they are provided through an exercise of discretion on a case-by-case basis.”

One of the most significant changes in the regulations affecting H-1B visa holders relates to those whose employment ends before the validity period of their petition, as listed on the Form I-797, who are now allowed a grace period of 60 days or until the end of the petition’s validity period (or time indicated on I-94), whichever is shorter.

The expressed purpose of the regulation update by DHS is to facilitate the ability of qualified nonimmigrants “to transition to new employment in the United States, seek a change of status, or prepare to depart the United States.  Consistent with longstanding policy, DHS declines to authorize individuals to work during these grace periods.”

9.  Permanent Residency

Most international faculty members and other international employees (e.g., research or program staff) begin work with the University in a temporary or "nonimmigrant" status such as H-1B, J-1, TN, or F-1 practical training.  Where employment is expected to be long-term, however, departments may wish to consider attempting to obtain permanent resident or "immigrant" status for an international employee.  This page provides a very brief summary of University procedures regarding the permanent residence process and contact information for further details and legal assistance.

10.  Legal Representation

The University will be represented in permanent residence cases by an outside attorney appointed by OLA.  This restriction on representation applies to all labor certifications and I-140 immigrant worker petitions, including the following categories:  EB-1 (outstanding professor/researcher) and EB-2 (advanced degree professional or alien of exceptional ability.)  The international employee is not permitted to find and pay for an attorney to represent the University in any immigration matter or otherwise hire an attorney to prepare immigration filings for the University.  The international employee may find and hire his/her own attorney only in cases where he/she is permitted to self-petition and sign the I-140 himself or herself (e.g., EB-1 extraordinary ability self-petitions and EB-2 national interest waiver "NIW" self-petitions.)

11.  Important Contact Information

A department wishing to begin the permanent residence process for a faculty member or other employee should contact the Office of Legal Affairs via e-mail at or by phone at 937-229-4333.  While the Office of Legal Affairs will be able to provide additional guidance and applicable documentation appropriate to the specific case, OLA does not make a determination on whether a position is eligible for sponsorship.  For more information, please see the Employment Immigration Policy.

12.  Faculty Teaching Positions

The sponsoring department must first show, in an application to the U.S. Department of Labor ("labor certification") that the faculty member was selected pursuant to a national competitive recruitment and selection process and was the most qualified applicant.  At a minimum the recruitment steps must involve:  (1) a printed advertisement in a national professional journal for a minimum of 30 days; (2) an internal Notice of Filing; and (3) a recruitment report that describes the process in detail and why the selected individual is more qualified than each applicant not selected.  (Of course, University positions will also typically be posted on UD’s website.)  The sponsoring department must keep copies of all advertisements, postings, resumes, and other recruitment documentation.

(Estimate 3 months)

The labor certification (AKA “PERM”) must be filed no later than 18 months after the faculty member accepts the position.  Due to the time involved in preparing the application, departments should begin the permanent residence process for a new faculty member immediately after acceptance is made.

(DOL estimated processing time for labor certification is 9 to 12 months, maybe longer depending on the immigration landscape)

If the labor certification is approved, the employer must petition USCIS to classify the foreign national as an "immigrant worker."  (This petition is commonly referred to as the "I-140" – the USCIS form used for filing the petition.)  Here, USCIS evaluates the requirements of the position and the credentials of the international employee to determine whether he/she fits into a statutory category that would permit him/her to apply for permanent residence. 

(USCIS estimated processing time is a minimum of 4 to 6 months, maybe longer depending on the immigration landscape)

If the I-140 petition is approved, the international employee and his/her dependents may apply to USCIS for permanent residence in the United States.  (This application is commonly referred to as the "I-485" – the USCIS form used for filing the application.  Click here for information about the I-485.)  Here, USCIS looks primarily at the foreign national’s background to determine whether he is eligible for permanent residence (e.g., criminal record, immigration history, health.)  In some cases, depending on the country of birth of the foreign national, visa backlogs may result in a wait of several years after the I-140 is approved before the foreign national may file the I-485.

(Estimated USCIS processing time is a minimum of 2 to 10+ months)

13.  Staff Positions

To obtain permanent residence for an international employee in a non-faculty position (e.g., research or program staff) the department must first show, in an application to the U.S. Department of Labor ("labor certification"), that no "minimally qualified" U.S. workers are ready, able, and willing to take the position on the terms offered.  (Please note that both the legal standard and the required recruitment differ significantly between faculty and non-faculty cases.)  Labor certification for non-faculty involves a government-specified recruitment process to test the U.S. labor market in a manner appropriate to the position. Departments must contact the OLA for detailed instructions and guidance concerning this process.

If the labor certification is approved, the remainder of the process is the same as that for faculty positions.  The employer must petition U.S. Citizenship & Immigration Services ("USCIS") to classify the foreign national as an "immigrant worker".   (This petition is commonly referred to as the "I-140" – the USCIS form used for filing the petition.  Click here for information about the I-140.)  Here, USCIS evaluates the requirements of the position and the credentials of the international employee to determine whether that he/she fits into a statutory category that would permit him/her to apply for permanent residence.

If the I-140 petition is approved, the foreign national and his/her dependents may apply to USCIS for permanent residence in the United States.  (This application is commonly referred to as the "I-485" – the USCIS form used for filing the application.  Click here for information about the I-485.)  Here, USCIS looks primarily at the foreign national’s background to determine whether he/she is eligible for permanent residence (e.g., criminal record, immigration history, health).  In some cases, depending on the country of birth of the foreign national, visa backlogs may result in a wait of several years after the I-140 is approved before the foreign national may file the I-485.

14.  Exemptions from the Labor Certification Requirement

There are limited situations in which the sponsoring department may seek an exemption from labor certification and begin the residency process at the I-140 immigrant worker petition stage.  Please note that these cases carry a very high burden of proof and should only be filed where the department can make a strong argument that the foreign national satisfies all of the requirements.  The following is a discussion of the two exemption categories that are of most interest in the University context.

First, a department may file a petition for an Outstanding Professor or Researcher (also known as "EB-1B").  To qualify in this category, the department must show that the foreign national:  (1) is internationally recognized as outstanding in a specific academic field; (2) has three years of relevant teaching or research experience; and (3) has a job offer for a tenure-track teaching or permanent research position.  In addition to avoiding the labor certification requirement, the outstanding professor/researcher classification places the foreign national in the "1st Preference" employment-based immigration category.  This can dramatically shorten the overall time to obtain permanent residence for foreign nationals from countries where the employment-based visa categories are severely backlogged (e.g., India and China).  However, petitions for outstanding professors or researchers are heavily scrutinized, and the foreign national must meet a very high standard.

Second, a department may file a petition seeking a waiver of the labor certification requirement in the national interest.  To qualify for a national interest waiver ("NIW"), the foreign national must have an advanced degree or exceptional ability in the sciences, arts, or business.  In addition, the petition must satisfy a three-part test:  (1) the foreign national must be working in a field of substantial intrinsic merit; (2) the benefits of the alien's employment must be national in scope; and (3) the alien or employer must show that the national interest will be adversely affected if a labor certification is required.  Interpretation of the third part of this test is extremely complex, but in the academic environment, for example, USCIS may examine whether the foreign national has contributed to his field to a substantially greater degree than his peers.  Unlike petitions for outstanding professors or researchers, NIW cases, while avoiding the labor certification process, fall in the "2nd Preference" and will still potentially result in lengthy waiting periods for foreign nationals from countries where employment-based visa categories are severely backlogged (e.g., India and China).

As noted above, in all outstanding professor/researcher cases and all NIW cases where the University is the petitioner, the University will be represented by counsel assigned through OLA.

15.  Permanent Resident and "7th Year" H-1B Extensions

In most cases, a foreign national may only remain in H-1B temporary worker status for a total of six (6) years.  After the end of the sixth year in H-1B status, the foreign national must be physically outside the United States for one year before he/she is permitted another six-year period as an H-1B.  

However, the American Competitiveness in the 21st Century Act permits limited H-1B extensions beyond the 6th year when an employer is sponsoring a foreign national for permanent residence.  Although there are several different sections of the AC21 rule that affect these so-called "7th year" H-1B extensions, the most commonly applied provision permits extensions of H-1B status in one-year increments in cases where more than 365 days have passed since the filing of a labor certification or I-140 petition.  Thus, it is strongly recommended that a department considering sponsoring an employee for permanent residence file a labor certification or I-140 petition before the end of the employee’s 5th year in H-1B status.  Since it often takes many months to conduct the required recruitment for a labor certification and/or prepare an I-140, as a practical matter, the department should begin working on permanent residence before the end of the 4th year of the employee’s H-1B status.

Sun, 14 May 2023 15:24:00 -0500 en text/html
Privacy Statement

In providing service to you, ISA and affiliated organizations must collect certain information, such as your address, phone number, fax number, email address, and other contact, profile, and billing information. We collect this kind of information only by voluntary disclosure directly from you. This type of personal information may be requested on a variety of transactional forms, including our membership application, product order forms, and event registrations. These forms may be either traditional paper-based forms in catalogs, brochures, or flyers or electronic based forms on our Web site or at events. The information we collect is intended to allow us to process your transaction and better serve you.

To help you understand how we use your personal information, we have developed a privacy policy. Our privacy policy is based on these principles:

  • We will disclose how we use the information we collect;
  • We will deliver you an opportunity to restrict our use of the information;
  • We will deliver you an opportunity to tell us not to deliver the information to others;
  • We will use commercially reasonable means to minimize the risk of unauthorized disclosures;
  • We will use commercially reasonable means to maintain the information accurately;
  • We will deliver you an opportunity to correct erroneous information in our records; 
  • We will have the right to request personal identification information be removed from our system.

These principles and our policy apply whether we collect the information by paper or electronic form.


 How we use your Personal Information

Our ability to deliver the products and services of ISA relies on members and customers (supporters) to deliver us contact information (like your address, phone number, and email address) as well as demographic and profile information (like your zip code, age, industry, and areas of interest). We collect limited financial information, such as a check or credit card number, as required. We use this personal information primarily to provide services and targeted offerings. These services may involve periodically mailing our supporters communications, as well as catalogs and promotions of products and services we offer, including related information. One such service, an online membership directory, is available to ISA Members. From time to time, we will authorize companies, who we feel have something of value and relevance, to our supporters to receive and use this personal information. Financial information is used solely for payment of services requested. The collected demographic and profile data is used to tailor content and promotional information based on the supporters known or anticipated interests.

Supporter financial information will be transmitted as necessary and required to banks and credit card or other financial transaction processer for the processing of such payments to our accounts. Financial information will be maintained by us and the banks, credit card, or other financial transaction processer as necessary and required for the processing of transactions and for auditing, legal, or other similar business purposes. Such financial information will not be transmitted to unrelated third parties and will be encrypted as applicable.


Web Site Specific Issues

IP Addresses - The ISA and affiliated organization web sites automatically record in a log file the internet address of the computer accessing the site as well as the time and date of the access. This information does not personally identify you or contain your name or e-mail address. We use information from this log to help diagnose problems with our server and to administer our Web site.

ISA also utilizes a variety of tools which record activities on its web sites. This information is used to Boost the user experience, and includes no personal identifying information.



Our sites use "cookies" on a limited basis to provide and enhance various functionality and enable product purchases to be added to the cart.

Web browsers control access to store cookies (small text files) on your computer. Cookies are not programs and are not known to be damaging to your computer. Most browsers have an optional setting to deny cookies. If you disable cookies you may have problems accessing content, making purchases or leveraging other functionality of the ISA site. 

Most web browsers provide a “Settings” or “Tools” tab to control cookies. Please refer to your specific browser documentation to locate and control this browser feature. To manage your cookies in Chrome click here, and if Firefox click here.


E-mail Lists

If you voluntarily disclose personal information to an e-mail list, user forum, or other messaging system on the ISA Web site, that information is available to anyone who can access that area. We cannot control what others may do with this information. You should refrain from disclosing anything you do not want publicly known in such areas.



This site contains links to other Web sites. We are not responsible for the privacy practices or the content of such Web sites. If you happen to find an invalid or inappropriate link on any ISA web site please report it to


Limits on Use of Collected Information

We provide members and customers the opportunity to restrict the use of the personal information collected. Members and customers may choose to restrict use by us to others. Members and customers may also elect for us not to use their e-mail address for communications.

To request a limit on the use of your information, contact us by:

  1. By visiting the “My ISA” section of the ISA web site and reviewing your opt-out settings.
  2. Postal mail to: ISA Data Protection Officer, 67 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 USA
    Telephone: +1 919-549-8411
    Fax: +1 919-549-8288
  3. E-mail to:

If you make this choice, the information will be marked as restricted and, depending on the choice, you may not receive future communications from us.

We also may share personal data with several other parties. These include:

  • Sponsors of ISA activities;
  • Exhibitors at ISA events;
  • Publishers of ISA publications;
  • ISA Cloud service providers;
  • ISA Service providers who perform functions such as marketing, research, shipping and fulfilment; and
  • Vendors, such as ISA insurance and ISA credit card companies.

We also may share personal data in the event of a merger or asset sale/purchase transaction, and as required by law.



Members and customers may change or correct information previously provided by editing their own record online or by contacting us as described above.

To edit the record online, log in to the ISA website. Click on My ISA Account and choose Phone and Email. Under Email, click on “Opt-in and Opt-out to ISA Emails” and designate your preferencess.



If you have any questions about this privacy statement, the practices of this site, or your dealings with us, you can contact us using one of the above methods.

We reserve the right to modify our privacy policies and practices at any time without notice. This statement does not and is not intended to create any contractual or other legal rights. The policies in this statement continue in effect as of the last review on 1 May 2018.


Additional Provisions

Legal Basis for Collecting and Processing Personal Data

There are several legal bases for the ISA’s collection and processing of personal data:

  • For the legitimate interests of ISA (including membership administration, delivery of products and services, communication of ISA offerings, direct marketing, and member and customer data analysis);
  • To perform a contract;
  • Based on consent; and
  • Legal compliance.


Site of Processing of Personal Data

Personal data of individuals collected by ISA may be stored and processed in the United States, Europe, or any other country in which ISA, its vendors, or partners maintain facilities. ISA generally collects and processes personal data in the US. In the event personal data is collected in the EU and is then transferred to the US, or is transferred to any other country outside of the EU, ISA will do so because there is a legal reason, such as in order to perform a contract, or to achieve a legitimate interest of ISA.


Data Retention

Personal data may be retained by ISA for so long as necessary or useful to pursue the legitimate interests of ISA. Other factors may include: the duration of the business or contractual relationship between ISA and an individual; archiving of historical information; and legal requirements, including limitations periods during which a legal claim might be brought.



ISA has put in place reasonable technical, physical, and administrative safeguards to protect personal data collected by ISA.


Sun, 19 Jun 2022 13:56:00 -0500 en text/html
History of ISA

ISA officially was born as the Instrument Society of America on 28 April 1945, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. It was the brainchild of Richard Rimbach of the Instruments Publishing Company and grew out of the desire of 18 local instrument societies to form a national organization. Rimbach is recognized as the founder of ISA.

Industrial instruments, which became widely used during World War II, continued to play an ever-greater role in the expansion of technology after the war. Individuals like Rimbach and others involved in industry saw a need for the sharing of information about instruments on a national basis, as well as for standards and uniformity. The Instrument Society of America addressed that need. On 28 April 1945, a group of visionary thinkers from local instrumentation societies met to organize ISA.

Albert F. Sperry

Albert F. Sperry, chairman of Panelit Corporation, became ISA’s first president in 1946. In that same year, the Society held its first conference and exhibit in Pittsburgh. The first standard, RP 5.1 Instrument Flow Plan Symbols, followed in 1949, and the first journal, which eventually became today’s InTech, was published in 1954.

In the years following, ISA continued to expand its products and services, increasing the size and scope of the ISA conference and exhibition, developing symposia, offering professional development and training, adding to technical Divisions, and even producing films about measurement and control.

In one of its first collaborative Member efforts, ISA formed a committee to establish ISA's original logo.
Official Program for ISA’s first conference and exhibition in 1946.

Membership grew from 900 in 1946 to 6,900 in 1953, and today ISA has thousands of members all around the world.

Recognizing ISA’s international reach and the fact that its technical scope had grown beyond instruments, in the fall of 2000, the ISA Council of Society Delegates approved a legal name change to ISA—The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society.

In October 2008, the Council voted to rename the Society to the International Society of Automation, a name that reflects our global nature and inclusive membership base. With our global growth, we continue to set the standard for automation now more than ever. And our name says it all.

In 2020, ISA celebrated 75 years of:

  • advocating for the people and technology that move societies and economies forward.
  • creating and supporting industries that power our world.
  • difference-makers and risk-takers on whose shoulders we stand today.

Our members, volunteers, and communities have supported ISA for 75 years. Their support, passion, and dedication ensure that ISA will spend the next 75 years advancing our vision—to create a better world through automation.

Sun, 26 Mar 2023 08:28:00 -0500 en text/html
Information Systems & Analytics

Information Systems and Analytics (ISA) is an interdisciplinary department that considers how technology can facilitate business decisions to guide organizations to success. Our curriculum focuses on the intersection of areas like big data and business intelligence. It combines theory and strategy with hands-on experience.

As an undergraduate major in Management Information Systems or Accounting & Information Systems, you’ll have the chance to design applications in the lab and then put your learning to practice through credit bearing internships. Our Master’s in Information Systems students all complete a capstone project, which involves creating and implementing software for a local company.

Thu, 09 Feb 2023 20:16:00 -0600 en text/html
Parent/Guest Authorization

You may grant up to five parents and/or guests access to a portal which allows them to see your registration, Financial Aid information, account balance, and your picture.

To set up this authorization, you will need your parent or guest’s email address. You will then create a password for each guest to allow them access. If your parent or guest forgets the password, you will have to create a new password for them.

Your parent or guest can log in to the Parent Portal by visiting

View Authorization Agreement

Mon, 09 Aug 2021 12:40:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Best Easy Access ISAs

Some cash ISA providers offer a flexible facility that allows savers to withdraw and replace money without it affecting their annual allowance. This is on the condition that they top up the cash ISA in the same tax year the withdrawal was made.

For example if a saver paid £10,000 into a cash ISA this year, this would mean another £10,000 could be paid in before 6 April. However, if £5,000 was withdrawn, a flexible ISA would allow a further £15,000 to be paid in this tax year  – the £5,000 previously taken out, plus the remaining allowance of £10,000.

In comparison, if the money was withdrawn from a non-flexible ISA and then replaced it, the money put back in would count against the annual ISA allowance for that tax year. So in the above example, only £10,000 could be paid in.

Not all cash ISAs are flexible, so check carefully.

Thu, 25 May 2023 05:35:00 -0500 Bethany Garner en-GB text/html
ISA 235 Information Technology and the Intelligent Enterprise (3) MPT

Focuses on the strategic role of information technology and systems. courses include: Challenges faced by managers in firms, understanding key technologies and how they help meet these challenges, and the processes, policies and procedures needed to manage technical and digital assets.

Prerequisite: BUS 101 and CSA 148 or successful completion of Farmer Business School skills exam.

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Mon, 15 Jul 2019 01:29:00 -0500 text/html
Best stocks and shares ISAs

We list the best stocks and shares ISAs right now based on providers with the lowest fees and best customer experience. Investing in the stock market could be one way to beat UK inflation.

If you’re thinking about investing then opting for a stocks and shares ISA could be a good place to start. Investment ISAs may deliver your money a good chance to grow compared to cash ISAs where the returns are unlikely to beat inflation.

Below we round up the top stocks and shares ISAs. For our comparison, we have focused on the cheapest ISAs and the companies with the best customer service.

We cover:

Read more: Best cash ISAs in 2023

This article contains affiliate links that can earn us revenue*

Top five ready-made stocks and shares ISAs

Our ratings are compiled by Fairer Finance. The independent research agency constantly monitors the fees and charges of every ISA provider, to help you choose the best for your needs.

We can’t certain that your investments will shoot the lights out and you might even get less than you put in. But we can help you find a platform that doesn’t charge too much and has happy customers.

The star ratings show which products have the lowest fees overall. To calculate them, we look at all the ongoing annual costs of having £50,000 in a stocks and shares ISA.

To be awarded the top score of five stars, the cost must be below the sector average, plus there must be no sneaky one-off fees such as for opening the account or doing an ISA transfer to a competitor.

We also award companies that have a big enough customer demo a separate customer experience rating. This is based on transparency, complaints and client feedback. Our ratings are focused on cost and customer experience.

If you are fairly new to investing or are not confident at making your own investment decisions, go for a ready-made portfolio. This is where the platform will offer you a range of investments based on your attitude to risk.

Below, we list our best stocks and shares ISA choices.

Why we rate it: Wealthify* could be a good choice if you’re new to the world of stocks and shares ISAs, letting you get started with as little as £1. The platform is straightforward to use with five risk levels to choose from, plus you can opt to go down the ethical investment route.

Plus, if price is your main concern, Wealthify is offering 12 months of no management fees when you apply via our link*. This is for new customers only, and the offer ends on 7 June 2023. Terms and conditions apply, capital at risk.

After the 12 month fee-free period, the platform charges a monthly management fee of 0.6% per year.

Its original portfolio costs up to an extra 0.17% on top of this, while its ethical portfolio adds up to an extra 0.7%. This is not included in the fee-free offer.

Why we rate it: The high street bank Halifax offers a full service investment platform. But if you’re looking for a simple choice in terms of where to invest, it also has three ready-made portfolios to choose from – a low, a medium and a high risk option.

The total cost is between 0.50% and 0.60% a year. Halifax has the second highest transparency ratings and also has a gold award for customer service and complaints.

Why we rate it: Fidelity* offers a wide-ranging platform that allows you to invest directly in shares as well as a large number of funds. Its platform is popular with customers. It comes tenth in our customer experience ratings.

For customers who need a little help choosing where to invest, its Cost Focus portfolios provide low-cost access to diversified portfolios.

You can choose from one of five different risk levels, and total annual costs are between 0.62% and 0.66% of your investment pot. There are no nasty extra fees waiting for you if you switch.

Why we rate it: Global bank HSBC offers some of the cheapest ready-made portfolios available.

Its multi-asset funds cost between 0.42% and 0.62% a year all in.

Once again, there are five risk levels to choose from – and like all our five-star rated products, there are no sneaky high charges waiting when you choose to leave.

Why we rate it: If you’re looking for one of the new breed of flashier platforms to help you get started in the stock market, take a look at Evestor*.

Its nicely designed customer journey helps you choose from one of three risk levels.

With charges averaging around 0.49%, it’s very competitive on price. You can get started with your stocks and shares ISA with just £1.

Top five self-invested stocks and shares ISAs

If you want to take the DIY approach and build your own portfolio, you’ll need a self-invested stocks and shares ISA.

Here we list our top five:

Why we rate it: Barclays offers access to the full range of stocks, shares and funds that most investors would want access to. Its platform fees are competitive – charging just 0.2% for funds held on its platform, and 0.1% for other assets, subject to a minimum of £4 a month.

Barclays’ trading fees are also competitive, at just £6 a trade for shares. Unlike most platforms, however, it does also charge a fee to trade funds – £3 a pop.

Why we rate it: Trading 212 is part of a new breed of innovative fin-tech companies, which has abolished trading charges. There are no platform charges, and no charges for dealing.

But you can only invest in a limited number of stocks and shares across various global markets. You can’t invest in regular funds.

If you’re looking to test your skills in the stock market – and are happy to be limited to the world’s largest stocks – then there’s no cheaper place to go.

Why we rate it: If you just want to stick to investment funds, the cheapest place to look is the US giant Vanguard.

At 0.15%, Vanguard’s platform fee is one of the lowest on the market, and its fund range is also known for its rock-bottom fees.

However, you’re limited to investing in Vanguard’s own products – mainly exchange traded funds (ETFs) and index funds – and there’s no way to trade shares.

Why we rate it: AJ Bell’s stocks and share ISA has been awarded a five-star rating, which means it’s cheaper than most other platforms if you want to build a portfolio.

You can invest in a wide range of funds, stocks and shares. Its platform fees start at a competitive 0.25%. There are no charges on funds over £500,000, while shares charges are capped at £3.50 a month.

Share trades cost £9.95 each but drop to £4.95 for anyone doing more than ten transactions a
month. It costs £1.50 for fund trades.

AJ Bell also achieved a gold ribbon in our latest spring 2023 customer experience ratings.

Why we rate it: There is no ongoing platform fee to pay if you set up an ISA with IWeb, which is part of Lloyds Banking Group.

Instead, there is a one-off set-up fee of £100. The platform only charges £5 a trade, which is cheap to buy or sell shares, but a bit pricey for fund trades.

For ISAs that are found to be invalid, such as it holds a non-qualifying investment, IWeb charges £25 to either correct or void it. This is why IWeb gets a four star rating from us, rather than five stars.

But as long as you’re careful to avoid incurring that charge, the platform provides a very cheap proposition.

Stocks and shares ISA FAQs

What is a stocks and shares ISA?

Investing in a stocks and shares ISA is a tax efficient way to save and grow your money.

If you open a stocks and shares ISA, any profits and dividends are tax free. There is a limit of £20,000 you can invest each tax year in your ISA.

Whether you want to invest a lump sum or invest on a regular basis, here’s everything you need to know about investing in stocks and shares ISAs.

What is the best performing stocks and shares ISA?

The performance of your stocks and shares ISA will depend on what you choose to invest in. It will also depend on other factors, such as market conditions.

As each investor is different and will select different investments (particularly if they are a DIY investor) this makes it difficult to compare the performance.

Even ready-made portfolios can be difficult to compare in terms of performance because investment platforms have a selection of risk levels investors can choose from.

However, the fees can make a huge difference to the performance because the costs can erode your returns.

How to pick the right stocks and shares ISA

If you have decided you want to open a stocks and shares ISA, you could pick an investment platform.

A platform is a bit like a supermarket where you can choose what sort of ISA you want.

Nutmeg* is one of the best platforms for beginners but there are plenty to choose from (capital at risk, tax treatment depends on your individual circumstances and may change in the future, approved by Nutmeg on 28 February 2023.). Find out more: What is a robo-adviser?

Under 40? You could open a stocks and shares Lifetime ISA where you get a 25% government bonus on top of investment returns. We outline our top lifetimes ISAs.

If you want to invest for your child, you could consider one of our top junior ISAs.

Woman looking at apples in supermarket
An investment platform is a bit like a supermarket where you can pick and choose your own investments to go in a stocks and shares ISA

Should I opt for a DIY or ready-made portfolio?

If you are fairly new to investing or are not confident at making your own investment decisions, go for a ready-made portfolio.

This is where the platform will offer you a range of investments based on your attitude to risk.

Charges for ready-made portfolios tend to be relatively straightforward, with most charging a platform fee plus a fund management flat fee.

If you want to take the DIY approach and build your own portfolio, you’ll need a self-invested stocks and shares ISA.

Most of these will let you hold shares in a wide range of stocks listed on the FTSE 100, Dow Jones and Nikkei 225.

You should also be able to invest in funds and investment trusts, though you’ll need to watch out for the charges that can be attached to these accounts.

Remember: It is always better to choose an financial services provider that is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority.

If you need a helping hand setting up the ISA, choosing the investments and deciding how much to pay in, you might want to consider using a financial adviser.

What are the fees on an ISA?

ISAs don’t come for free so you need to check the fees carefully or you will be losing money needlessly. Here are four of the most common types of ISAs charges to watch out for:

1. Platform fee

  • Almost all platforms will charge investors a monthly fee. This will usually be a percentage of the money you hold on the site. For example Hargreaves Lansdown charge 0.45% capped at £45 per year while Interactive Investor’s stocks and shares ISA costs £9.99 a month
  • Confusingly, different platforms have different names for these charges, such as service fees or custody charges.
  • Some charge a flat fee while others charge a percentage of the funds.
  • Most platforms charge tiered fees, meaning charges are lower for people with larger sums of money. 

2. Dealing charges

  • If you’re trading stocks and shares, most platforms will charge you for doing so.
  • Platforms such as Freetrade and Trading212 will let you buy or sell a wide range of stocks for free.
  • But most platforms will charge a fixed fee per trade, depending on your monthly trades.
  • Some platforms charge as little as £4.95 a trade, while others are as much as £15.

3. Transfer fees

  • While most companies won’t charge you for transferring your investments to them, others will charge you when you try to leave.
  • There are costs involved in transferring your investments to another platform, but some companies charge a lot for this, while others don’t charge anything at all.
  • When you’re opening a new account, you’re rarely thinking about leaving. But it’s important to check these charges so that you don’t get stung if you ever decide to move on.
  • The most expensive platforms will charge you per holding – as much as £25 for each stock.
  • So if you’ve got a diverse portfolio with different holdings, you could pay hundreds of pounds in switching charges.

4. Trading over the phone

  • If you like to trade over the phone, be sure to check the charges for this service before signing up.
  • Some firms charge as much as £50 for phone trades, while others include it for no extra cost.

*All products, brands or properties mentioned in this article are selected by our writers and editors based on first-hand experience or customer feedback, and are of a standard that we believe our readers expect. This article contains links from which we can earn revenue. This revenue helps us to support the content of this website and to continue to invest in our award-winning journalism. For more, see How we make our money and Editorial promise.

Mon, 29 May 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en-GB text/html
What is a stocks and shares Isa?

What is a stocks and shares Isa?

While a cash Isa is simply a tax-free savings account, a stocks and shares Isa is a tax-free investment account that lets you put money into range of different investments.

These include individual shares, investment funds, investment trusts, as well as bonds and gilts.

Unlike with cash Isas, you should only invest if you're prepared to take the risk that your investments can go down as well as up in value.

You can read our beginner's guide to investing here.

This newsletter delivers free money-related content, along with other information about Which? Group products and services. Unsubscribe whenever you want. Your data will be processed in accordance with our Privacy policy

What is the stocks and shares Isa allowance in 2023-24?

During the 2023-24 tax year, which runs from 6 April 2023 to 5 April 2024, you can place up to £20,000 into an Isa. This is the same Isa allowance as the 2022-23 tax year.

It is possible to split your Isa allowance between several different types of Isa 'wrapper':

If you have existing Isas, they do not contribute towards your current Isa allowance.

You can transfer existing cash Isas and stocks and shares Isas into a new stocks and shares Isa, without affecting your allowance. However, you can only open one type of each Isa per year: so one cash Isa, stocks and shares Isa etc.

Furthermore, you're restricted to paying into one Isa of each type, so if you have two stocks and shares Isas, pick one to contribute to.

Which stocks and shares Isa should I pick?

Stocks and shares Isas are offered by several banks, but also by dozens of investment platforms.

When selecting a stocks and shares Isa, consider the choice of investments available through the provider, its customer service and the fees you'll have to pay.

Each year, Which? surveys thousands of customers of investment platforms, which provide stocks and shares Isas.

We ask customers about everything from customer services to investment information and value for money.

We also analyse provider fees for different sizes of portfolio. We then pick Which? Recommended Providers based on a combination of customer scores and fees.

How much does a stocks and shares Isa cost?

Unlike a cash Isa, you'll usually pay a fee to hold a stocks and shares Isa.

We looked at average annual fees for stocks and shares Isas from leading providers:

Stocks and shares Isas don't usually cost any more than general investment accounts.

You'll pay two sets of charges: those set by the investment platforms or financial adviser and, if you're buying funds, those levied by individual fund managers.

Fees matter, because they apply whether or not your investments perform well, as our graph demonstrates:

Not all investment platforms levy a percentage charge: some levy flat fees, fees for trading or a combination of all of these.

Some platforms also charge for transferring out your stocks and shares Isa to a different provider.

We've compared the fees of leading investment platforms over eight different portfolio sizes, so you can find the cheapest platform for you.

What are the tax advantages of stocks and shares Isas?

The tax advantages of stocks and shares Isas can be significant, especially if you're a higher or additional-rate taxpayer.

Keeping investments in a stocks and shares Isa means you don't have to pay the following taxes:

Stocks and shares Isas don't shield your investments from inheritance tax or stamp duty when buying shares.

If you move existing investments into an Isa, this could trigger a capital gains tax charge.

This is because the Isa provider has to briefly sell your investments before repurchasing them within the Isa.

Whether you'll have to pay capital gains tax depends on whether your investments have increased in value since you bought them and if you'd used up your capital gains allowance.

Are stocks and shares Isas safe?

All investing involves the risk of losing your money – any 'guaranteed' or 'risk-free' investment could be a scam.

If you don't want to take any risks, a cash Isa, lifetime cash Isa or savings account may be more suitable.

Within investments, however, there's a wide variety of assets, some carrying more risk (and potential for reward) than others. You can find out more in our guide to investment risks

Key Information

FSCS protection

Check that your stocks and shares Isa provider is covered by the Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS).

This means that, should your stocks and shares provider collapse, up to £85,000 of your investments will be protected.

It's likely that your investments will be kept separately (ring-fenced) from the Isa provider's assets, protecting sums above £85,000, although you should check this.

Bear in mind that this £85,000 protection doesn't cover losses from your actual investments: it's the company holding your investments that's covered.

Fri, 12 May 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html

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