BL00100-101-E test - Nokia Bell Labs End-to-End 5G Foundation Updated: 2024
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Exam Code: BL00100-101-E Nokia Bell Labs End-to-End 5G Foundation test January 2024 by Killexams.com team
|Nokia Bell Labs End-to-End 5G Foundation
Nokia End-to-End exam
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What are the benefits of traffic engineering in Transport networks? (Choose three.)
A. Scaling access points
B. Better utilization of network capacity
C. Traffic steering
Which of the following defines a vertical Network Slice?
A. When it serves a given customer for a specific purpose, such as anational energy network.
B. When it cross all the network layers from the radio up to the core.
C. When it serves a given common purpose, for a use case with a defined QoS (eg a use case in transportation, in energy).
D. When it operates on the same layer of the ISO/OSI model.
Your manager started a brainstorming session during a meeting on how automation can be driven in the network. He asks what tools can be used to increase automated services in the
What would you answer be?
A. We need to find a software company that will write software to automate the network services.
B. We can create rule-based automation. We can also use Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to automate all network services.
C. We can write scripts that will be executed at certain times when a specific event happens and the service will be automated in this way.
D. We can use big data. It is the main tool that should be used for network automation.
Which one of the following requires a network service package defined in a catalog?
A. Cloud software platform
B. Cloud infrastructure software
C. Cloud orchestration
D. Software defined network
Which of the following statements are applicable to the technology of massive MIMO? (Select 3)
A. Several data flows are sent at the same time on the same frequency.
B. The signals on each antenna are made orthogonal.
C. The data flows are sent at the same time on different frequencies.
D. Transmit diversity is used in case of poor radio conditions.
What is the best solution for deploying an optimal network function distribution?
A. Using duplicated Virtual Network Functions
B. Using Virtual Network Functions to control the routing
C. Using Virtual Network Functions orchestrated across various Cloud Data Centers
D. Using Virtual Network Functions in Access
What are the five key features of 5G Core?
A. Dynamic Control plane, Adaptive Architecture, Converged-Access-Network, Stateless and Network Self-healing
B. Dynamic Control plane, Service Based Architecture, Multi-Access-Network, State-efficiency and Network Slicing
C. Dynamic Control plane, Adaptive Architecture, Multi-Access-Network, Stateless and Network Slicing
D. Control and User Planes Separation, Service Based Architecture, Multi-Access-Network, State-efficiency and Network Slicing
What functionality is applied by SDN to find an alternative path in case of failure in the Transport Network?
A. Path Correlation Engine
B. Alternative Route Finding
C. Alternative Path Computing
D. Path Computation Engine
What is the Unstructured Data Storage Function (UDSF)?
A. This network function exposes 5G Core Network functionalities available to 3rd parties, so that 3rdparty capabilities and events may be securely exposed by the Network Exposure
B. This network function is part of data repositories in the Common Data Layer. It stores 3GPP standardized data.
C. This network function is part of data repositories in the Common Data Layer and in opposition to the UDR, it stores non-standardized C Unstructured C data.
D. This network function stores or retrieves subscriptions, profiles, and authentication data to or from the data repositories. It offers services to the AMF, SMF, NEF and AUSF using
the Service Based Interface.
Which of the following are 4G limitations that justify a roll-out to 5G? (Choose three.)
A. Low peak and end-user-experience throughput
B. Low reliability
C. High latency
D. Beamforming is not supported
Nokia has announced that it is set to miss its financial year targets for 2023 after a weak last quarter and numerous licensing renewal agreements were not closed by the end of the year
The company noted that intense negotiations between the relevant parties (including Vivo and Amazon) and courts are ongoing, saying it will prioritise protecting the value of its patent portfolio over achieving results within certain timeframes.
Nokia also cited challenging market conditions for their results, Including reduced customer spending and global economic instability.
“The quarter has proved somewhat more challenging than expected given on-going customer spending constraint and the recently communicated customer purchasing decision. Profitability in Nokia’s networks businesses is however expected to remain solidly within the comparable operating margin assumptions the company had previously communicated,” said Nokia in a press release last week.
Nokia’s Q3 results showed the company’s net sales were down 40%.
In an attempt to combat their poor performance, the company is aiming to shrink its costs by €1 billion by 2026. As part of this process, Nokia has recently announced that it will cut 14,000 jobs, reducing the company workforce to around 72,000.
Speaking on its third quarter results, President and CEO Pekka Lundmark said: “We continue to believe in the mid-to-long-term market, but we are not going to sit and wait and pray that the market will recover anytime soon…we simply don’t know when it will recover.”
In related news, last month America’s AT&T selected Ericsson over Nokia to become the operator’s main Open RAN equipment vendor. Nokia described the decision as “disappointing”, with their share price plummeted 8% upon the news.
Contracts with AT&T represented 5-8% of Nokia’s mobile networks net sales in 2023.
Keep up to date with the latest telecoms news by subscribing to the Total Telecom daily newsletter.
Explosion-proof mobile devices and solutions provider i.safe Mobile has partnered with Finnish telecommunications equipment vendor Nokia to incorporate its 5G smartphone IS540.x into Nokia’s end-to-end platform for industrial digitalisation along with private wireless and edge applications.
The IS540.x features AI and computing functions. Its Android Enterprise Recommendation guarantees compatibility with other recommended products and services like MDM systems to manage the fleet of devices.
The zero-touch rollout option to integrate communication devices automatically into MDM systems facilitates device setup for IT departments.
The partnership will support the connectivity needs or organisations including those in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and mining sectors.
The world’s first 5G smartphone for ATEX and IECEx zone 1/21, the IS540.1, and the IS540.2 for Zone 2/22 are now part of the Nokia end-to-end solution for private wireless infrastructures.
Nokia offers 5G industrial devices deployed over Nokia Digital Automation Cloud (DAC) in a subscription-based “as-a-Service” (aaS) model.
Application bundles include Nokia Industrial device management, which allows administrators to remotely manage devices and apply group policies to scale management of devices to their entire fleet, Nokia Team Comms and Nokia Network Digital Twin.
“For Nokia, it is essential that we can provide our customers with reliable EX-protected devices as part of our end-to-end, Nokia one platform for industrial digitalisation. They rely on us to equip their workers with high quality, widely certified handhelds to work safely in hazardous environments,” said Nokia enterprise campus edge solutions head of industrial devices Martin Beltrop.
This first appeared in the subscription newsletter CommsWire on 18 December 2023.
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Nokia has today announced that it will reduce its emissions by 50% from its operations and products in use by the end of the decade compared to 2019. The Finnish firm has called its ambitions Science Based Targets (SBTs) and says they’re in line to meet a 1.5°C global warming scenario.
The firm said that it created SBTs back in 2017 which would bring it in line with a 2.0°C global warming scenario but managed to reach 90% of its targets within its operations 11 years ahead of time so now it’s going for a more ambitious goal. The new targets will apply to almost 100% of the firm’s current portfolio and include emissions from logistics and assembly factories in its supply chain as well as from its own operations.
Commenting on the news, Nokia’s President and CEO Pekka Lundmark said:
Nokia is not alone in its efforts to drive down its emissions. Other tech firms including IBM, Amazon, Microsoft and Uber are part of The Climate Pledge which calls on signatories to reach net-zero carbon emissions by 2040 ahead of the Paris Agreement deadline. Under the Paris Agreement, nations and the private sector have to bring down their emissions so much than global warming can be limited to 1.5°C by 2100.
Nokia will be giving more of its team members pink slips in 2012. In a press release today, the smartphone company revealed its plans to make changes at its mobile phone factories located in Komarom, Hungary, Reynosa, Mexico and Salo, Finland. The changes will result in the layoffs of 4,000 Nokia team members by the end of the year. These layoffs are in addition to the ones that Nokia first announced in September 2011 when it revealed that 3,500 of its workers would be given their walking papers.
Nokia said today that the three factories in Hungary, Mexico and Finland will now focus their energies on smartphone product customization for countries located in Europe and the Americas. The genuine device assembly work will be transferred over to factories located in Asia.
According to Nokia's executive vice president Niklas Savander:
This latest news follows word in January that Nokia lost another $1.2 billion in the fourth quarter of 2011 as the company tries to regain its once high status in the mobile phone industry via its recently launched Lumia line of Windows Phone-based smartphones.
Finnish telecoms giant Nokia is to axe between 9,000 and 14,000 jobs by the end of 2026 to cut costs.
The announcement was made as the company reported a 20% drop in sales between July and September.
The company blamed slowing demand for 5G equipment in markets such as North America.
It currently has 86,000 employees around the world, and has axed thousands of jobs since 2015.
Nokia wants to cut costs by between €800m and €1.2bn (£695m-£1bn) by 2026, it said.
Its customers have been cutting spending amid high inflation and interest rates, it said.
Advances in cloud computing and AI will need "significant investments in networks that have vastly improved capabilities", said chief executive Pekka Lundmark.
"However, given the uncertain timing of the market recovery, we are now taking decisive action," he said.
It said it wanted to "act quickly" by cutting costs by €400m in 2024, and €300m in 2025.
Mr Lundmark added that despite "ongoing uncertainty", Nokia expected to "an improvement in our network businesses" in the current quarter.
The company declined to say where the job cuts would fall, or whether UK employees would be affected.
It said the cuts had been a "difficult business decision" but were "a necessary step to adjust to market uncertainty and protect our long-term profitability and competitiveness".
"We have immensely talented people at Nokia and we will support everyone that is affected by the process," a spokesperson said. "We are now beginning the process of consultation on initial reductions."
The timing and detail of final jobs cuts "will be decided only after careful consideration, and will depend on the evolution of end market demand," the spokesperson added.
Nokia was once the biggest handset manufacturer in the world, but it failed to anticipate the popularity of internet-enabled touchscreen phones such as Apple's iPhone and Samsung's Galaxy and was knocked from its perch by rivals.
After selling its handset business to Microsoft, which the software giant later wrote off, Nokia concentrated on telecoms equipment.
It specialises in software and hardware used in telecoms, including the physical and cloud infrastructure people use when making a phone call or when using the internet, such as antennas and base stations.
In 2020, Nokia became a major beneficiary of Huawei being blocked from the UK's 5G networks after striking a deal to become the largest equipment provider to BT.
But 5G equipment makers have been struggling as operators in the US and the EU cut spending.
Nokia and Swedish rival, Ericsson, have been trying to offset some of the weakness with higher sales to India, but 5G rollout has also been slowing down there.
Earlier this week Ericsson reported a fall in sales.
The firm has also laid off thousands of employees this year, and said on Tuesday the uncertainty affecting its business would persist into 2024.
Analyst Kester Mann of CCS Insight said that the telecoms industry should be "flying high, buoyed by unrelenting demand for its services".
"Instead, countless questions continue to be posed around operators' relevance and long-term future," he said.
Technology companies, including telecoms firms, have been struggling as both domestic and business customers have been cutting back on spending because of factors including inflation and higher interest rates.
It has led to thousands of workers around the world losing their jobs over the past two years.
Companies including Meta, which owns Facebook and Instagram, Amazon and X, formerly Twitter, have all made redundancies.
However, tech workers are still in demand.
According to job posting firm Zip Recruiter, 80% of big tech employees who lost their jobs managed to find work within three months.
Chinese smartphone brand Oppo has urged Finnish electronics giant Nokia to follow the global 5G royalty rates set by a local court and put an end to their patent-fee feud, as Beijing flexes its legal muscles in cross-border disputes.
The Chongqing First Intermediate People's Court supported Oppo's petition to set lower royalty rates for Nokia's standard essential patents (SEPs) for 2G to 5G technologies, according to the ruling made public on Thursday.
SEPs are essential for products to comply with industry standards.
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Oppo said in a statement that it welcomed the court's decision and called on Nokia to comply, "so that both parties can promptly return to constructive negotiations".
In response to the Post's inquiry, Nokia said it would appeal the ruling, which "is limited to the Chinese jurisdiction only and as such represents only one view."
"Courts outside of China have confirmed that Oppo is in breach of its commitments as a user of Nokia's technology in open standards ... We remain confident of our position in the overall dispute and are hoping to resolve the matter soon," it added.
A Nokia logo at the Mobile World Congress. Photo: dpa alt=A Nokia logo at the Mobile World Congress. Photo: dpa>
The two companies have been engaged in multiple patent lawsuits in 12 countries since 2021, as they failed to agree on the price for using Nokia's 5G patent portfolios on Oppo smartphones. Oppo filed a case in the southwest municipality of Chongqing in 2021.
The new ruling is China's latest attempt to exert judicial authority over the royalty rates charged by foreign patent holders.
In a similar dispute between Oppo and Sharp in 2020, a court in the southern tech hub of Shenzhen decided that it had jurisdiction to set global Frand rates - a term describing the obligation for patent holders to license intellectual properties in a "fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory" manner.
Sharp, which had been acquired by Taiwan's Foxconn, appealed the case. After China's Supreme Court upheld the ruling, Oppo and Sharp reached a cross-licensing deal to end all of their ongoing litigation globally.
In the latest case, the Chongqing court ruled that Nokia should charge licensing fees of US$1.151 per 5G multi-mode handset in developed markets, including Europe, and US$0.707 per device in other countries, including China.
Nokia charges a maximum licensing rate of 3 euros (US$3.24) per 5G smartphone, according to a notice on its website.
In addition, the Chongqing court decided that the total royalty burden for 5G standards in the mobile phone industry should range from 4.341 per cent to 5.273 per cent, the first ruling of its kind in the sector.
The court also ruled that the licensing rate for 4G smartphones should be US$0.777 per device in developed regions and US$0.477 per unit in markets including China.
Chinese companies are trying to have a bigger say in price setting, as they become more prominent patent holders of cellular network-related technologies than during the 4G era, according to Julia Zhu, head of IP licensing and litigation of Oppo.
"We expect the ruling by the Chongqing court to set a benchmark for the industry, and the prices set by the court would be a strong reference in other litigations," Zhu said.
Oppo, which saw its smartphone shipments fall 6.5 per cent in the third quarter but remained the world's fourth-largest brand, according to research firm IDC, is desparate to put an end to the dispute.
Last year, the company lost a patent infringement lawsuit to Nokia in Germany. As a result, some of its handsets are barred from being sold there. The firm has since delisted most products from its German website.
Earlier this year, a court in India ordered Oppo to pay Nokia a licensing fee equivalent to 23 per cent of the Chinese firm's local sales.
On the other hand, a court in Indonesia dismissed patent infringement complaints made by Nokia against Oppo.
Because of the importance of the Chinese market, smartphone makers in the country had long been able to broker rates lower than their foreign competitors. However, these companies have found it increasingly difficult to negotiate preferential fees.
Vivo, a sister company of Oppo, encountered similar lawsuits raised by Nokia and has stopped selling its products in Germany since May. That came after Vivo cancelled plans to bring its products to the Netherlands, where Nokia filed a similar lawsuit.
Meanwhile, Oppo and Xiaomi are fighting lawsuits filed by Japanese electronics giant Panasonic in China and Europe over 4G technologies.
This article originally appeared in the South China Morning Post (SCMP), the most authoritative voice reporting on China and Asia for more than a century. For more SCMP stories, please explore the SCMP app or visit the SCMP's Facebook and Twitter pages. Copyright © 2023 South China Morning Post Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 2023. South China Morning Post Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved.
(IN BRIEF) Nokia has entered into a patent cross-license agreement with Honor, a leading player in the Chinese smartphone market. The agreement covers the essential inventions related to 5G and other cellular technologies, and the terms remain confidential. Nokia’s Chief Licensing Officer, Susanna Martikainen, highlighted the strength of Nokia’s patent portfolio and its contributions to cellular standards, noting that this is the fourth major litigation-free smartphone agreement Nokia has signed in the past year. Honor’s Head of Global Intellectual Property, Wenyu Zhou, emphasized the importance of IP rights and reasonable IP value for the mobile industry’s development. Nokia’s patent portfolio consists of over 20,000 patent families, including more than 6,000 declared essential to 5G, which can be licensed on fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory (FRAND) terms.
(PRESS RELEASE) ESPOO, 5-Jan-2024 — /EuropaWire/ — Nokia announced it has signed a new patent cross-license agreement with Honor covering both parties’ fundamental inventions in 5G and other cellular technologies. The terms of the agreement remain confidential between the parties.
Susanna Martikainen, Chief Licensing Officer Mobile Devices at Nokia said: “We are delighted to have concluded an amicable patent cross-license agreement with Honor, one of the leading players in the Chinese smartphone market. It is the fourth major litigation-free smartphone agreement that Nokia has concluded over the past twelve months and highlights once again the strength of Nokia’s patent portfolio and decades-long contributions to cellular standards and other technologies.”
Wenyu Zhou, Head of Global Intellectual Property at Honor said: “As both 5G SEP holder and implementor, Honor highly respects IP rights and strongly believes that reasonable value of IP is important to the development of mobile industry. The conclusion of the patent cross-license agreement shows Honor’s commitment on innovation to enabling a smart life across all scenarios and all channels, for all people.”
Nokia’s industry-leading patent portfolio is built on more than €140 billion invested in R&D since 2000 and is composed of around 20,000 patent families, including over 6,000 patent families declared essential to 5G. Nokia contributes its inventions to open standards in return for the right to license them on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND) terms. Companies can license and use these technologies without the need to make their own substantial investments in the standards, fueling innovation and the development of new products and services for consumers.
As a B2B technology innovation leader, we are pioneering networks that sense, think and act by leveraging our work across mobile, fixed and cloud networks. In addition, we create value with intellectual property and long-term research, led by the award-winning Nokia Bell Labs.
Service providers, enterprises and partners worldwide trust Nokia to deliver secure, reliable and sustainable networks today – and work with us to create the digital services and applications of the future.
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GreenMantra Technologies Announces Exclusive Distribution Relationship with HARKE GROUP
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