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Exam Code: ATTA Practice exam 2023 by team
ATTA Advanced Level Technical Test Analyst

Exam ID : ATTA

Exam Title : Advanced Technical Test Analyst (ASTQB)

Number of Questions in exam : 45

Passig Score : 65%

Exam Type : Multiple Choice Questions

- Summarize the generic risk factors that the Technical Test Analyst typically needs to consider.

- Summarize the activities of the Technical Test Analyst within a risk-based approach for testing activities.

- Write test cases from a given specification item by applying the Statement testing test technique to achieve a defined level of coverage.

- Write test cases from a given specification item by applying the Modified Condition/Decision Coverage (MC/DC) test technique to achieve coverage.

- Write test cases from a given specification item by applying the Multiple Condition testing test technique to achieve a defined level of coverage.

- Write test cases from a given specification item by applying McCabe's Simplified Baseline Method.

- Understand the applicability of API testing and the kinds of defects it finds.

- Select an appropriate white-box test technique according to a given project situation.

- Use control flow analysis to detect if code has any control flow anomalies.

- Explain how data flow analysis is used to detect if code has any data flow anomalies.

- Propose ways to Excellerate the maintainability of code by applying static analysis.

- Explain the use of call graphs for establishing integration testing strategies.

- Apply dynamic analysis to achieve a specified goal.

- For a particular project and system under test, analyze the non-functional requirements and write the respective sections of the test plan.

- Given a particular product risk, define the particular non-functional test type(s) which are most appropriate.

- Understand and explain the stages in an applications lifecycle where non-functional tests should be applied.

- For a given scenario, define the types of defects you would expect to find by using non-functional testing types.

- Explain the reasons for including security testing in a test strategy and/or test approach.

- Explain the principal aspects to be considered in planning and specifying security tests.

- Explain the reasons for including reliability testing in a test strategy and/or test approach.

- Explain the principal aspects to be considered in planning and specifying reliability tests.

- Explain the reasons for including performance testing in a test strategy and/or test approach.

- Explain the principal aspects to be considered in planning and specifying performance efficiency tests.

- Explain the reasons for including maintainability testing in a testing strategy and/or test approach.

- Explain the reasons for including portability tests in a testing strategy and/or test approach.

- Explain the reasons for compatibility testing in a testing strategy and/or test approach.

- Explain why review preparation is important for the Technical Test Analyst.

- Analyze an architectural design and identify problems according to a checklist provided in the syllabus.

- Analyze a section of code or pseudo-code and identify problems according to a checklist provided in the syllabus.

- Summarize the activities that the Technical Test Analyst performs when setting up a test automation project.

- Summarize the differences between data-driven and keyword-driven automation.

- Summarize common technical issues that cause automation projects to fail to achieve the planned return on investment.

- Construct keywords based on a given business process.

- Summarize the purpose of tools for fault seeding and fault injection.

- Summarize the main characteristics and implementation issues for performance testing tools.

- Explain the general purpose of tools used for web-based testing.

- Explain how tools support the practice of model-based testing.

- Outline the purpose of tools used to support component testing and the build process.

- Outline the purpose of tools used to support mobile application testing.

1. The Technical Test Analyst's Tasks in Risk-Based Testing


product risk, risk assessment, risk identification, risk mitigation, risk-based testing
Learning Objectives for The Technical Test Analyst's Tasks in Risk-Based Testing
Risk-based Testing Tasks

- Summarize the generic risk factors that the Technical Test Analyst typically needs to consider

- Summarize the activities of the Technical Test Analyst within a risk-based approach for testing activities

1.1 Introduction

The Test Manager has overall responsibility for establishing and managing a risk-based testing strategy. The Test Manager usually will request the involvement of the Technical Test Analyst to ensure the risk-based approach is implemented correctly.
Technical Test Analysts work within the risk-based testing framework established by the Test Manager for the project. They contribute their knowledge of the technical product risks that are inherent in the project, such as risks related to security, system reliability and performance.

1.2 Risk-based Testing Tasks

Because of their particular technical expertise, Technical Test Analysts are actively involved in the following risk-based testing tasks:

• Risk identification

• Risk assessment

• Risk mitigation

These tasks are performed iteratively throughout the project to deal with emerging product risks and changing priorities, and to regularly evaluate and communicate risk status.

1.2.1 Risk Identification

By calling on the broadest possible demo of stakeholders, the risk identification process is most likely to detect the largest possible number of significant risks. Because Technical Test Analysts possess unique technical skills, they are particularly well-suited for conducting expert interviews, brainstorming with co-workers and also analyzing the current and past experiences to determine where the likely areas of product risk lie. In particular, Technical Test Analysts work closely with other stakeholders, such as developers, architects, operations engineers, product owners, local support offices, and service desk technicians, to determine areas of technical risk impacting the product and project. Involving other stakeholders ensures that all views are considered and is typically facilitated by Test Managers.

Risks that might be identified by the Technical Test Analyst are typically based on the [ISO25010] quality characteristics listed in Chapter 4, and include, for example:

• Performance efficiency (e.g., inability to achieve required response times under high load conditions)

• Security (e.g., disclosure of sensitive data through security attacks)

• Reliability (e.g., application unable to meet availability specified in the Service Level Agreement)

1.2.2 Risk Assessment

While risk identification is about identifying as many pertinent risks as possible, risk assessment is the study of those identified risks in order to categorize each risk and determine the likelihood and impact associated with it. The likelihood of occurrence is usually interpreted as the probability that the potential problem could exist in the system under test.

The Technical Test Analyst contributes to finding and understanding the potential technical product risk for each risk item whereas the Test Analyst contributes to understanding the potential business impact of the problem should it occur.

Project risks can impact the overall success of the project. Typically, the following generic project risks need to be considered:

• Conflict between stakeholders regarding technical requirements

• Communication problems resulting from the geographical distribution of the development organization

• Tools and technology (including relevant skills)

• Time, resource and management pressure

• Lack of earlier quality assurance

• High change rates of technical requirements

Product risk factors may result in higher numbers of defects. Typically, the following generic product risks need to be considered:

• Complexity of technology

• Complexity of code structure

• Amount of re-use compared to new code

• Large number of defects found relating to technical quality characteristics (defect history)

• Technical interface and integration issues

Given the available risk information, the Technical Test Analyst proposes an initial risk level according to the guidelines established by the Test Manager. For example, the Test Manager may determine that risks should be categorized with a value from 1 to 10, with 1 being highest risk. The initial value may be modified by the Test Manager when all stakeholder views have been considered.

1.2.3 Risk Mitigation

During the project, Technical Test Analysts influence how testing responds to the identified risks. This generally involves the following:

• Reducing risk by executing the most important tests (those addressing high risk areas) and by putting into action appropriate mitigation and contingency measures as stated in the test plan

• Evaluating risks based on additional information gathered as the project unfolds, and using that information to implement mitigation measures aimed at decreasing the likelihood or avoiding the impact of those risks

The Technical Test Analyst will often cooperate with specialists in areas such as security and performance to define risk mitigation measures and elements of the organizational test strategy. Additional information can be obtained from ISTQB® Specialist syllabi, such as the Advanced Level Security Testing syllabus [ISTQB_ALSEC_SYL] and the Foundation Level Performance Testing syllabus [ISTQB_FLPT_SYL].

2. White-box Test Techniques


API testing, atomic condition, control flow testing, cyclomatic complexity, decision testing, modified condition/decision testing, multiple condition testing, path testing, short-circuiting, statement testing, white-box test technique

Learning Objectives for White-Box Testing

2.2 Statement Testing

TTA-2.2.1 (K3) Write test cases for a given specification item by applying the Statement test technique to achieve a defined level of coverage

Decision Testing
TTA-2.3.1 (K3) Write test cases for a given specification item by applying the Decision test technique to achieve a defined level of coverage
2.4 Modified Condition/Decision Coverage (MC/DC) Testing
TTA-2.4.1 (K3) Write test cases by applying the Modified Condition/Decision Coverage (MC/DC) test design technique to achieve a defined level of coverage
Multiple Condition Testing
TTA-2.5.1 (K3) Write test cases for a given specification item by applying the Multiple Condition test technique to achieve a defined level of coverage
2.6 Basis Path Testing
TTA-2.6.1 (K3) Write test cases for a given specification item by applying McCabes Simplified Baseline Method
2.7 API Testing
TTA-2.7.1 (K2) Understand the applicability of API testing and the kinds of defects it finds
2.8 Selecting a White-box Test Technique
TTA-2.8.1 (K4) Select an appropriate white-box test technique according to a given project situation
2.1 Introduction
This chapter principally describes white-box test techniques. These techniques apply to code and other structures, such as business process flow charts.
Each specific technique enables test cases to be derived systematically and focuses on a particular aspect of the structure to be considered. The techniques provide coverage criteria which have to be measured and associated with an objective defined by each project or organization. Achieving full coverage does not mean that the entire set of tests is complete, but rather that the technique being used no longer suggests any useful tests for the structure under consideration.
The following techniques are considered in this syllabus:
• Statement testing

• Decision testing

• Modified Condition/Decision Coverage (MC/DC) testing

• Multiple Condition testing

• Basis Path testing

• API testing

The Foundation Syllabus [ISTQB_FL_SYL] introduces Statement testing and Decision testing. Statement testing exercises the executable statements in the code, whereas Decision testing exercises the decisions in the code and tests the code that is executed based on the decision outcomes.

The MC/DC and Multiple Condition techniques listed above are based on decision predicates and broadly find the same types of defects. No matter how complex a decision predicate may be, it will evaluate to either TRUE or FALSE, which will determine the path taken through the code. A defect is detected when the intended path is not taken because a decision predicate does not evaluate as expected.

The first four techniques are successively more thorough (and Basis Path testing is more thorough than Statement and Decision testing); more thorough techniques generally require more tests to be defined in order to achieve their intended coverage and find more subtle defects.

2.2 Statement Testing

Statement testing exercises the executable statements in the code. Coverage is measured as the number of statements executed by the tests divided by the total number of executable statements in the test object, normally expressed as a percentage.

This level of coverage should be considered as a minimum for all code being tested.


Decisions are not considered. Even high percentages of statement coverage may not detect certain defects in the codes logic.

2.3 Decision Testing

Decision testing exercises the decisions in the code and tests the code that is executed based on the decision outcomes. To do this, the test cases follow the control flows that occur from a decision point (e.g., for an IF statement, one for the true outcome and one for the false outcome; for a CASE statement, test cases would be required for all the possible outcomes, including the default outcome).

Coverage is measured as the number of decision outcomes executed by the tests divided by the total
number of decision outcomes in the test object, normally expressed as a percentage.
Compared to the MC/DC and Multiple Condition techniques described below, decision testing considers the entire decision as a whole and evaluates the TRUE and FALSE outcomes in separate test cases.

The most useful checklists are those gradually developed by an individual organization, because they reflect:

• The nature of the product

• The local development environment

o Staff

o Tools

o Priorities

• History of previous successes and defects

• Particular issues (e.g., performance efficiency, security)

Checklists should be customized for the organization and perhaps for the particular project. The checklists provided in this chapter are meant only to serve as examples.

Some organizations extend the usual notion of a software checklist to include “anti-patterns” that refer to common errors, poor techniques, and other ineffective practices. The term derives from the popular concept of “design patterns” which are reusable solutions to common problems that have been shown to be effective in practical situations [Gamma94]. An anti-pattern, then, is a commonly made error, often implemented as an expedient short-cut.

It is important to remember that if a requirement is not testable, meaning that it is not defined in such a way that the Technical Test Analyst can determine how to test it, then it is a defect. For example, a requirement that states “The software should be fast” cannot be tested. How can the Technical Test Analyst determine if the software is fast? If, instead, the requirement said “The software must provide a maximum response time of three seconds under specific load conditions”, then the testability of this requirement is substantially better assuming the “specific load conditions” (e.g., number of concurrent users, activities performed by the users) are defined. It is also an overarching requirement because this one requirement could easily spawn many individual test cases in a non-trivial application. Traceability from this requirement to the test cases is also critical because if the requirement should change, all the test cases will need to be reviewed and updated as needed.

5.2.1 Architectural Reviews

Software architecture consists of the fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution. [ISO42010], [Bass03].
Checklists1 used for architecture reviews could, for example, include verification of the proper implementation of the following items, which are quoted from [Web-2]:

• “Connection pooling - reducing the execution time overhead associated with establishing database connections by establishing a shared pool of connections

• Load balancing – spreading the load evenly between a set of resources

• Distributed processing

• Caching – using a local copy of data to reduce access time

• Lazy instantiation

• Transaction concurrency

• Process isolation between Online Transactional Processing (OLTP) and Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)

• Replication of data”

5.2.2 Code Reviews

Checklists for code reviews are necessarily very detailed, and, as with checklists for architecture reviews, are most useful when they are language, project and company-specific. The inclusion of code-level anti-patterns is helpful, particularly for less experienced software developers.

Checklists1 used for code reviews could include the following items:.

1. Structure

• Does the code completely and correctly implement the design?

• Does the code conform to any pertinent coding standards?

• Is the code well-structured, consistent in style, and consistently formatted?

• Are there any uncalled or unneeded procedures or any unreachable code?

• Are there any leftover stubs or test routines in the code?

• Can any code be replaced by calls to external reusable components or library functions?

• Are there any blocks of repeated code that could be condensed into a single procedure?

• Is storage use efficient?

• Are symbolics used rather than “magic number” constants or string constants?

• Are any modules excessively complex and should be restructured or split into multiple modules?

2. Documentation

• Is the code clearly and adequately documented with an easy-to-maintain commenting style?

• Are all comments consistent with the code?

• Does the documentation conform to applicable standards?

3. Variables

• Are all variables properly defined with meaningful, consistent, and clear names?

• Are there any redundant or unused variables?

4. Arithmetic Operations

• Does the code avoid comparing floating-point numbers for equality?

• Does the code systematically prevent rounding errors?

• Does the code avoid additions and subtractions on numbers with greatly different magnitudes?

• Are divisors tested for zero or noise?

5. Loops and Branches

• Are all loops, branches, and logic constructs complete, correct, and properly nested?

• Are the most common cases tested first in IF-ELSEIF chains?

• Are all cases covered in an IF-ELSEIF or CASE block, including ELSE or DEFAULT clauses?

• Does every case statement have a default?

• Are loop termination conditions obvious and invariably achievable?

• Are indices or subscripts properly initialized, just prior to the loop?

• Can any statements that are enclosed within loops be placed outside the loops?

• Does the code in the loop avoid manipulating the index variable or using it upon exit from the loop?

6. Defensive Programming

• Are indices, pointers, and subscripts tested against array, record, or file bounds?

• Are imported data and input arguments tested for validity and completeness?

• Are all output variables assigned?

• Is the correct data element operated on in each statement?

• Is every memory allocation released?

• Are timeouts or error traps used for external device access?

• Are files checked for existence before attempting to access them?

• Are all files and devices left in the correct state upon program termination?

6. Test Tools and Automation

Keywords capture/playback, data-driven testing, debugging, emulator, fault seeding, hyperlink, keyword-driven testing, performance efficiency, simulator, test execution, test management

Learning Objectives for Test Tools and Automation

6.1 Defining the Test Automation Project

TTA-6.1.1 (K2) Summarize the activities that the Technical Test Analyst performs when setting up a test automation project

TTA-6.1.2 (K2) Summarize the differences between data-driven and keyword-driven automation

TTA-6.1.3 (K2) Summarize common technical issues that cause automation projects to fail to achieve the planned return on investment

TTA-6.1.4 (K3) Construct keywords based on a given business process

6.2 Specific Test Tools

TTA-6.2.1 (K2) Summarize the purpose of tools for fault seeding and fault injection

TTA-6.2.2 (K2) Summarize the main characteristics and implementation issues for performance testing tools

TTA-6.2.3 (K2) Explain the general purpose of tools used for web-based testing

TTA-6.2.4 (K2) Explain how tools support the practice of model-based testing

TTA-6.2.5 (K2) Outline the purpose of tools used to support component testing and the build process

TTA-6.2.6 (K2) Outline the purpose of tools used to support mobile application testing

6.1 Defining the Test Automation Project

In order to be cost-effective, test tools (and particularly those which support test execution), must be carefully architected and designed. Implementing a test execution automation strategy without a solid architecture usually results in a tool set that is costly to maintain, insufficient for the purpose and unable to achieve the target return on investment.

A test automation project should be considered a software development project. This includes the need for architecture documentation, detailed design documentation, design and code reviews, component and component integration testing, as well as final system testing. Testing can be needlessly delayed or complicated when unstable or inaccurate test automation code is used.

There are multiple tasks that the Technical Test Analyst can perform regarding test execution automation. These include:

• Determining who will be responsible for the test execution (possibly in coordination with a Test Manager)

• Selecting the appropriate tool for the organization, timeline, skills of the team, and maintenance requirements (note this
could mean deciding to create a tool to use rather than acquiring one)
• Defining the interface requirements between the automation tool and other tools such as the test management, defect management and tools used for continuous integration

• Developing any adapters which may be required to create an interface between the test execution tool and the software under test

• Selecting the automation approach, i.e., keyword-driven or data-driven (see Section 6.1.1 below)

• Working with the Test Manager to estimate the cost of the implementation, including training. In Agile projects this aspect would typically be discussed and agreed in project/sprint planning meetings with the whole team.

• Scheduling the automation project and allocating the time for maintenance

• Training the Test Analysts and Business Analysts to use and supply data for the automation

• Determining how and when the automated tests will be executed

• Determining how the automated test results will be combined with the manual test results

In projects with a strong emphasis on test automation, a Test Automation Engineer may be tasked with many of these activities (see the Advanced Level Test Automation Engineer syllabus [ISTQB_ALTAE_SYL] for details). Certain organizational tasks may be taken on by a Test Manager according to project needs and preferences. In Agile projects the assignment of these tasks to roles is typically more flexible and less formal.

These activities and the resulting decisions will influence the scalability and maintainability of the automation solution. Sufficient time must be spent researching the options, investigating available tools and technologies and understanding the future plans for the organization.

6.1.1 Selecting the Automation Approach

This section considers the following factors which impact the test automation approach:

• Automating through the GUI

• Applying a data-driven approach

• Applying a keyword-driven approach

• Handling software failures

• Considering system state

The Advanced Level Test Automation Engineer syllabus [ISTQB_ALTAE_SYL] includes further details on selecting an automation approach.

Advanced Level Technical Test Analyst
ASTQB Technical Topics
Killexams : ASTQB Technical Topics - BingNews Search results Killexams : ASTQB Technical Topics - BingNews Killexams : CAP Body of Knowledge

The development of a valid exam for the CAP® certification process began with a clear and concise definition of the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed for competent job performance. Using interviews, surveys, observation, and group discussions, ISA worked with automation professionals to delineate critical job components. The knowledge and skill bases for the questions on the exam were derived from the genuine practice of the automation professionals as outlined in the 2012 CAP Role Delineation Study.

CAP exam specifications were developed by combining the overall survey evaluations of importance, frequency, and criticality, and converting the results into percentages. Importance, frequency, and criticality ratings were weighted equally in this computation. These percentages are used to determine the number of questions related to each domain and task, as shown in the chart below.

I. Feasibility Study 11% 19
II. Definition 12% 21
III. System Design 20% 35
IV. Development 19% 33
V. Deployment 16% 28
VI. Operation and Maintenance 22% 39
TOTAL: 100% 175

In addition to the CAP exam specifications based on the Domains, the exam questions are also distributed by knowledge or technical subject categories to ensure broad coverage of technical topics. The distribution of exam questions among these technical Topics is particularly important to those preparing for the exam .

I. Basic Continuous Control 14% 24
II. Basic Discrete, Sequencing, and Manufacturing Control 13% 23
III. Advanced Control 9% 16
IV. Reliability, Safety and Electrical 13% 23
V. Integration and Software 21% 37
VI. Deployment and Maintenance 16% 28
VII. Work Structure 14% 24
TOTAL: 100% 175
Wed, 14 Jul 2021 04:33:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Prepare for the CAP Exam

ISA offers a variety of resources to help you prepare for the Certified Automation Professional (CAP®) exam.

Primary Textbook

A Guide to the Automation Body of Knowledge is the primary text resource for the CAP exam and provides a complete overview of all technical topics. Order the Guide to the Automation Body of Knowledge.

Study Guide

The CAP Study Guide is a comprehensive self-study resource that contains a list of the CAP domains and tasks, 75 review Questions Answers complete with justifications. References that were used for each study guide question are also provided with the question. The Study Guide also includes a recommended list of publications that you can use to do further study on specific domains. Order the CAP Study Guide.

Review Courses

A CAP review course is available in several formats as preparation for taking the certification exam. This course is offered by ISA and can also be offered at your location.

ISA also has a variety of training courses that would be helpful in preparing for CAP. Visit the Automation Professional Training page for a complete list.

Additional Resources

Exam Topics

  1. Basic Continuous Control: Process Instrumentation, Analytical Instrumentation, Continuous Control, Control Valves, Analog Communications, Control System Documentation, Control Equipment
  2. Basic Discrete, Sequencing, and Manufacturing Control: Discrete Input & Output Devices and General Manufacturing Measurements, Discrete and Sequencing Control, Motor and Drive Control, Motion Control
  3. Advanced Control Topics: Process Modeling, Advanced Process Control, Control of Batch Processes, Environmental, Environmental Monitoring, Building Automation
  4. Reliability, Safety, and Electrical: Alarm Management, Reliability, Process Safety and Safety Instrumented Systems, Electrical Installations, Safe Use and Application of Electrical Apparatus
  5. Integration and Software: Digital Communications, Industrial Networks, Manufacturing Execution Systems and Business Integration, System and Network Security, Operator Interface, Data Management, Software, Custom Software
  6. Deployment and Maintenance: Operator Training, Checkout, System Testing, and Startup, Troubleshooting, Maintenance, Long-Term Support and System Management
  7. Work Structure: Automation Benefits and Project Justifications, Project Management and Execution, Interpersonal Skills

CAP demo Questions

Questions on the exam were derived from the genuine practice of automation professionals as outlined in the CAP Role Delineation Study and job task analysis. Using interviews, surveys, observation, and group discussions, ISA worked with automation professionals to delineate critical job components to develop exam specifications to determine the number of questions related to each domain and task tested. This rigorous program development and ongoing maintenance process ensures that CAP certification accurately reflects the skills and knowledge needed to excel as an automation professional.

The following six questions were taken from the CAP exam question item bank and serve as examples of the question type and question content found on the CAP exam.

  1. The method by which the tasks and hazards associated with a machine or process are analyzed is known as:
    • A. Risk assessment.
    • B. Machine assessment.
    • C. Risk reduction.
    • D. Risk abatement.
  2. To test controller tuning or prototype new control strategies offline, the model should be a(an):
    • A. Tie-back (loopback) simulation.
    • B. Artificial neural network.
    • C. Dynamic process simulation.
    • D. Steady state process simulation.
  3. The temperature measurement with the BEST repeatability and resolution is the:
    • A. Thermocouple.
    • B. Resistance temperature detector (RTD).
    • C. Dial thermometer.
    • D. Capillary system.
  4. Which of the following is NOT a variable speed drive setup parameter?
    • A. Acceleration rate.
    • B. Motor winding type.
    • C. Output frequency.
    • D. Maximum speed.
  5. A complete test plan for system integration testing MUST include:
    • A. Comments for the application programmer.
    • B. Multiple test cases for each mode of operation.
    • C. At least five test cases for each test.
    • D. Expected results for each test case.
  6. Frequency of maintenance should be determined by:
    • A. Failure rates of components.
    • B. Availability of personnel and parts.
    • C. Management targets for efficiency and productivity.
    • D. Effectiveness of maintenance personnel.

Sample Questions Answer Key

Question Number Correct Answer Exam Content Outline
1 A Domain 1, Task 4
2 C Domain 2, Task 2
3 B Domain 3, Task 3
4 B Domain 4, Task 7
5 C Domain 5, Task 5
6 A Domain 6, Task 2
Wed, 14 Jul 2021 04:33:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Technical Communication/Science Writing

If you prefer discussing and explaining science to others more than performing it, technical communication may be the career path for you.

Typical Job Functions

While both science journalists and technical writers both create information about technical topics, the intended audiences differ.  

  • Science journalists take complex technical information and make it accessible to audiences with no expert knowledge. 
  • Technical writers create documents to be read by other technical people.

Technical communications positions are concentrated in information technology, scientific, and technical companies. In addition to writing, jobs found in this field include:

  • Technical editing - Working with the authors to make sure the subject, style, and level of detail are appropriate for the intended audience
  • Technical illustrating - Creating images to go along with the explanatory text
  • Technical translating - Converting documents into other languages

Technical communicators have to stay up-to-date on major scientific and technical developments. With so much information being delivered electronically, they have to be able to integrate text, graphics, and animation, and be able to work with databases. 

Specific job duties may include:

  • Attending science and technology conferences to report on discoveries presented there
  • Writing articles about new technological developments (e.g., for a science magazine)
  • Writing issue briefs (e.g., for a congressperson)
  • Editing and assembling grant proposals, journal articles, technical reports, instruction manuals, and other scientific documents
  • Developing press releases and marketing materials for technical products, programs, and services
  • Creating standard operating procedures and help documents for industry

Technical communicators spend most of their time alone in an office, but they occasionally travel to laboratories, conferences, production plants, or other places where scientists work. Many technical writers are self-employed, providing services for private companies, government agencies, and/or professional societies on specific projects.

Career Paths

Writing and editing are versatile skills that are needed in every type of business; transitioning from one company to another is not as difficult as it can be in other career fields.

Advancement in technical communication generally means:

  • Taking responsibility for bigger, more complex projects
  • Supervising other writers
  • Crafting and overseeing company-wide documentation policies and procedures

Many technical communicators freelance at the end of their careers to gradually transition to retirement.

Getting Started

Technical communicators should have at least a bachelor’s degree in a science or engineering discipline. Undergraduate courses in science writing and journalism are helpful, and some employers prefer a degree in journalism, English, or communications. A graduate degree is usually not necessary, though it may lend you credibility with some types of employers.

The more experience you can get with writing and editing, the better. For any internship, summer job, or organization you’re a part of:

  • Volunteer/nominate yourself to write articles and blogs
  • Edit newsletters
  • Write job manuals, program announcements, lab instructions, etc.
  • Remember to keep copies of everything you work on for your professional portfolio, including before-and-after versions of documents, webpages, etc.
Wed, 26 May 2021 08:21:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Side hustles for know-it-alls No result found, try new keyword!Or you can teach academic subjects like history, language or math. Or you can teach some technical topic, like how to navigate ChatGPT or Excel. The course topic, duration, curriculum and pricing ... Mon, 07 Aug 2023 01:18:00 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : How to Make Screen Images Smaller on Your PC

Aurelio Locsin has been writing professionally since 1982. He published his first book in 1996 and is a frequent contributor to many online publications, specializing in consumer, business and technical topics. Locsin holds a Bachelor of Arts in scientific and technical communications from the University of Washington.

Sun, 22 Jul 2018 02:03:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : IEEE at a Glance

IEEE is the world’s largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. IEEE and its members inspire a global community through its highly cited publications, conferences, technology standards, and professional and educational activities.

The following information provides an overview of IEEE offerings and services.

Wed, 26 Jul 2017 19:54:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : subject - Hartford State Technical College

Capital Community College is a community college in Hartford, Connecticut, United States. The only public undergraduate institution in the City of Hartford, Capital's roots date to 1967 with the founding of Greater Hartford Community College. In 1992 Capital merged with Hartford State Technical College to become Capital Community-Technical College in a state-mandated consolidation. In 2000, the College's name was changed to Capital Community College. - Source: Wikipedia

Sat, 21 May 2022 12:19:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Generative AI and Professional Tech Certification Courses Continue to Dominate Emerging Skills Demand for Professionals Globally

Udemy, Inc.

Udemy Q2 Learning Index highlights technical and professional power skills needed to navigate today’s rapidly changing workforce

SAN FRANCISCO, Aug. 17, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Udemy (Nasdaq: UDMY), a company dedicated to improving lives through learning, today released its Q2 2023 Global Workplace Learning Index, a quarterly report highlighting skills that are growing in demand, as professionals play a crucial role in enabling their companies to maintain their edge and future-proof their workforce.

Analyzing data from nearly 15,000 Udemy Business customers across the globe, the Index reveals the technical and professional power or “soft” skills that saw the biggest increase in course consumption (i.e., minutes spent learning) during Q2 when compared to Q1 2023. Udemy is uniquely equipped to provide data that helps companies understand learning trends and identify the skills their employees should learn, enabling them to grow while achieving critical outcomes for the business.

“We are in the midst of a shift to a skills-based economy where organizations are identifying the skills available within their teams and addressing any gaps,” said Caoimhe Carlos, Vice President of Global Customer Success at Udemy. “Organizations are partnering with Udemy to determine which skills are emerging and strategically upskill their teams — a win-win for both companies and professionals looking to stay ahead in today’s increasingly competitive climate.”

The Index highlighted several emerging themes in professional learning, including:

  • Continued spike in certification preparation course consumption. Businesses and professionals continue to value industry certifications. Traditional cloud certifications, such as AWS, have experienced significant growth over time, while demand for other certification preparation Topics emerged, such as the Salesforce Certified Associate (130% increase globally), Certified Kubernetes Administrator or CKA (32% increase in Canada), and ISTQB Certified Tester Foundation Level or CTFL (27% increase in Germany). More than 10 million learners have enrolled in IT Certification courses on Udemy in the past 12 months, demonstrating the breadth and depth of corporate demand.

  • Generative AI remains a sought-after skill across industries. Increasingly, the growth of AI is extending into non-technical fields such as marketing, HR, sales and project management. With growth in Topics such as ChatGPT (386% increase globally), Generative AI (278%) and Prompt Engineering (190%), companies are diving deeper into role-specific uses of generative AI to tap its transformative potential – improving SEO, streamlining talent recruiting, improving customer support responsiveness, and creating personalized marketing emails. Overall, across the Udemy marketplace and business learner landscape, Udemy has already seen over 1.5 million learners enroll in ChatGPT-related courses.

  • There is a huge demand for project management skills by professionals across roles and industries. Project planning courses showed a global increase of 79% and project management was a top skill in the healthcare industry with 7% growth in demand. Project Management Institute (PMI) PMBOK Guide was the top in-demand skill for government workers with a 62% increase. The PMI Talent Gap Report underscores the global need for 25 million new project professionals and a total of 2.3 million project managers by 2030.

  • ESG and climate change courses surge in demand. With 113% quarter-over-quarter growth in demand, corporations and the global workforce are demonstrating an increased interest and prioritization of climate change knowledge and ESG best practices as businesses work to address and avoid the negative consequences associated with climate change.

The Q2 Index also identified a number of emerging skills to watch, such as:

  • Increasing focus on local language skills to drive global collaboration. Korean language courses experienced an 87% overall increase in consumption globally. English language remained a top in-demand skill in China with a 114% increase, and in France with a 22% increase.

  • Semiconductor and chip manufacturing courses are experiencing remarkable global growth. VHDL (Very High-Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language) courses saw an unprecedented surge of 3,576% over the first quarter. The demand for FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) courses in the U.S. has also skyrocketed by 2,838%, following increased funding and focus on semiconductor production through the CHIPS Act of 2022. Globally, FPGA courses witnessed a significant 1,256% increase in demand, reflecting the contentious race in semiconductor production worldwide.

"As the pace of global innovation and change accelerates, professionals are driven to learn new skills and adapt to shifting business priorities," said Scott Rogers, Senior Vice President of Supply Strategy at Udemy. “Major industry certifications, such as AWS, continue to dominate overall demand, but we are also seeing surging demand for Salesforce, Google Cloud and Kubernetes. This aligns with the roadmap of capabilities Udemy is bringing to market, as exhibited by our latest badging announcement, which supports the skills validation and certification trend.”

To learn more about country-specific learning trends, visit: To partner with Udemy Business to upskill for the future, visit:

The Udemy Workplace Learning Index uses data from thousands of Udemy Business customers worldwide. Location data is based on the country associated with the company. The skills data compares the consumption of courses in the Udemy Business collection from Q1 2023 to Q2 2023. Courses are associated with one or more topics, with a maximum of five Topics per course. The trending skills that you see in the report are based on these topics. If a course covers multiple topics, consumption minutes are divided equally across all Topics associated with the course.

About Udemy
Udemy (Nasdaq: UDMY) improves lives through learning by providing flexible, effective skill development to empower organizations and individuals. The Udemy marketplace platform, with thousands of up-to-date courses in dozens of languages, offers the tools learners, instructors and enterprises need to achieve their goals and reach their full potential. Millions of people learn on the Udemy platform from real-world experts in Topics ranging from programming and data science to leadership and team building. Udemy Business enables employers to offer on-demand learning for all employees, immersive learning for tech teams and cohort learning for leaders. Udemy Business customers include Fender, Glassdoor, On24, The World Bank and Volkswagen. Udemy is headquartered in San Francisco with hubs in Ankara and Istanbul, Türkiye; Austin, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Dublin, Ireland; Melbourne, Australia; and New Delhi, India.

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Killexams : Many AI tools are a distraction, but you’d better pay attention No result found, try new keyword!Workers can use ChatGPT for tasks such as idea generation, note summarization and technical subject assistance. In the last couple of months, Microsoft also announced new AI features for its apps in ... Fri, 19 May 2023 04:40:00 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : Side hustles for know-it-alls

You don’t like to brag, but you know things. And, while there are many ways you could spend a day, doing something that allows you to share that knowledge is fun. Why not check out side hustles for know-it-alls?These are jobs that pay for knowledge about everything from car maintenance to artificial intelligence, advertising to veterinary services, business management to disease management. And, of course, knowledge about grammar, science or math is valuable too.

Side hustles for know-it-alls

Notably, your knowledge doesn’t need to be encyclopedic or broad. After all, this is not Jeopardy.

Side hustles for know-it-alls are really about knowing one thing exceptionally well. Your expertise could be in divorce law, credit management, manufacturing, home appraisals or construction. Business management. Grammar. Science. Test Preparation. The specific subject on which you are expert is not what’s important. What is important is that you have knowledge that can save another individual or company a fortune in time and energy by using what you know.

That allows you to consult, tutor, teach, and answer technical questions. And it’s worth noting that these side hustles generate good income, commonly paying between $30 and $300 per hour.

Here are four side hustles for know-it-alls and where you can find them.

Be an answer woman/man

Know how to fix cars or appliances? Have a background in human or veterinary medicine? Or have credentials in law, appraisals, finance or consumer electronics? A site called JustAnswer enlists freelance subject matter experts to answer questions from consumers in a wide array of fields.

The typical client here might have a broken washing machine, for example, and want to fix it herself rather than hiring an appliance repair person. So, she asks something along the lines of “How do I fix a leaky Whirlpool Model XYZ?” Her expert might link to written instructions; a YouTube video. Or say it’s too complex a question to answer with one query.

You get paid by the answer, usually between $2 and $20, depending on your specialty. And answers might only take a minute or two, since you choose which questions to respond to within your area of expertise. In some cases, experts can be enlisted to provide longer phone consultations at a negotiated rate, too.

The site says its experts typically earn anywhere from $1,000 to $8,000 per month.


A wide range of consulting platforms enlist freelancers to provide advice to companies attempting to trouble-shoot or launch new operations. These consulting gigs can require as little as 10 minutes — or months of work, depending on the project.

Typically, consultants set their own rates and get matched with projects that suit their knowledge and skills. However, on some platforms, such as SMA Inc., you can search for open consulting/freelance gigs through the site’s “talent on demand” option.

Some good sites to find these gigs, which typically pay $100 or more per hour, include Catalant, Robert Half, Zintro, GLG and Maven.


Tutoring is a great way to share your knowledge and you can get paid handsomely to do so. There are literally dozens of tutoring platforms, many of which specialize in fields like coding (Juni Learning) and music (LessonFace). However, among the best sites for tutors of almost any subject is industry giant Wyzant.

Wyzant allows tutors to publish a short bio, explaining their specialties and qualifications. Tutors also set their own rates and determine the schedule and duration of sessions. Wyzant simply markets their services through the platform, which gets millions of visitors each month. Freelancers pay a commission to Wyzant from their tutoring revenue.

The site is also attractive for students because it allows them to search for tutors by subject matter, price, age, availability and whether the tutor has been background-checked. There are no minimum tutoring packages. You book the tutor you want, when you want.

Although average tutor rates range from $30 to $60 per hour, tutors in technical subjects, such as science, calculus and advanced test preparation, often charge more than $100 per hour.


Teaching isn’t known as a highly-paid profession. But that’s when it’s done in physical classrooms that can only accommodate a limited number of students. Several online teaching platforms offer a more attractive alternative. You develop a curriculum, film yourself, add quizzes and charts and other helpful learning materials with the help of the teaching platform. You set the price of your course and that class then remains online and available to new students indefinitely.

Teachable and Thinkific are both platforms where you can create your own teaching side hustles. Both sites allow you to use their software to create a class of your choosing. You can teach skills, like car maintenance, clothing design/sewing/knitting/crafts. Or you can teach academic subjects like history, language or math. Or you can teach some technical topic, like how to navigate ChatGPT or Excel. The course topic, duration, curriculum and pricing is completely up to you.

But both sites have nice guides that can show you how to put together an engaging course and how to find buyers for your classes. The only challenge? While these sites will host your classes, the marketing is up to you. These platforms work best for people who have built up a following via email or social media and can use their current networks to market the course.

Don’t have that? You may want to sign up with Udemy. Udemy charges higher commissions than the other two teaching platforms, but it helps with the marketing. Some course creators suggest you create a “mini-course” on Udemy and use that to market your longer and more expensive classes hosted by one of the other teaching platforms.The best thing about this particular side hustle for know-it-alls is that it can generate revenue long after you publish the course, creating passive income for years to come.

Kristof is the editor of, an independent website on the gig economy.

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