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ASVAB Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery
ASVAB-Word-Knowledge ASVAB Section 1 : Word Knowledge
ASVAB-Arithmetic-Reasoning ASVAB Section 2 : Arithmetic Reasoning
ASVAB-Mechanical-Comp ASVAB Section 3 : Mechanical Comprehension
ASVAB-Automotive-and-Shop ASVAB Section 4 : Automotive & Shop Information
ASVAB-Electronic-Info ASVAB Section 5 : Electronic Information
ASVAB-Mathematics-Knowledge ASVAB Section 6 : Mathematics Knowledge
ASVAB-General-Science ASVAB Section 7: General Science
ASVAB-Paragraph-comp ASVAB Section 8: Paragraph comprehension
ASVAB-Assembling-Objects ASVAB Section 9 : Assembling Objects

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Question: 198
Pouring cold water on an overheated engine __________.
A. reduces damage caused by overheating.
B. makes no difference.
C. should only be done by a qualified mechanic.
D. could cause the engine block to crack.
Answer: D
Question: 199
A two-cycle engine will normally be found on __________.
A. small cars
B. large diesel trucks
C. trucks, vans, and some cars
D. snowmobiles, chainsaws, and some motorcycles
Answer: D
Question: 200
The difference between a single-acting and an opposed piston engine is __________.
A. Single-acting piston engines wear longer.
B. Opposed piston engines have cylinders set in a V-shape.
C. Single-acting piston engines have one piston per cylinder and opposed piston engines have two.
D. Single-acting piston engines are used with carburetors and opposed piston engines are used with fuel
injectors.
Answer: C
Question: 201
A gauge shows the complete loss of oil pressure while driving.
The best action is to __________.
A. Stop by the gas station when convenient to top off the oil.
B. Pull over immediately and investigate the problem.
C. Drive directly to a repair garage.
D. Assume everything is fine and continue driving as usual.
Answer: B
Question: 202
In an overhead valve system (OHV), what mechanism opens and closes the valves?
A. rocker arms
B. camshaft
C. valve rotator
D. electrical energy from the alternator
Answer: A
Question: 203
If a carís ignition system, lights, and radio donít work, the part thatís probably malfunctioned is the __________.
A. cylinder block
B. water pump
C. carburetor
D. battery
Answer: D
Question: 204
The primary purpose of piston rings is to __________.
A. seal the combustion chamber and allow the pistons to move freely.
B. connect the piston to the crankshaft.
C. allow fuel to enter the piston cylinder.
D. provide lubrication to the piston cylinder.
Answer: A
Question: 205
Connecting rods connect the piston to the __________.
A. flywheel
B. fuel pump
C. crankshaft
D. battery
Answer: C
Question: 206
If an alternator overcharges the battery, a likely explanation is __________.
A. The governor has malfunctioned.
B. The voltage regulator isnít working properly.
C. The ignition coil has overheated.
D. The battery-acid solution is low.
Answer: B
Question: 207
A primary advantage of the electronic ignition system over conventional ignition systems is __________.
A. the electronic ignition system is less expensive to repair.
B. the electronic ignition system provides a higher voltage.
C. the electronic ignition system allows for use of a lower octane fuel.
D. All of the above.
Answer: B
Question: 208
Overheating the engine can cause all of the following problems EXCEPT __________.
A. burned engine bearings
B. enlarged pistons
C. melted engine parts
D. improved fuel efficiency
Answer: D
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Military Information study help - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/ASVAB-Automotive-and-Shop Search results Military Information study help - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/ASVAB-Automotive-and-Shop https://killexams.com/exam_list/Military The U.S. Military’s Personnel Crisis

A country‚Äôs military and its society have a symbiotic relationship. The society provides the human and economic capital to supply the military; the military protects the society. In 1973, in response to societal unrest caused by the Vietnam War‚Äďera draft, the United States transitioned its armed forces to an all-volunteer model, staffing it only with recruits who joined by choice. At the same time it did away conscription, however, the government began scaling back federal social welfare programs. The inadvertent result: a dearth of qualified people willing to join the military.

Although a voluntary force has considerable advantages over one filled partly through conscription, inadequate welfare policies have undermined U.S. manpower. Poverty, poor childhood nutrition, and withering ties between the military and society have led to a depleted recruiting pool. This decades-long neglect is becoming apparent at a time when competition with China and Russia increases the need for a strong military, which in turn must recruit more highly skilled service members.

But it’s not too late to reinvest in future recruits. The U.S. government will need to take the long view, starting with increasing funding for nutritional programs for children, a policy that will enhance educational outcomes and reduce obesity. And the military should expand its outreach to high school students, to supply more young Americans an accurate understanding of life in the armed forces. By expanding the ranks of young people eligible for military service and encouraging them to serve their country, the United States can repair military-civilian ties and attract top-tier talent.

ROUGH DRAFT

The all-volunteer force solved a recruitment crisis created by civilian policymakers’ misuse of conscription. When the United States entered the Vietnam War, U.S. President Lyndon Johnson, seeking to avoid political backlash, refused to activate reserve and National Guard units, relying instead on conscripts. He believed it was better to draft people from across the country instead of activating hundreds of men from communities that had National Guard units. But the conscription process had been broken for some time. In the decade of relative peace following the Korean War, the system had begun granting too many deferments, which were disproportionately used by white and wealthy Americans. As U.S. involvement in Vietnam escalated, increasing demand for troops exposed inequities in the system as conscripts were more likely to be poor, Black, or Hispanic, be relegated to combat roles, and suffer casualties. For instance, 64 percent of eligible Black Americans were drafted in comparison to 31 percent of eligible white Americans. Black troops made up 31 percent of combat battalions and 24 percent of the war’s casualties despite constituting only 12 percent of the U.S. population. Opposition to the war increased skepticism of the draft, and as legislative attempts at reform failed, conscription became politically toxic.

The switch to an all-volunteer force was also meant to raise the military‚Äôs esprit de corps. In 1968, William Westmoreland, freshly recalled as the commander of U.S. forces in Vietnam and kicked upstairs to serve as army chief of staff, ordered a series of studies to determine the root cause of declining morale and discipline in the army. The studies concluded that conscripts were responsible for infecting the armed forces with the social ills roiling 1960s America, such as drug abuse and racial tensions. Army leadership resolved to use an all-volunteer model to weed out ‚Äúundesirables.‚ÄĚ

There are benefits to an all-volunteer force. Today’s recruits boast significantly higher high school graduation rates, standardized test scores, and retention rates than conscription-era troops. In the last 50 years, policymakers have employed this better-credentialed, professionalized force in a variety of situations, from quick campaigns in Grenada and Panama to decades’ long commitments in the Middle East, without having to ask the wider public to endure sacrifices. But the switch to an all-volunteer force happened at the same time that the United States began to scale back welfare programs. The Carter and Reagan administrations cut funding for much of the assistance that was established under Johnson, including cash transfer programs to families with children, food stamps, housing aid, Medicaid, and community service grants to states. In particular, these cuts hurt Black families and single-mother households. Their cumulative effects can be felt today.

UNFIT TO SERVE

Fifty years of domestic divestment have shrunk the U.S. military’s pool of human capital. A 2020 study by the Pentagon found that 77 percent of Americans between the ages of 17 and 24 are ineligible for military service without a waiver, up from 71 percent in 2017. The most common reasons for ineligibility were obesity, drug abuse, and mental and physical health conditions. Almost half of young Americans are ineligible for multiple reasons. The United States’ military manpower is declining because policymakers have failed to invest in the health and nutrition of its potential recruits during their formative years.

The U.S. armed forces have also come to overrely on recruits who are familiar with military service through family or geographic connections. More than 80 percent of new recruits have a family member who served, with almost half having a parent who did. The military is becoming a family business instead of a civic duty, expanding the disconnect between the armed forces and the rest of society. According to surveys conducted by the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation and Institute, the percentage of Americans who reported having a ‚Äúgreat deal of confidence‚ÄĚ in the armed forces dropped from 70 percent to 48 percent between 2018 and 2023. Reliance on family connections for recruitment may also prove unsustainable, as a declining number of service members and their families would recommend others to enlist: 63 percent did in 2021, down from 75 percent in 2019, according to the Military Family Advisory Network, an advocacy group.

The lack of eager and qualified potential soldiers leaves the United States and its armed forces in a precarious position as it navigates the most challenging geopolitical environment since the end of the Cold War. With fewer Americans willing or able to serve, the U.S. military will have to rely more on U.S. allies and partners, whose interests are not always aligned with those of the United States.

The military is becoming a family business instead of a civic duty.

The first step to rebuilding the United States’ manpower is for the U.S. government to invest in its future recruits. Childhood poverty increases the incidence of obesity, health problems, and risky behaviors. These outcomes not only render American youth ineligible to serve but also undermine their prospects to thrive in civilian life. Army leaders have recognized that declining eligibility is related to these societal trends and have introduced preparatory courses to help potential recruits overcome obesity and academic issues. But this program helps only those recruits who are on the cusp of eligibility. It is not enough to stop decades of worsening socioeconomic conditions that created the eligibility crisis in the first place. To repair that damage, civilian policymakers must invest in nutrition and education, expand the military’s outreach, and reform the Selective Service.

About 22 percent of Americans aged 2 to 19 are obese, according to the nonprofit group Mission: Readiness. Much of this has to do with poor nutrition. Federal policymakers should offer each American child attending public school three meals at no cost. This would certain that every student has a chance to receive the nutrition necessary for learning and healthy development, regardless of their family’s socioeconomic standing. Over the long run, it would reduce obesity rates in the United States’ pool of potential recruits.

Today’s armed forces rely heavily on technical expertise and critical thinking, making it all the more important that recruits are educated. Furthermore, to take advantage of emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence, the U.S. military requires highly credentialed candidates that private sector firms are also eager to hire. But the U.S. military is at a disadvantage for recruiting well-educated people for several reasons. Those who have already completed higher education tend to be less interested in one of the main attractions of military service: the educational benefits. Even when the military finds and trains promising recruits, they often leave for the higher-paying private sector, a struggle that has plagued U.S. Cyber Command in particular. According to a 2016 study by Air University, civilian information security analysts earned, on average, 130 percent of what their enlisted counterparts did.

Instead of engaging in a bidding war with private firms over a small pool of skilled workers, policymakers need to help equip more young Americans with skills in software development, data science, data engineering, cyber physical systems, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. The Department of Defense should collaborate with the Department of Education to establish middle and high school programs that teach young Americans these critical skills, which both private and public sectors require to remain competitive in today’s rapidly evolving technology environment. At a minimum, the Pentagon must establish these programs within its own schools. Through its Education Activity agency, the Defense Department manages 160 schools with over 66,000 students that are all children from military families, the group most likely to serve later in life.

ALL FOR ONE

Eligibility is not the military‚Äôs only recruitment problem. Just nine percent of Americans ages 16 to 21 express any interest in joining the U.S. military. Although the armed forces need to recruit only a fraction of this population to fill its ranks, the widespread apathy to national service suggests a disconnect between society and the military. To rebuild ties between the two, the U.S. government should expand the Selective Service system to include women. Today, the Selective Service‚ÄĒthe federal agency that keeps a record of potential draftees‚ÄĒrequires only men aged 18 to 25 to register their contact information. Excluding women is antiquated, given that women have been allowed to serve in combat roles since 2015. Men who refuse to register with the Selective Service may be imprisoned or fined. And they are rendered ineligible for educational grants, government employment opportunities, and federal job training benefits.

To supply young people a better understanding of life in the armed forces, the U.S. government should make those same federal educational and employment benefits contingent upon participation in the Junior Reserve Officers‚Äô Training Corps, a program that aims to instill civic values in high schoolers mainly through courses on military history and physical fitness. Currently, only 3,500 out of 23,500 U.S. public high schools offer a JROTC program. JROTC should be expanded into all high schools so that young Americans from all walks of life would be afforded the opportunity to interact with veterans who could provide a grounded portrayal of military service. JROTC should also add to its curriculum the quality-of-life programs that are available to current service members, such as financial counseling and substance abuse recovery courses. This re-imagined JROTC curriculum could complement schools‚Äô academic and life skills courses while also rebuilding the ties between the U.S. military and American society‚ÄĒties that have been neglected for over 50 years.

Militaries fight battles, but societies wage wars. It is for their defense that armed forces are created, and it is a society’s vitality that sustains the armed forces, in the form of material support and manpower. If a society declines, its armed forces will inevitably decline as well. For 50 years, the U.S. government has asked nothing of most Americans when it has entered conflicts. At the same time, policymakers have reduced investment in the American people. The long-term effects of this disengagement between state and society are becoming painfully apparent. More than ever, the U.S. military is struggling to recruit from a society whose young people are increasing unable and unwilling to fulfill the most fundamental civic duty: defending their country.

Thu, 04 Jan 2024 15:42:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.foreignaffairs.com/united-states/us-militarys-personnel-crisis
Psychoactive drug ibogaine found to effectively treat traumatic brain injury in special operations military vets No result found, try new keyword!For military veterans, many of the deepest wounds of war are invisible: Traumatic brain injuries resulting from head trauma or blast explosions are a leading cause of post-traumatic stress disorder, ... Thu, 04 Jan 2024 20:00:01 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ The US Military Just Created a Major New Group to Study UFOs

The group’s mission is to study UFOs in military airspace.

Acronym City

The US Department of Defense is ramping up its efforts to see if the truth is really out there with a new task force dedicated to studying UFOs. 

The group, dubbed the Airborne Object Identification and Management Synchronization Group (AOIMSG), was announced on Tuesday via a DoD press release. Its mission will be to "detect, identify and attribute objects of interests'' spotted in military airspace. More specifically, it wants to study the origins of unidentified aerial phenomena (UAP) ‚ÄĒ¬†which, of course, is the US government‚Äôs lightly euphemistic term for UFOs.¬†

AOIMSG will succeed the US Navy’s Unidentified Aerial Phenomena Task Force, which was created to study "UAPs that could potentially pose a threat to US national security," according to an August press release from the DoD. 

Hot Topic

Let's be clear: some UFOs could conceivably be advanced tech from here on Earth, and most are probably glitches and optical illusions, but it's vanishingly unlikely that any come from the stars. Still, the announcement does come during a wave of renewed political and public interest in the topic. 

Just last week, a bipartisan group in Congress introduced legislation to form an office dedicated to studying UFOs.¬†Over¬†the summer, the Pentagon released its hotly anticipated report on UAPs ‚ÄĒ which turned out to be a bit of a letdown.¬†

The jury‚Äôs still out as to how much the new task force will add to the conversation. Like so many things, the US government seems to really enjoy dragging its feet when it comes to saying anything concrete about UFOs ‚ÄĒ at least publicly.¬†

Still, it‚Äôs all a clear signal that ‚ÄĒ despite the gears of bureaucracy grinding ever so slowly ‚ÄĒ Washington is finally taking an idea that was once confined to the realm of conspiracy seriously.¬†

READ MORE: DoD Announces the Establishment of the Airborne Object Identification and Management Synchronization Group (AOIMSG) [US Department of Defense]

More on UFOs: Politicians Push for ‚ÄúUFO Office‚ÄĚ to Study Tech From ‚ÄúAdversaries or Any Other Entity‚ÄĚ


Wed, 24 Nov 2021 05:26:00 -0600 text/html https://futurism.com/the-byte/us-military-group-ufo
Longer training programs less likely to cause injury to military recruits, study finds

New Edith Cowan University (ECU) research has revealed that up to 1 in 4 military recruits would seek medical assistance for injury in one training period.

Led by postdoctoral research fellow Dr. Myles Murphy, the project centered on both the occurrence and type of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by military recruits worldwide, with data from a number of countries including Australia, the U.S., U.K. and Canada.

The paper was published in BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation.

The research found military recruits were at higher risk of than those of other tactical operations, such as law enforcement, and were prevalent across all countries that undertook military recruitments. The findings also show the injuries sustained by the recruits could have life-long implications to the function and quality of life of those injured.

"What we found is that recruit injuries accounted for a substantial amount of time-loss from basic training which can result in medical discharge from the services," Dr. Murphy said.

"This can then result in less recruits graduating from which in turn would impact the number of qualified servicemen and women available to serve in the forces."

The research reported that injuries sustained by the military recruits impose a on military organizations and compensation systems, with previous research showing that over a seven-year period, the United States air-force had spent more than US$43.7 million in recruit injuries sustained during basic training.

"The scale and magnitude of the financial and health burden globally is compounded when considering other countries and military recruits from other sections of the armed forces," Dr. Murphy explained.

The duration of the recruit training was identified as being associated with the recruit injury incidence rate, with Dr. Murphy saying the results demonstrated that longer recruit training programs appeared to be associated with a lower injury incidence rate.

"This appears reasonable when considering longer programs will be better able to spread physical training over the duration of the training program, as opposed to needing all physical activity to be completed in a short window. A longer training program and reducing large increases in training volume may be protective and, recruits may be less likely to become acutely overloaded and suffer an injury.

"However, these results must be interpreted with caution, given many other factors contribute to the injury incident rate that were unable to control for within our analysis."

Dr. Murphy also confirmed previous research findings, that female recruits were a higher risk of injury. While more male recruits were injured than females overall, a higher proportion of females sustained injuries when accounting for the number of females included in the studies.

"Additionally, other international research has also established that a high body mass index (BMI) was a predictor for injury in general military populations, along with lower entry fitness standards," he said.

Dr. Murphy said that the study results provided insights into training protocols that could potentially provide less injuries, and that the study could be used to inform decisions on changes to existing military training programs.

Dr. Murphy has recommended that all militaries should consider recording injuries in a standardized way that allow for clear comparisons between countries. Further, introducing evidence-based injury prevention programs may reduce injury incidence rates to protect recruits and retain servicemen and women in the forces.

More information: Myles C. Murphy et al, Epidemiology of musculoskeletal injury in military recruits: a systematic review and meta-analysis, BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation (2023). DOI: 10.1186/s13102-023-00755-8

Citation: Longer training programs less likely to cause injury to military recruits, study finds (2023, December 5) retrieved 5 January 2024 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2023-12-longer-injury-military.html

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Mon, 04 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://medicalxpress.com/news/2023-12-longer-injury-military.html
How many military families need help putting food on the table in Georgia? No result found, try new keyword!The UGA study reported ... within the military community extremely seriously and is executing a holistic strategy of policies, programs, and other initiatives to help support, care for, and ... Mon, 27 Nov 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ Advocates Call for Overhaul of Program to Help Military Personnel Move into Civilian Jobs

For decades, service members have trudged into offices for presentations on potential careers after they separate from the military as part of the Transition Assistance Program, or TAP. It's a rite of passage that was meant to help combat what have been stubbornly high unemployment rates for veterans.

But many veterans and their advocates are frustrated with the program, viewing it as insufficient to help transitioning troops and inadequately supported by commanders who often see it as a box-checking exercise and fail to allocate enough time for departing service members to learn much. Among their top complaints: TAP provides too much information in too little time and often pushes troops to pursue outside resources.

"It's the job of the military to help you support the military. It's not to get you out and put you into a civilian career and help you figure out who you want to be when you take that uniform off," said Mike Greenwood, an Army veteran who now runs veterans services at the COMMIT Foundation. "Their commitment to you ends when you walk out the door."

Read Next: Coast Guardsman to Receive Distinguished Flying Cross for Daring Vessel Boarding and Rescue

Greenwood sat through TAP classes himself in late 2006 and early 2007 but felt that instructors were pushing him toward trade jobs when he wanted to be a banker.

Given the stark differences between military and civilian life and workforces, TAP is supposed to provide necessary resources for service members -- many of whom signed up in their teens and may have never needed to look for a full-time job or career -- as they navigate leaving the military.

Recent studies have indicated that a higher percentage of the 250,000 active service members who transition out of the military each year are now struggling than in previous decades.

A 2022 study from the National Library of Medicine found that more than 60% of veterans in the post-9/11 era have reported difficulty in moving on to civilian life, whereas veterans of earlier eras were at roughly 25%.

Most troops do not start TAP at least a year prior to their departure, even though it is required by law as a means of making sure enough time is dedicated to planning for transition.

A 2023 report by the Government Accountability Office found that, among those who left the military from early April 2021 through late March 2023, more than 70% did not start TAP on time, and more than one-third began TAP less than six months before leaving -- offering little time to take advantage of the program.

Army veteran Princess Gibbs, who served from 2003 up until June this year, began TAP in late summer 2022. She had to start TAP about a month later than she originally planned due to existing responsibilities within her unit.

When Gibbs was finally able to start the program, she found the information provided to be both "beneficial" and overwhelming.

"By the time your unit gives you that space and opportunity, it's just so much all at one time," Gibbs said. "For some people, it just becomes a check on the box."

Today, Gibbs owns and operates "Better You, Better Us," an online life-coaching business she founded in 2020. She wanted to start the company a few years prior to departing the military due to "transitional problems" she had heard about.

TAP, which was started in 1991, offers mandatory courses for transitioning service members that include "standardized learning objectives," according to the Defense Department website. However, for each person leaving the military, the program typically does not follow a specific schedule.

TAP has expanded since its inception, with the program providing pre-separation counseling for service members starting in 2011. The veteran unemployment rate today is 2.7%, a nearly 5 percentage point decrease since the 2011 TAP overhaul, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, though the overall national unemployment rate has also dipped substantially in that period as well.

But Greenwood said information offered during TAP courses and counseling can still be overwhelming for service members.

"Starting TAP in the last year is really just taking a Thanksgiving dinner plate, throwing everything on the plate and not even knowing if you like everything," he said.

According to a statement from the Defense Human Resources Activity to Military.com, the Defense Department is working to Excellerate the timeliness of initial transition counseling. The DoD is one of several government organizations -- including the Departments of Labor, Homeland Security, Education and Veterans Affairs, among other agencies -- that work to provide TAP.

The statement said that the Defense Department and other agencies involved with TAP have "developed Corrective Action Plans" to increase transitioning counsel guidance. Additionally, the TAP Interagency Executive Council has started multiple reviews to identify best practices and areas in need of support for the program.

Similar to Greenwood, Army veteran Jacob Pachter -- who served from 2017 through 2022 -- also wanted to enter a non-vocational field following his service: consulting. But Pachter said he found TAP courses to be "largely unhelpful" and pursued resources outside of the program instead.

Through the Army's Career Skills Program -- an offshoot of the Defense Department's SkillBridge program -- Pachter was hired as an intern at the consulting firm Deloitte, where he works full time today.

Pachter called CSP the "single best program" for his military transition but added he was able to find it only through personal research.

"I don't think the average soldier would probably be aware of a lot of these programs or know how to interact with them," he said.

Better advertising and expanding programs like DoD SkillBridge could help transitioning service members gain experience in fields they are interested in pursuing post-military careers in, Pachter added.

However, the GAO's report noted that service members who start TAP later are typically unable to take advantage of the DoD SkillBridge Program, whose opportunities take place during the final six months of a service member's time in the military.

Employment rates also vary for recently transitioned service members, depending on when they completed their transition programs.

A Department of Labor study citing data from 2014 to 2021 determined that service members who completed TAP or its predecessor program at least six months before leaving the military were more likely to be employed after departing than those who completed it closer to their departure date.

New legislation sponsored by Republicans and Democrats in the House and Senate is trying to address some of the problems cited by veterans -- but with a stalled Congress and ongoing funding battle between both parties, it seems unlikely it will be passed any time soon.

The TAP Promotion Act, which has different versions in the House and Senate, would allow accredited representatives from veterans service organizations, or VSOs, to participate in TAP classes and help transitioning service members file Benefits Delivery at Discharge claims, which includes disability compensation benefits.

While both versions of the legislation are almost identical in content, the House bill prioritizes the ability of chartered VSOs to interact with service members, whereas the Senate version gives equal priority to all accredited VSOs, including those at the state and county levels.

"The whole idea is to make the transition from active-duty status to veteran status as smooth and seamless as possible and as advantageous for the soon-to-be veteran," Sen. Angus King (I-Maine) said in an interview with Military.com about the TAP Promotion Act. King is one of four senators -- including Republicans and Democrats -- who introduced the bill in September.

Sponsors of the Senate version of the TAP Promotion Act aim to have the bill go through the committee process early next year prior to a vote on the floor, a veterans policy staffer familiar with the legislation said.

King added, however, that while he hopes the legislation can pass on its own, it may need to be attached to a "larger vehicle" like the National Defense Authorization Act for 2025.

Greenwood believes that TAP should further collaborate with vetted nonprofit VSOs like the COMMIT Foundation where he works to fill gaps it is unable to meet for service members between 12 to 24 months before their departures. But he also said the legislation could represent a potential "great change."

"The goal is to take care of [service members]. The goal is not just to be there," he said of VSOs. "The act of saying, 'Hey, we're allowing people in.' That's huge."

-- Pavan Acharya is an undergraduate student at Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism covering national security in Washington. Pavan has interned at Midstory, a Midwestern-based media hub, and was a managing editor at The Daily Northwestern.

Related: Troops Must Start Planning for Transition Out of Service Sooner to Be Successful, Advocates Testify

Story Continues
Wed, 13 Dec 2023 04:29:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.military.com/daily-news/2023/12/13/advocates-call-overhaul-of-program-help-military-personnel-move-civilian-jobs.html
Commission calls on VA to help reservists harmed by toxic chemicals at Gagetown

A state commission is calling on the federal government to help members of the National Guard exposed to toxic chemicals while training at a military support base in Gagetown, New Brunswick.

The 10-member Gagetown Harmful Chemical Study Commission, recently charged with submitting a report to the Maine Legislature regarding the effects of these chemicals on reservists, completed a four-recommendation draft report in December.

The work of the commission, established under a exact law sponsored by Maine Senate President Troy Jackson, D-Allagash, addresses the claims of hundreds of guardsmen and women over the years who said they suffered illness and death from repeated exposure to chemicals like Agent Orange at the Canadian base.

Since 1971, the U.S. Army National Guard has been conducting combat training on 83-acres at Gagetown. But because the United States military tested tactical herbicides including Agent Orange and Agent Purple at Gagetown in the late 1960’s, it was particularly dangerous for the women and men training, camping and sleeping on that land, according to scientists.

The U.S. Army continues to train at Gagetown, according to the US Department of Defense.

The first meeting of The Gagetown Harmful Chemical Study Commission met for the first time on Nov. 15, 2023, in Augusta. From left: Diane Ghering, wife of commission member Jim Ghering; Elaine Donovan, wife of commission member David Donovan; Jan McColm of Halifax; Dana Michaud of Presque Isle; Rep. Mark Babin, R-Fort Fairfield; President Jackson; Rep. Ron Russell, D-Verona Island; Don Page of Fort Fairfield; David Donovan of Fort Fairfield; and Jim Gehring of Bridgewater. Credit: Sen. Troy Jackson's office

During the Dec. 14 meeting, commissioners agreed that the final report include information they received from scientists about the enduring toxicity of dioxins sprayed on the grounds where reservists train.

In the draft report, the Commission made four recommendations including:

  • The United States Department of Veterans Affairs provide access to medical care and assistance for members of the National Guard who trained at 5th Canadian Division Support Base Gagetown and have been diagnosed with a condition or illness associated with exposure to tactical herbicides or exposure to other dioxins;
  • The Veterans and Legal Affairs committee should invite experts to review and discuss the existing reports and underlying data to evaluate the reports‚Äô processes, methods, data and analysis and to determine what steps and resources would be required to either reanalyze the existing data or to conduct new studies.
  • The Maine Department of Veterans Affairs and Emergency Management, Bureau of Veterans‚Äô Services should reestablish and expand the registry of individuals who served or serve in the Maine National Guard and who have trained at the Gagetown base.
  • The Legislature should reestablish the Gagetown Harmful Chemical Study Commission, providing more time for commissioners to review materials and ¬†speak with experts so they can develop more concrete recommendations.

Agent Orange is a blend of herbicides the United States military sprayed during the Vietnam War to remove dense tropical foliage where enemies hid. It contains a combination of harmful chemicals including tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, the most toxic of the dioxins identified as a human carcinogen by the Environmental Protection Agency, according to the commission draft report.  

Several commission members detailed their own serious illnesses and unexplained deaths of fellow reservists after time spent at Gagetown and they spoke of witnessing large dead animals, dead foliage and yellow-colored water while training at Gagetown.

Some said the effects are still showing up today and others, family members of reservists, talked about a loved one’s premature death because of exposure to the chemicals.

Maine reservists have been trying to file medical and disability claims for illnesses like cancer from exposure to toxic defoliants while training at the Canadian base. But these attempts have been unsuccessful, according to commission member Jim Gehring of Bridgewater.

‚ÄúThere never was an avenue for the guard in Maine to file a claim,‚ÄĚ Gehring said during the commission‚Äôs first meeting.

‚ÄúWe were told ‚Äėjust don‚Äôt bother, you will be denied,‚Äô‚ÄĚ he said.

Chaired by Jackson and Rep. Ron Russell, D-Verona Island, the commission includes veterans who served at Gagetown, representatives of veterans advocacy organizations and family members of reservists who served and have since died.

During the Commission’s Nov. 30 meeting, biochemical engineer Meg Sears, who chairs Prevent Cancer Now, a Canadian non-profit focused on eliminating preventable contributors to cancer, said that earlier fact-finding studies on the toxicity of the ground and waters at Gagetown were scientifically faulty and manipulative.

In particular, Sears was referring to the Canadian Forces Base Gagetown Herbicide Spray Program 1952-2004 Fact-Finders’ Report, 32.

Sears told the commission that dioxins accumulate in fatty tissue but when scientists conducted the study, they removed the fat layer from fish samples before being tested for dioxin levels, resulting in inaccurate results.

During the Dec. 14 meeting, Commissioners asked that more of Sears’ information be included in the final report, including that the effects of dioxin can remain in the environment for 100 years.

The draft report will be finalized this month, taking into account the commission’s additional recommendations from the December meeting. The final report will be presented to the Joint Standing Committee on Veterans and Legal Affairs, according to Rachel Olson, an analyst in the Legislature’s Office of Policy and Legal Analysis.

Thu, 04 Jan 2024 08:31:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.bangordailynews.com/2024/01/04/uncategorized/maine-commission-va-help-reservists-toxic-gagetown-joam40zk0w/
Study: Thousands of wells near military bases tainted with PFAS

Water tests show nearly 3,000 private wells located near 63 active and former U.S. military bases are contaminated with "forever chemicals" at levels higher than what federal regulators consider safe for drinking.

According to the Environmental Working Group, a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit that analyzed Department of Defense testing data, 2,805 wells spread across 29 states were contaminated with at least one of two types of perand polyfluoroalkyl substances, or PFAS, above 4 parts per trillion, a limit proposed earlier this year by the Environmental Protection Agency. That new drinking water standard is expected to take effect by the end of the year.

But contamination in those wells was lower than the 70 parts per trillion threshold the Pentagon uses to trigger remediation.

EWG researchers said they did not know how many people rely on the wells for drinking, cooking, and bathing, but the 76 tested locations represent just a fraction of the private wells near 714 current or former military sites spread across the U.S. According to EWG, Texas had nearly a third of the contaminated wells, with 909. Researchers recorded clusters of tainted wells in both urban and rural areas, from Riverside County and Sacramento in California to Rapid City, South Dakota, and Helena, Montana.

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"They are going to have to test more bases," said Jared Hayes, a senior policy analyst with EWG, in an interview with KFF Health News. "Those 2,805 are going to be a small number when they start testing drinking water wells near every single base."

Defense Department officials are investigating hundreds of current and former domestic U.S. military installations and communities that surround them to determine whether their soil, groundwater, or drinking water is contaminated with PFAS chemicals.

The Defense Department is a major contributor of PFAS pollution nationwide ‚ÄĒ the result of spills, dumping, or use of industrial solvents, firefighting foam, and other substances that contain what have been dubbed forever chemicals because they do not break down in the environment and can accumulate in the human body.

Exposure to PFAS has been associated with health problems such as decreased response to vaccines, some types of cancer, low birth weight, and high blood pressure during pregnancy, according to a report published last year by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

A study published this year linked testicular cancer in military personnel to exposure to PFOS, the main type of PFAS chemical used in firefighting foam.

In July, a U.S. Geological Survey study estimated that at least 45% of U.S. tap water contains at least one type of PFAS chemical.

USGS researchers tested 716 locations nationwide and found the forever chemicals more frequently in samples that were collected near urban areas and potential sources of PFAS like military installations, airports, industrial sites, and wastewater treatment plants, according to Kelly Smalling, a USGS research chemist and lead author of the study.

"We knew we would find PFAS in tap water," she told KFF Health News in July. "But what was really interesting was the similarities between the private wells and the public supply."

Drinking water sources near military installations that test above 70 parts per trillion draw immediate action from the Defense Department. Those responses include providing alternate drinking water sources, treatment, or water filtration systems.

Below that threshold, federal officials leave it up to homeowners to weigh and mitigate the health risks of contamination, Hayes said.

"It's unclear what, if anything, these private individuals are being advised," Hayes said. "If DoD is saying that 70 parts per trillion is the level they are going to provide clean water … the understanding would be if it's below that, it must be fine."

The Pentagon bases its 70 parts per trillion standard for PFOS and PFOA chemicals on a 2016 health advisory issued by the EPA. Officials have said they're waiting for the new federal standard to go into effect before changing Defense Department parameters.

While EWG's examination found that thousands of wells contained PFAS at levels above the new EPA standard, but below the military's 70 ppt threshold for action, it also learned that the Defense Department had found 1,800 private wells that registered higher than 70 ppt and had provided mitigation services to the owners of those wells.

Hayes said the combined levels of PFOS and PFOA in some wells were as high as 10,000 ppt.

Hayes said it's unclear how long people near those military sites have been drinking contaminated water. "Chances are it's been years, decades," he said.

Federal law requires public water systems to be monitored regularly for pollutants, but private wells have no similar requirements. Hayes recommended that people who live near any current or former military installations and use a well for their drinking water have their water tested and use a filter designed specifically to remove PFAS.

According to the Defense Department's PFAS remediation website, as part of its ongoing investigation and remediation effort, it has closed contaminated wells, installed new water sources, and treated drinking water on military bases.

Thu, 07 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://journalnow.com/study-thousands-of-wells-near-military-bases-tainted-with-pfas/article_5678b425-177d-5a1e-8573-f47b0912ef01.html
Military Men, Schools Asked to Help Fight Sex Trafficking

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'Forever chemicals' in thousands of private wells near military sites, study finds

Water tests show nearly 3,000 private wells located near 63 active and former U.S. military bases are contaminated with "forever chemicals" at levels higher than what federal regulators consider safe for drinking.

According to the Environmental Working Group, a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit that analyzed Department of Defense testing data, 2,805 wells spread across 29 states were contaminated with at least one of two types of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, or PFAS, above 4 parts per trillion, a limit proposed earlier this year by the Environmental Protection Agency. That new water standard is expected to take effect by the end of the year.

But contamination in those wells was lower than the 70 parts per trillion threshold the Pentagon uses to trigger remediation.

EWG researchers said they did not know how many people rely on the wells for drinking, cooking, and bathing, but the 76 tested locations represent just a fraction of the private wells near 714 current or former military sites spread across the U.S. According to EWG, Texas had nearly a third of the contaminated wells, with 909. Researchers recorded clusters of tainted wells in both urban and rural areas, from Riverside County and Sacramento in California to Rapid City, South Dakota, and Helena, Montana.

"They are going to have to test more bases," said Jared Hayes, a senior policy analyst with EWG, in an interview with KFF Health News. "Those 2,805 are going to be a small number when they start testing drinking near every single base."

Defense Department officials are investigating hundreds of current and former domestic U.S. military installations and communities that surround them to determine whether their soil, groundwater, or drinking water is contaminated with PFAS chemicals.

The Defense Department is a major contributor of PFAS pollution nationwide‚ÄĒthe result of spills, dumping, or use of industrial solvents, firefighting foam, and other substances that contain what have been dubbed forever chemicals because they do not break down in the environment and can accumulate in the human body.

Exposure to PFAS has been associated with such as decreased response to vaccines, some types of cancer, , and during pregnancy, according to a report published last year by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

A study published this year linked testicular cancer in to exposure to PFOS, the main type of PFAS chemical used in firefighting foam.

In July, a U.S. Geological Survey study estimated that at least 45% of U.S. tap water contains at least one type of PFAS chemical.

USGS researchers tested 716 locations nationwide and found the forever chemicals more frequently in samples that were collected near urban areas and potential sources of PFAS like military installations, airports, industrial sites, and , according to Kelly Smalling, a USGS research chemist and lead author of the study.

"We knew we would find PFAS in tap water," she told KFF Health News in July. "But what was really interesting was the similarities between the private wells and the public supply."

Drinking water sources near military installations that test above 70 parts per trillion draw immediate action from the Defense Department. Those responses include providing alternate drinking water sources, treatment, or water filtration systems.

Below that threshold, leave it up to homeowners to weigh and mitigate the health risks of contamination, Hayes said.

"It's unclear what, if anything, these private individuals are being advised," Hayes said. "If DoD is saying that 70 parts per trillion is the level they are going to provide clean water … the understanding would be if it's below that, it must be fine."

The Pentagon bases its 70 parts per trillion standard for PFOS and PFOA chemicals on a 2016 health advisory issued by the EPA. Officials have said they're waiting for the new federal standard to go into effect before changing Defense Department parameters.

The Department of Defense did not respond by publication deadline to questions about EWG's findings, or how it will address the new EPA limits.

While EWG's examination found that thousands of wells contained PFAS at levels above the new EPA standard, but below the military's 70 ppt threshold for action, it also learned that the Defense Department had found 1,800 private wells that registered higher than 70 ppt and had provided mitigation services to the owners of those wells.

Hayes said the combined levels of PFOS and PFOA in some wells were as high as 10,000 ppt.

Hayes said it's unclear how long people near those military sites have been drinking contaminated water. "Chances are it's been years, decades," he said.

Federal law requires public water systems to be monitored regularly for pollutants, but private wells have no similar requirements. Hayes recommended that people who live near any current or former military installations and use a well for their drinking water have their water tested and use a filter designed specifically to remove PFAS.

According to the Defense Department's PFAS remediation website, as part of its ongoing investigation and remediation effort, it has closed contaminated wells, installed new water sources, and treated drinking water on . According to the Pentagon, it is working "to ensure no one on-base is exposed to PFOS or PFOA in drinking above 70ppt."

"Addressing DoD's PFAS releases is at the core of the Department's commitment to protect the and safety of its Service members, their families, the DoD civilian workforce, and the communities in which DoD serves," Pentagon officials said on the site.

2023 KFF Health News. Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC.

Citation: 'Forever chemicals' in thousands of private wells near military sites, study finds (2023, December 5) retrieved 5 January 2024 from https://phys.org/news/2023-12-chemicals-thousands-private-wells-military.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Mon, 04 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://phys.org/news/2023-12-chemicals-thousands-private-wells-military.html




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