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Exam Code: BI0-145 Practice test 2022 by team
IBM Cognos 8 BI Multidimensional Author
Cognos Multidimensional guide
Killexams : Cognos Multidimensional guide - BingNews Search results Killexams : Cognos Multidimensional guide - BingNews Killexams : Cognos Videos

Users consuming data from enterprise resources use Cognos as their main reporting tool for operational data. These videos are designed as both training tools, report training, and reference guides for individuals in the reporting environment. The videos listed below are based on user roles and licensing. 

Using MotioCI within Cognos

Recover an Older Version of a Report

This video demonstrates how to revert to an older version of a Cognos report. MotioCI relieves you from needing to save multiple versions. Cognos users can now revert back to a previous version.

Restoring a Deleted Report

This video demonstrates how to restore a deleted Cognos report or folder. Cognos users can now recover deleted reports and folders.

Demonstration on creating a Cognos schedule, including creating a report view and setting prompt selections.

Cognos Analytics Authoring

Completion of COG 101 is required. Cognos Analytics Authoring offers report authoring capabilities including advanced formatting and filtering, prompt generation, and paging controls.  This tool allows for a robust experience in data handling and report construction.

Videos (to be watched sequentially - total run time is under 2 hours)

Authoring (1)

Authoring (2)

Authoring (3)

Authoring (4)

Authoring (5)

Authoring (6)


Tue, 18 Aug 2020 18:40:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Cognos Access & Resources

Cognos is a web-based suite of tools from IBM that offers a full range of business intelligence (BI) capabilities including reports, analysis, dashboards, scorecards, mobile BI and more.  Cognos is Purdue’s primary Business Intelligence(BI) tool and is used to access many of the university’s BI environments including those to access student-related data.

Go to Cognos

Cognos is the system Purdue uses for official reporting on Purdue student data. If you’d like to learn about how to request Cognos access, please visit the Business Intelligence Competency Center Website.

Helpful Resources

Sat, 16 Jul 2022 07:12:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Multi-dimensional innovation for the digital age No result found, try new keyword!In these cases, the price paid is high. For enterprises, innovation needs to be multi-dimensional. Here’s what I mean by multi-dimensional innovation and how it can be addressed. When we think ... Fri, 18 Nov 2022 04:07:00 -0600 text/html Killexams : Genshin Impact: Best Faruzan Build Guide No result found, try new keyword!Faruzan is a Genshin Impact support for Anemo characters as she provides Anemo DMG buff and Anemo RES debuff. This article is part of a directory: Genshin Impact 3.3 Update: All Sumeru Guides, New ... Tue, 06 Dec 2022 13:55:00 -0600 Killexams : Multidimensional Self-Care

Self-care has many dimensions

Source: Ron Lach/Pexels

It seems we are living in an age of ever-increasing anxiety, stress, depression, and substance use.[1,2, 3] There are many possible reasons for these troubling trends, but researchers are not entirely sure which are most likely and are unable to identify a singular reason. As is the case with many things in life, there are likely many factors at play.

It seems that with the recent trends, a discussion of self-care is timely and needed. More people in the United States are struggling with their mental health, but with increasing costs of mental health services and service providers in greater demand—therefore limiting their availability—more and more people are looking for strategies they can use on their own.

One factor, among many, related to the increase in mental health issues has been the pandemic. [4] The pandemic is of course a syllabu that has received much media attention. Working with clients during this difficult period, I've noticed them stating that they've had more time in isolation, leaving them alone with their thoughts and struggles without ways to cope or care for themselves. For some, this has created an opportunity for reflection; for others, it has left them to face their own inner challenges without distraction. I argue that the pandemic has highlighted people's need for, or lack of skill or commitment to, self-help.

Yes, social media is saturated with discussions of self-care; it feels like every day, a new article comes out about the benefits of yoga, an exciting new self-help book, or a new self-care product—but the exposure self-care gets leaves much to be desired.

To a degree, self-care getting more of the spotlight is a wonderful thing. Yet the coverage on self-care usually lacks depth and is often commercialized, serving as marketing for a specific product or service. In reality, self-care is not trendy, nor is it new. Human beings have been talking about and practicing self-care since the dawn of time. It has gone by many names and has been a focal point in the teachings and philosophies of many great spiritual masters.

So, take a moment and consider how you practice self-care, how it is integrated into your daily routine and experience, and how you can develop a greater sense of self-care in the future. Below are six dimensions of self-care. Read each one and think of one way you can enhance self-care in that domain of life:

  • Physical: Eating right, exercising regularly, being active, receiving proper medical care, and getting enough sleep are important investments in your physical health. Those with poor mental health typically have high morbidity and mortality rates. [5] For many, physical health is something they ignore, but that only hurts them. They may not see the harm immediately, but over time, the negative effects of not taking care of their physical health will show. Ask: What is one way you can practice better self-care as it relates to your physical health?
  • Spiritual: You may not be religious, and that’s OK, but we all have spiritual needs. We all desire to experience moments of transcendence, peace, and purpose. These are meaningful elements of the human experience and are deeply connected with our overall well-being and emotional health. [6] I suggest spending time in solitude and contemplation, to reflect on the beauty of nature and the human experience, and to understand and live out your purpose. If that is difficult to navigate, consider engaging with a faith community (or spiritual community, or value-driven community) that meets to achieve a positive mission. Ask: What is one way you can practice better self-care as it relates to your spiritual health?
  • Intellectual: Feeding your mind is just as important as feeding your stomach. Your mind hungers for new information, insight, knowledge, and wisdom. Do not deprive your mind of this need. Challenge yourself to be a lifelong student, always eager to learn. Intellectual curiosity is linked with academic performance. [7] Strong academic performance is a strong predictor of a number of positive outcomes. Consider developing your intellectual curiosity by discovering an intellectual mentor from history; someone whose ideas stimulate your thinking. Find as many works as you can from this person and sit under their tutelage. Or consider learning a new skill or a new language. Ask: What is one way you can practice better self-care as it relates to your intellectual health?
  • Relational: You are a social creature, which means you have an innate need to connect with a community to satisfy needs for friendship, sex, and conversation. Social connectedness is powerfully connected to our well-being. [8] You need other people in your life; people to ask the difficult questions, to introduce new ideas to your consciousness; people who become friends, lovers, or community members. Conversely, other people need you. You fulfill a purpose intrinsic to the human experience when you engage with others in a meaningful way to help, encourage, challenge, support, love, and befriend another human being. Ask: What is one way you can practice better self-care as it relates to your relational health?
  • Emotional: Satisfying your intellectual needs is important, but you are not a brain in a vat. You are an emotional being. To be a well-rounded person making a balanced investment, you must attend to your emotional needs. Many shy away from taking care of their emotional needs for fear of being vulnerable. However, the discomfort of vulnerability is outweighed by the emotional benefits. When you can open up to a trusted person and share your feelings, you will experience relief and meet a social need. [9] Ask: What is one way you can practice better self-care as it relates to your emotional health?
  • Occupational: Outside of sleeping, work is most likely one of the activities that consume most of your time over the course of your lifespan. Therefore, what you do for work and your level of enjoyment at work has a big impact on your life. [10] When you can combine your passions, strengths, interests, and mission into one activity that generates an income, you know you’ve hit the jackpot. But being fulfilled in every way isn’t always possible. Sometimes we must do work that we don’t enjoy in order to meet financial obligations. If you find yourself only working for the paycheck, all hope is not lost. You can still find meaning and fulfillment in your work, but it may be something you have to create. Ask: What is one way you can practice better self-care as it relates to your occupational health?
Mon, 05 Dec 2022 05:38:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Cognos Reporting Tools

The following Cognos system reports (login required) are recommended by Accounting Services for Research and Sponsored Programs (ASRSP) for administrators to use when monitoring their unit's sponsored projects.

GM044 - Sponsored Project Portfolio

  • This report displays balances for active projects including totals for direct and indirect expenditures as well as encumbrances by department and/or principal investigator

  • It can run for negative balances only to monitor deficit spending

  • Drill through available by project to the GM045 - Sponsored Project Budget Statement

GM086 - Projects Balances Report

  • Similar to Sponsored Project Portfolio, but with added data fields including ASRSP Grant and Contract Financial Administrator (GCFA) Name, Award ID/Sponsor ID, Start and End dates
  • No drill through capability
  • Recommended by ASRSP: run for current period, all Contract Statuses, Active Projects, and specify either a particular PI for Manager/Reviewer field or select particular department for a detailed view of the current financial status of your constituency. View in Excel 2007 Data file type.

GM045 - Sponsored Project Budget Statement

  • Displays direct and indirect expenditure totals by project against the total budget amount along with project demographic data

  • Dollars are broken out and shown by Current Accounting Period, Fiscal Year to Date, and Inception to Date

GM047 - Milestone (Deliverable) Report

  • Used by department administrators and PIs in tracking upcoming deliverable due dates to assist in meeting sponsor and institutional requirements

GM091 - Sponsor Payments Received

  • Presents details of payments received by contract, with a breakout by project
  • Payment activity includes all forms of payments as well as a subset of write-offs and other maintenance items
  • Note: For converted non-clinical awards, payment data prior to December 2008 is not available

GM092 - Subcontract Monitoring Report

  • Displays a complete list of fully-executed subcontracts
  • Current status for funding and disbursement
  • Includes the burn rates (percent disbursed)

GM093 - Cost Share Commitment Status

  • Presents revenue and expense data from NUFinancials Commitment Control for sponsored projects with cost sharing
  • Grants users a multi-year view of budget, revenue and expense on cost share funds
  • Provides a comprehensive view of all departments committing cost share funds to a given sponsored project

GM096 - Grants Transaction History Queries

  • Displays expense and budget transactions on sponsored (grant) chart strings. This report, when downloaded to Excel, can be used in conjunction with ASRSP’s Expense Review Workbook template. The report contains two sections, “Expense Transaction Query” and “Budget Query”. When exported to Excel, the data will appear on separate tabs.
  • This report is used by Principal Investigators, Department Administrators, and ASRSP to review detailed transaction history by contract or project id. It can reduce compliance risk by providing departments with easier access to and greater detail regarding expenses posted to grants.

GM097- Sponsored Project Actuals Balance Report

  • GM097 Guide to Understanding
  • GM097 ASRSP Formatting Recommendations
  • The GM097 displays a comprehensive view of a research departments' entire research project portfolio, including non-clinical sponsored projects, cost-shared projects, and clinical trials.
  • Non-clinical project balances are displayed Total Budget less Direct and F&A Expenditures and Encumbrances.
  • Clinical project balances are displayed Cash Received less Direct and F&A Expenditures and Encumbrances, with Protocol numbers.

GL008 - Revenue and Expense Activity Report

SC016 - Open Encumbrances Report

GL069 - Financial Summary

Fri, 02 Sep 2022 09:25:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Why the Bengals’ ‘multidimensional’ linebacking corps is playing its best football at the right time

CINCINNATI, Ohio - Everything is coming full circle for the Cincinnati Bengals’ linebacking corps.

Against the Tennessee Titans last year, the Bengals’ linebackers played key roles in limiting Derrick Henry to just over three yards per carry and picking off Ryan Tannehill three times in Cincinnati’s 19-16 win. Linebacker Logan Wilson had probably the best game of his career with a team-high eight tackles and an interception with less than 30 seconds left to help set up Evan McPherson’s game-winning field goal at the horn.

Wilson wasn’t alone, though. On top of fellow inside linebacker Germaine Pratt stepping up, backups Markus Bailey and Clay Johnston each made a stop.

Fast forward to Week 11 of this season, Pratt was the star of the show as the Bengals’ highest graded defender against Pittsburgh. According to Pro Football Focus, he boasted a 91.5 grade for overall defense and 91.2 score for his run defense - the best marks in his career.

Mix in the fact that Wilson has also been trending upward this season, along with reliable snaps from backup Akeem Davis-Gaither, that just might be what the Bengals need as they face off against Henry and Tannehill this weekend.

“We’ve got a great linebacking corps, and really from top to bottom, with our starters down to our last depth guy,” head coach Zac Taylor said this week.





Wilson and Pratt are the Bengals’ leading tacklers with 40 and 35 tackles, respectively. Each has an interception this season, too. And the Browns’ Nick Chubb (101 yards, Week 8) is the only running back to run for over 100 yards against the Bengals this season.

Wilson said he’s just enjoying the ride with Pratt.

“It’s fun. It’s been a lot of fun being able to grow with him the last three years and the last two as being the starters,” Wilson said this week. “He’s really helped me as a player with his film watching, his scouting, the things he looks for and points out helps me.”

“They play really well together. They have great chemistry. There’s a high football IQ in that room. They see things very fast,” Taylor said of Pratt and Wilson.

The two are playing their best football just as Henry is playing some of the best football of his career. An MVP-caliber running back less than two years ago, Henry leads the league in rushing yards this season (1,010 yards) and much of the Titans’ offense goes through “King Henry.”

That makes Pratt’s role important.

“You want to set the tone because they’re a run first offense. Not too many teams in the league have a run-first offense,” Pratt said. “We just have to get our feet set, get ready to play and come out of the gate rolling. You know, like last year, just do anything to get the stop.”

That’s exactly what the Bengals did against Tennessee last year. On the very first play from scrimmage, safety Jessie Bates picked off Tannehill to get the game started, setting the tone from there for Cincinnati’s defense, which had a crucial pick in every game of the postseason leading up to the Super Bowl.

Defensive tackle DJ Reader’s return against Pittsburgh last week allows more room for Pratt and Wilson to stop Henry and the Titans’ run game. Wilson said he can appreciate having more help up front in a game where Reader’s presence will be crucial.

“He’s a force to be reckoned with, too. He’s not a guy that’s been given as much credit as he deserves. He’s one of if not the best nose tackles in the game,” Wilson said.

The second half of the Bengals’ regular season won’t get easier from here. They return home next weekend to host Kansas City in a rematch of last year’s AFC title game before welcoming a Deshaun Watson-led Browns team.

If the Bengals’ defense and its linebacking corps can reignite the same run that sparked last year’s divisional title and run to the postseason, then a win Sunday could supply the 6-4 Bengals the vindication they need for December and beyond.

“It’s just two good teams going at it, you know, in late November with all playoff aspirations and all that stuff. We’re looking forward to it,” defensive coordinator Lou Anarumo said this week.

A playoff atmosphere in November just might be what the Bengals need this weekend.

Think you know football? Play the Pro Picks Challenge for a chance to win prizes! Click here: Pro Picks Challenge

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Get the latest Bengals merchandise: Here’s where you can order Cincinnati Bengals gear online, including jerseys, hoodies, T-shirts, hats and much more

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More Bengals coverage

How the Bengals’ game plan changes against Titans without Joe Mixon, plus predictions: Strictly Stripes podcast

Bengals WR Ja’Marr Chase questionable for Sunday against Titans

Joe Mixon ruled out for Sunday’s game against the Titans with a concussion

What makes Bengals WR Trenton Irwin’s active roster elevation so special

Joe Burrow talks Ja’Marr Chase’s return, receiver depth and more: Transcript

Why the Bengals will succeed against the Titans’ pass rush this time: Strictly Stripes podcast

Bengals WR Ja’Marr Chase returns to practice; Joe Burrow expects him to play Sunday

The Bengals’ Cam Taylor-Britt and the ongoing education of a rookie cornerback

The Bengals are off to a strong start to the second half of this season: Strictly Stripes podcast

Germaine Pratt found Steelers offense predictable: ‘We knew what they were going to do’

Bengals coach Zac Taylor on Ja’Marr Chase, the punting situation and more: Transcript

Bengals vs. Titans: What’s the line on Sunday’s game?

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Sat, 26 Nov 2022 05:02:00 -0600 en text/html Killexams : NFL Shopping Guide

Gifts, Games, Collectibles & More for Football Fans

Looking for the perfect gift. for the sports fan in your life (or a little something for yourself)? We've got you covered. 

Favorite Day Stadium Cookie Kit


Target's cookie kits are a new twist on gingerbread houses. This year, there's a kit made for football fans. Decorate the stadium and grab some candy in your team's colors to finish it off.

Madden 2023


Madden NFL 23 has new features that let you control game play like never before. Become an NFL coach by scouting for players, managing a staff, and growing your team from the ground up in Franchise mode. Build a dream team from current top players and Hall of Famers. 

New Era 2022 Crucial Catch 59FIFTY Fitted Hat

New Era

If you're a football fan, you probably already have the official merch in your team's colors. Change it up with some special edition gear like the 2022 Crucial Catch 59FIFTY collection from New Era. Choose from fitted hats, beanies, and knit hats with pom poms.



Watch live local and primetime games on your phone or tablet so you'll never miss a minute of game play. Upgrade to NFL+ Premium to watch game replays.

YouTheFan NFL 3-Piece Grill Set


Football + BBQ = the perfect Sunday. The barbecue tool set includes a sportula, a pair of tongs, and a grill fork, plus two built-in bottle openers. Your team's name is stamped on the handles and the team logo is laser cut through the blade of the sportula.

Sun, 13 Nov 2022 19:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : A Practical Guide To Multi-Touch Attribution

The customer journey involves multiple interactions between the customer and the merchant or service provider.

We call each interaction in the customer journey a touch point.

According to, it takes, on average, six to eight touches to generate a lead in the B2B space.

The number of touchpoints is even higher for a customer purchase.

Multi-touch attribution is the mechanism to evaluate each touch point’s contribution toward conversion and gives the appropriate credits to every touch point involved in the customer journey.

Conducting a multi-touch attribution analysis can help marketers understand the customer journey and identify opportunities to further optimize the conversion paths.

In this article, you will learn the basics of multi-touch attribution, and the steps of conducting multi-touch attribution analysis with easily accessible tools.

What To Consider Before Conducting Multi-Touch Attribution Analysis

Define The Business Objective

What do you want to achieve from the multi-touch attribution analysis?

Do you want to evaluate the return on investment (ROI) of a particular marketing channel, understand your customer’s journey, or identify critical pages on your website for A/B testing?

Different business objectives may require different attribution analysis approaches.

Defining what you want to achieve from the beginning helps you get the results faster.

Define Conversion

Conversion is the desired action you want your customers to take.

For ecommerce sites, it’s usually making a purchase, defined by the order completion event.

For other industries, it may be an account sign-up or a subscription.

Different types of conversion likely have different conversion paths.

If you want to perform multi-touch attribution on multiple desired actions, I would recommend separating them into different analyses to avoid confusion.

Define Touch Point

Touch point could be any interaction between your brand and your customers.

If this is your first time running a multi-touch attribution analysis, I would recommend defining it as a visit to your website from a particular marketing channel. Channel-based attribution is easy to conduct, and it could supply you an overview of the customer journey.

If you want to understand how your customers interact with your website, I would recommend defining touchpoints based on pageviews on your website.

If you want to include interactions outside of the website, such as mobile app installation, email open, or social engagement, you can incorporate those events in your touch point definition, as long as you have the data.

Regardless of your touch point definition, the attribution mechanism is the same. The more granular the touch points are defined, the more detailed the attribution analysis is.

In this guide, we’ll focus on channel-based and pageview-based attribution.

You’ll learn about how to use Google Analytics and another open-source tool to conduct those attribution analyses.

An Introduction To Multi-Touch Attribution Models

The ways of crediting touch points for their contributions to conversion are called attribution models.

The simplest attribution model is to supply all the credit to either the first touch point, for bringing in the customer initially, or the last touch point, for driving the conversion.

These two models are called the first-touch attribution model and the last-touch attribution model, respectively.

Obviously, neither the first-touch nor the last-touch attribution model is “fair” to the rest of the touch points.

Then, how about allocating credit evenly across all touch points involved in converting a customer? That sounds reasonable – and this is exactly how the linear attribution model works.

However, allocating credit evenly across all touch points assumes the touch points are equally important, which doesn’t seem “fair”, either.

Some argue the touch points near the end of the conversion paths are more important, while others are in favor of the opposite. As a result, we have the position-based attribution model that allows marketers to supply different weights to touchpoints based on their locations in the conversion paths.

All the models mentioned above are under the category of heuristic, or rule-based, attribution models.

In addition to heuristic models, we have another model category called data-driven attribution, which is now the default model used in Google Analytics.

What Is Data-Driven Attribution?

How is data-driven attribution different from the heuristic attribution models?

Here are some highlights of the differences:

  • In a heuristic model, the rule of attribution is predetermined. Regardless of first-touch, last-touch, linear, or position-based model, the attribution rules are set in advance and then applied to the data. In a data-driven attribution model, the attribution rule is created based on historical data, and therefore, it is unique for each scenario.
  • A heuristic model looks at only the paths that lead to a conversion and ignores the non-converting paths. A data-driven model uses data from both converting and non-converting paths.
  • A heuristic model attributes conversions to a channel based on how many touches a touch point has with respect to the attribution rules. In a data-driven model, the attribution is made based on the effect of the touches of each touch point.

How To Evaluate The Effect Of A Touch Point

A common algorithm used by data-driven attribution is called Markov Chain. At the heart of the Markov Chain algorithm is a concept called the Removal Effect.

The Removal Effect, as the name suggests, is the impact on conversion rate when a touch point is removed from the pathing data.

This article will not go into the mathematical details of the Markov Chain algorithm.

Below is an example illustrating how the algorithm attributes conversion to each touch point.

The Removal Effect

Assuming we have a scenario where there are 100 conversions from 1,000 visitors coming to a website via 3 channels, Channel A, B, & C. In this case, the conversion rate is 10%.

Intuitively, if a certain channel is removed from the conversion paths, those paths involving that particular channel will be “cut off” and end with fewer conversions overall.

If the conversion rate is lowered to 5%, 2%, and 1% when Channels A, B, & C are removed from the data, respectively, we can calculate the Removal Effect as the percentage decrease of the conversion rate when a particular channel is removed using the formula:

Then, the last step is attributing conversions to each channel based on the share of the Removal Effect of each channel. Here is the attribution result:

Channel Removal Effect Share of Removal Effect Attributed Conversions
A 1 – (5% / 10%) = 0.5 0.5 / (0.5 + 0.8 + 0.9) = 0.23 100 * 0.23 = 23
B 1 – (2% / 10%) = 0.8 0.8 / (0.5 + 0.8 + 0.9) = 0.36 100 * 0.36 = 36
C 1 – (1% / 10%) = 0.9 0.9 / (0.5 + 0.8 + 0.9) = 0.41 100 * 0.41 = 41

In a nutshell, data-driven attribution does not rely on the number or position of the touch points but on the impact of those touch points on conversion as the basis of attribution.

Multi-Touch Attribution With Google Analytics

Enough of theories, let’s look at how we can use the ubiquitous Google Analytics to conduct multi-touch attribution analysis.

As Google will stop supporting Universal Analytics (UA) from July 2023, this tutorial will be based on Google Analytics 4 (GA4) and we’ll use Google’s Merchandise Store demo account as an example.

In GA4, the attribution reports are under Advertising Snapshot as shown below on the left navigation menu.

After landing on the Advertising Snapshot page, the first step is selecting an appropriate conversion event.

GA4, by default, includes all conversion events for its attribution reports.

To avoid confusion, I highly recommend you pick only one conversion event (“purchase” in the below example) for the analysis.

Understand The Conversion Paths In GA4

Under the Attribution section on the left navigation bar, you can open the Conversion Paths report.

Scroll down to the conversion path table, which shows all the paths leading to conversion.

At the top of this table, you can find the average number of days and number of touch points that lead to conversions.

In this example, you can see that Google customers take, on average, almost 9 days and 6 visits before making a purchase on its Merchandise Store.

Find Each Channel’s Contribution In GA4

Next, click the All Channels report under the Performance section on the left navigation bar.

In this report, you can find the attributed conversions for each channel of your selected conversion event – “purchase”, in this case.

Now, you know Organic Search, together with Direct and Email, drove most of the purchases on Google’s Merchandise Store.

Examine Results From Different Attribution Models In GA4

By default, GA4 uses the data-driven attribution model to determine how many credits each channel receives. However, you can examine how different attribution models assign credits for each channel.

Click Model Comparison under the Attribution section on the left navigation bar.

For example, comparing the data-driven attribution model with the first touch attribution model (aka “first click model” in the below figure), you can see more conversions are attributed to Organic Search under the first click model (735) than the data-driven model (646.80).

On the other hand, Email has more attributed conversions under the data-driven attribution model (727.82) than the first click model (552).

The data tells us that Organic Search plays an important role in bringing potential customers to the store, but it needs help from other channels to convert visitors (i.e., for customers to make actual purchases).

On the other hand, Email, by nature, interacts with visitors who have visited the site before and helps to convert returning visitors who initially came to the site from other channels.

Which Attribution Model Is The Best?

A common question, when it comes to attribution model comparison, is which attribution model is the best. I’d argue this is the wrong question for marketers to ask.

The truth is that no one model is absolutely better than the others as each model illustrates one aspect of the customer journey. Marketers should embrace multiple models as they see fit.

From Channel-Based To Pageview-Based Attribution

Google Analytics is easy to use, but it works well for channel-based attribution.

If you want to further understand how customers navigate through your website before converting, and what pages influence their decisions, you need to conduct attribution analysis on pageviews.

While Google Analytics doesn’t support pageview-based attribution, there are other tools you can use.

We recently performed such a pageview-based attribution analysis on AdRoll’s website and I’d be happy to share with you the steps we went through and what we learned.

Gather Pageview Sequence Data

The first and most challenging step is gathering data on the sequence of pageviews for each visitor on your website.

Most web analytics systems record this data in some form. If your analytics system doesn’t provide a way to extract the data from the user interface, you may need to pull the data from the system’s database.

Similar to the steps we went through on GA4, the first step is defining the conversion. With pageview-based attribution analysis, you also need to identify the pages that are part of the conversion process.

As an example, for an ecommerce site with online purchase as the conversion event, the shopping cart page, the billing page, and the order confirmation page are part of the conversion process, as every conversion goes through those pages.

You should exclude those pages from the pageview data since you don’t need an attribution analysis to tell you those pages are important for converting your customers.

The purpose of this analysis is to understand what pages your potential customers visited prior to the conversion event and how they influenced the customers’ decisions.

Prepare Your Data For Attribution Analysis

Once the data is ready, the next step is to summarize and manipulate your data into the following four-column format. Here is an example.

The Path column shows all the pageview sequences. You can use any unique page identifier, but I’d recommend using the url or page path because it allows you to analyze the result by page types using the url structure.  “>” is a separator used in between pages.

The Total_Conversions column shows the total number of conversions a particular pageview path led to.

The Total_Conversion_Value column shows the total monetary value of the conversions from a particular pageview path. This column is optional and is mostly applicable to ecommerce sites.

The Total_Null column shows the total number of times a particular pageview path failed to convert.

Build Your Page-Level Attribution Models

To build the attribution models, we leverage the open-source library called ChannelAttribution.

While this library was originally created for use in R and Python programming languages, the authors now provide a free Web app for it, so we can use this library without writing any code.

Upon signing into the Web app, you can upload your data and start building the models.

For first-time users, I’d recommend clicking the Load Demo Data button for a trial run. Be sure to examine the parameter configuration with the demo data.

When you’re ready, click the Run button to create the models.

Once the models are created, you’ll be directed to the Output tab, which displays the attribution results from four different attribution models – first-touch, last-touch, linear, and data-drive (Markov Chain).

Remember to obtain the result data for further analysis.

For your reference, while this tool is called ChannelAttribution, it’s not limited to channel-specific data.

Since the attribution modeling mechanism is agnostic to the type of data given to it, it’d attribute conversions to channels if channel-specific data is provided, and to web pages if pageview data is provided.

Analyze Your Attribution Data

Organize Pages Into Page Groups

Depending on the number of pages on your website, it may make more sense to first analyze your attribution data by page groups rather than individual pages.

A page group can contain as few as just one page to as many pages as you want, as long as it makes sense to you.

Taking AdRoll’s website as an example, we have a Homepage group that contains just the homepage and a Blog group that contains all of our blog posts.

For ecommerce sites, you may consider grouping your pages by product categories as well.

Starting with page groups instead of individual pages allows marketers to have an overview of the attribution results across different parts of the website. You can always drill down from the page group to individual pages when needed.

Identify The Entries And Exits Of The Conversion Paths

After all the data preparation and model building, let’s get to the fun part – the analysis.

I’d suggest first identifying the pages that your potential customers enter your website and the pages that direct them to convert by examining the patterns of the first-touch and last-touch attribution models.

Pages with particularly high first-touch and last-touch attribution values are the starting points and endpoints, respectively, of the conversion paths. These are what I call gateway pages.

Make sure these pages are optimized for conversion.

Keep in mind that this type of gateway page may not have very high traffic volume.

For example, as a SaaS platform, AdRoll’s pricing page doesn’t have high traffic volume compared to some other pages on the website but it’s the page many visitors visited before converting.

Find Other Pages With Strong Influence On Customers’ Decisions

After the gateway pages,  the next step is to find out what other pages have a high influence on your customers’ decisions.

For this analysis, we look for non-gateway pages with high attribution value under the Markov Chain models.

Taking the group of product feature pages on as an example, the pattern of their attribution value across the four models (shown below) shows they have the highest attribution value under the Markov Chain model, followed by the linear model.

This is an indication that they are visited in the middle of the conversion paths and played an important role in influencing customers’ decisions.

These types of pages are also prime candidates for conversion rate optimization (CRO).

Making them easier to be discovered by your website visitors and their content more convincing would help lift your conversion rate.

To Recap

Multi-touch attribution allows a company to understand the contribution of various marketing channels and identify opportunities to further optimize the conversion paths.

Start simply with Google Analytics for channel-based attribution. Then, dig deeper into a customer’s pathway to conversion with pageview-based attribution.

Don’t worry about picking the best attribution model.

Leverage multiple attribution models, as each attribution model shows different aspects of the customer journey.

More resources: 

Featured Image: Black Salmon/Shutterstock

Fri, 25 Nov 2022 03:12:00 -0600 en text/html
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