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AICP American Institute of Certified Planners history |

AICP history - American Institute of Certified Planners Updated: 2023

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Exam Code: AICP American Institute of Certified Planners history November 2023 by team

AICP American Institute of Certified Planners

Exam Detail:
The AICP (American Institute of Certified Planners) test is designed to assess the knowledge and skills of professional planners in the United States. Here are the test details for the AICP exam:

- Number of Questions: The test typically consists of 170 multiple-choice questions.

- Time Limit: The time allocated to complete the test is 4 hours.

Course Outline:
The AICP certification is based on a comprehensive body of knowledge that covers various aspects of planning practice. The course outline generally includes the following areas:

1. Planning Theory and Principles:
- History and theory of planning.
- Ethical principles and professional responsibility.
- Comprehensive planning principles.

2. Plan Making and Implementation:
- Plan development and adoption processes.
- Land use regulations and zoning.
- Environmental planning and sustainability.

3. Functional Areas of Planning:
- Transportation planning and infrastructure.
- Economic development and revitalization.
- Housing and community development.

4. Legal and Regulatory Framework:
- Constitutional and legal basis for planning.
- Administrative law and regulatory processes.
- Property rights and takings.

5. Planning Methods and Techniques:
- Data collection and analysis.
- Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial analysis.
- Demographic and economic forecasting.

6. Plan Implementation and Evaluation:
- Implementation strategies and tools.
- Monitoring and evaluation of planning outcomes.
- Public participation and engagement.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the AICP test are as follows:

- Assessing candidates' understanding of planning theory, principles, and ethical practices.
- Evaluating candidates' knowledge of plan development, implementation, and regulatory frameworks.
- Testing candidates' proficiency in various functional areas of planning, such as transportation, economic development, and housing.
- Assessing candidates' familiarity with planning methods, techniques, and data analysis.
- Evaluating candidates' understanding of plan implementation, evaluation, and public participation.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific test syllabus for the AICP test covers a wide range of syllabus related to planning practice. The syllabus includes:

1. Planning Theory and Principles:
- History and theory of planning.
- Professional ethics and responsibility.
- Comprehensive planning principles.

2. Plan Making and Implementation:
- Plan development and adoption processes.
- Land use regulations and zoning.
- Environmental planning and sustainability.

3. Functional Areas of Planning:
- Transportation planning and infrastructure.
- Economic development and revitalization.
- Housing and community development.

4. Legal and Regulatory Framework:
- Constitutional and legal basis for planning.
- Administrative law and regulatory processes.
- Property rights and takings.

5. Planning Methods and Techniques:
- Data collection and analysis.
- Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial analysis.
- Demographic and economic forecasting.

6. Plan Implementation and Evaluation:
- Implementation strategies and tools.
- Monitoring and evaluation of planning outcomes.
- Public participation and engagement.
American Institute of Certified Planners
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American Institute of Certified Planners
Question: 36
Echo Boomers (aka: Generation Y) are those born between the years of?
A . 1977-2000
B . 1965-1976
C . 1940-1945
D . 1946-1964
Answer: A
Question: 37
How many square feet are in one acre?
A . 40,000
B . 43,560
C . 4,3560
D . 435,60
Answer: B
Question: 38
What is the median of the following: 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 6?
A . 3
B . 4
C . 5
D . 4.5
Answer: B
Question: 39
What is the largest tribal land holding in acres? (note for all others that are not the answer they are the answer to other
questions that you should know).
A. 40 Million
B. 52 Million
C. 191 Million
D. 16 Million
Answer: D
A. total tribal acres in Alaska
B. 275 reservations account for this acreage in US
C. acres of national forest land in US
D. Navajo in Utah, Arizona and New Mexico
Question: 40
Which of the following cities was the first garden city in the United States?
A . Reston, VA
B . Columbia, MD
C . Levittown, NY
D . Radburn, NJ
Answer: D
Question: 41
In what year did the Bay Area Rapid Transit System (BART) begin?
A. 1965
B. 1972
C. 1974
D. 1978
Answer: B
A. Housing and Urban Development created
B. CDBG program began
Question: 42
Who was the father of regional planning?
A . Edward Bassett
B . Daniel Burnham
C . Ian McHarg
D . Patrick Geddes
Answer: D
Question: 43
You are a planner in a city that has recently opened a new shelter for homeless people. The shelter opens each evening
during the winter and provides a place for people to sleep during the night in dormitory-style rooms with cots. Some
community members would like the shelter closed because they feel that the large number of people who congregate on
the sidewalks near the shelter as they wait for it to open pose a threat to public safety. Your planning director decides
to address these concerns by classifying the shelter as a hotel. The planning director knows that the zoning ordinance
specifies that a hotel must provide private sleeping quarters, which the shelter does not. By classifying the shelter as a
hotel, the planning director is taking steps to close the shelter based on the ground that it is in violation of the zoning
ordinance. Suppose you have reviewed the situation carefully and believe that the director made an unethical decision.
What might you do?
Answer: If the director is a member of the AICP, then you might discuss the situation with the AICP Ethics Officer
(Procedures 2 and 3) You may decide to file a charge of unethical conduct with the AICP ethics Officer (Procedure 5).
Beware that this course of action will probably result in a tense work environment and should only be followed after
careful consideration.
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APA Institute history - BingNews Search results APA Institute history - BingNews American Institute of the History of Pharmacy
American Institute of the History of Pharmacy Publisher Description

The American Institute of the History of Pharmacy is a non-profit national organization devoted to advancing knowledge and understanding of the place of pharmacy in history.  The documentation and preservation of pharmacy’s heritage is the primary aim of the Institute.  We do this by making available a wide variety of materials related to scholarly, professional, and popular history of pharmacy.  The Institute sponsors symposia and workshops, often collaborating with sister societies, to foster research and publishing on history, ethics, policy, and other issues of importance to the humanistic understanding of the pharmaceutical field.  Lastly, the AIHP serves as a research center maintaining the Kremers Pharmacy Archives at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and collaborating with nearby historical agencies such as the Wisconsin Historical Society.

Sat, 02 Jan 2016 17:13:00 -0600 en text/html
All Health Care Professionals Have a Role to Play in Combating the Opioid Epidemic | Opinion No result found, try new keyword!It's important that the public be aware of the risks of opioid use, be aware of its presence in our communities, become educated on how to help themselves or others who may have opioid use disorder, ... Sun, 05 Nov 2023 22:00:01 -0600 en-us text/html Our History No result found, try new keyword!A lot of history has been made in the first 120 years, and the Association continues to evolve in exciting ways. In that celebratory spirit, we are revisiting USGA milestones in a four-part series ... Thu, 02 Apr 2015 10:18:00 -0500 National Institute of American History & Democracy
Summer 2022 Pre-College Students in History 217 at Historic Jamestowne
Summer 2022 Pre-College Students in History 217 visit Historic Jamestowne

The National Institute of American History & Democracy (NIAHD) is a partnership between William & Mary and the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Since 2002, NIAHD has taught interdisciplinary classes for high school, college, and graduate students who want to learn about American History, Material Culture, and Public History.

Program for High School Students:
  • Join the Pre-College Program in American History and see, do, hear, discover, and make history with high school students from across the country and around the world! Pre-College students learn about history where it happened, dig at an archaeological site, gain college-level reading and writing skills, earn college credit, and experience college life in a William & Mary dorm during the 3 week program! Pre-College students earn college credit from William & Mary which they can transfer to other colleges and universities. Financial assistance is available.
Programs for College and Graduate Students: 
  • The Program in Material Culture & Public History is a seven-course certificate program that combines museum internships, material culture field schools, and course work in American history and public history. It is open to all William & Mary students.

  • Students from other Colleges & Universities can apply to join the Program in Material Culture & Public History for either one semester or an academic year on campus at William & Mary.

  • The Certificate in Public History is a program available to William & Mary graduate students. To earn a Certificate, participants take a graduate course in Public History and complete an internship in the field. 
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 12:30:00 -0500 en text/html
Palestine Genocide: Regressive Response from Major Mental Health Organizations

Image by Snowscat.

Howl, howl, howl!

Why should a dog, a horse, a rat have life,
And thou no breath at all? Thou ’lt come no more,
Never, never, never, never, never.—

King Lear on the death of his daughter. Shakespeare

Right now in Gaza at least 40% of the casualties are Palestinian children. Israel justifies killing future terrorists, even fetuses. How can this be?

I am a psychoanalyst/psychotherapist and am outraged that the organizations representing my field (psychiatrists, psychologists, psychoanalysts, psychotherapists, social workers) are either silent, blind or utterly unfeeling about this reality. Few people in my field sign statements protesting the genocide, siege, ceasefire. Protests from millions of ordinary people worldwide name this a genocide and demand a ceasefire and end of the siege. Statements come from thousands of individual physicians and health professionals, and organizations representing journalists, economists, labour unions, writers, artists, academics, and Jewish people. Here in Toronto I have protested Israel’s horrific assaults in 2006, 2009, 2012, 2014, 2018, 2023 and never have I seen so many Jewish people protesting, many wearing shirts that say “Stop the Genocide”.

Freud, Freudians, centralize the maturational capacity to differentiate fantasy from illusion. Freud’s letter to B’nai Brith 1929 in which he refused to sign a petition supporting the Jewish Agency in which 116 Palestinians and 133 Jews were killed in riots in Jerusalem:“It would have seemed more sensible to me to establish a Jewish homeland on a less historically burdened land. But I know that such a rational viewpoint would nave have gained the enthusiasm of the masses and the financial support of the wealthy. I concede with sorrow that the baseless fanaticism of our people is in part to be blamed for the awakening of Arab distrust. I can raise no sympathy at all for the misdirected piety which transforms a piece of a Herodian wall into a national relic, thereby offending the feelings of the natives.” Freud saw the fanaticism, understood Arab mistrust, and saw Palestinians as the native people (vs Golda Meir’s “a land without people”).

Anna Freud, one of the first child psychoanalysts, co-wrote in 1973 about the state’s disregard, collusion in the killing of children while prejudicially removing racialized and impoverished children from their homes for purported reasons of neglect. [1]

Fact – killing of children::

2023 November 15 – UN 4,506 Gazan children killed (+incubator deaths, children buried under rubble). No Israeli figures on Israeli children killed.

2021 Israeli war – 67 Gazan children killed and 2 Israeli children.

2014 Israeli war – 582 Gazan children killed and 1 Israeli child.

2009 Israeli war – 345 Palestinian children, 0 Israeli.

2006 Israeli war – high accuracy missiles killed 56 Gazan children, 0 Israeli.

At previous vigils and protests, I’ve seen counter protests by members of the Kahanist Jewish Defense League, often making obscene gestures, looking like Hells’ Angels. At a Toronto vigil after a Palestinian doctor’s three daughters were killed in 2009 Operation Cast Lead, a group of cheerleading chanting and dancing Jewish youth held a counter demonstration. Our terrorist nation states: Biden has taken the Kahanist organization off the U.S. terrorism list, and Israel classifies Defense for Children International a terrorist organization.

Current context: as of November 14th, Israel has identified 839 people killed on October 7th (original figures 1400). As of November 10, OCHA (UN) fatalities in Gaza stood at 11,078, of whom 4,506 were said to be children and 3,027 women. About 2,700 others, including some 1,500 children, have been reported missing and may be trapped or dead under the rubble, awaiting rescue or recovery.

204 healthcare workers have been killed in Israeli airstrikes and bombings. In addition, many more healthcare workers are injured or remain under the rubble. At least 101 UNRWA workers have been killed, which exceeds the losses in any comparable period in the history of the organization. Israel is conducting a bombing campaign that targets hospitals and other health facilities in Palestine. At least 20 of the 35 hospitals in Gaza along with 120 clinics are now completely non-functional as a result of these indiscriminate aerial bombardments compounded by the long-standing blockade of medical supplies, water, electricity, and fuel. This is a violation  of the 4th Geneva Convention, and constitutes illegal collective punishment in Gaza.

Al-Shifa and Al-Quds, have closed as Gaza’s health system collapses under relentless Israeli bombardment and blockades. At least six premature babies and nine other patients have died at Al-Shifa due to shortages of electricity. Photos show premature babies removed from their incubators and placed together on a bed for warmth as the last remaining hospital workers are forced to resort to desperate measures. Medical staff say Israeli forces have entered hospitals and fired at patients and forced hundreds of others onto the streets. Doctors and officials with the Palestinian Ministry of Health pleaded with international actors to allow for the safe evacuation and treatment of patients. Nov 15 IDF has killed nearly 200 medical staff in Gaza. Today’s news: Thousands of people, including patients, are trapped inside Gaza’s largest hospital amid deadly Israeli siege with decomposed dead bodies buried in a mass grave on the hospital premises. The hospital also has 36 premature babies who were recently taken off their incubators because the station supplying them oxygen was destroyed in Israeli shelling.

Here are the unfounded allegations, amounting to illusions, from leading mental health organizations:

The International Psychoanalytic Association: “The IPA condemns the unprecedented massive attack on civilian territories and on hundreds of helpless people in Israel – launched by the terrorist group Hamas. At least 2000 have been wounded, more than 600 have been killed, and there is an untold number of hostages – men, women, and children – who were kidnapped from their homes and are still held by Hamas. This brutal attack on helpless persons is a reminder of the darkest moments in human history when splitting [into good and bad people] and projection [Hamas sees all Jewish people as evil] become so extreme that they lead to a complete demonization of civil populations as part of the “bad other”. It is the unrestrained release of the death instinct to cause harm to the innocent with no regard for moral standards or other psychological balancing forces.” When Freud in his late work speculated about a death instinct, he wrote that there is no “pure culture” of aggression. See [2] for references on Hamas.

From Israeli psychoanalytic organizations “asking for solidarity with our plight for the immediate release of the hostages (babies, toddles, children, adults, and holocaust survivors, aged 9 months to 89 years) held in Gaza by Hamas, and in expressing condemnation of the atrocities and crimes against humanity that Hamas unleashed on October 7th and continues to unleash, using innocent civilians as human shields. We hope that you will share it with North American Psychoanalytic Societies…We are sending this statement to all IPA societies. Youa re our psychoanalytic family, in times of our distress, this is where we turn to. We are also profoundly distressed and aware of the unprecedented wave of antisemitism that Hamas’s attack and Israel’s defense has unleashed in Europe and the USA. Signed on behalf of the Israel Psychoanalytic Society.”

The American Psychiatric Association condemns the accurate terrorist attacks in Israel. Innocent civilians should never have to endure the violence and chaos that happened last weekend. APA sends our support to all those affected in Israel and around the world. We mourn those who were lost and call for the immediate return of all hostages to their families. The scale of this terrorist act and the harm it is causing is unfathomable. Antisemitism and all forms of prejudice and hatred are unacceptable, and we stand with the Jewish people, now and as always. The brutalities of Hamas must end. It is our firm hope that one day we can see peace between the Israelis and Palestinians and an end to the violence in the Middle East. For those directly impacted and for those deeply impacted around the world, know that these horrifying events may affect your mental health.”

American Psychological Association: “In response to the violence, loss of life, and trauma caused by the ongoing conflict in Gaza and Israel, the APA expresses its deep concern for all the Israeli, Palestinian and other people impacted. The APA urges that aid to the most vulnerable in the region be top priority. Finally, while we support the first Amendment right to protest, we reject antisemitism and Islamophobia in all its forms. For those experiencing the mental health impact of this tragedy, please find resources here.” Note APA silence, condoning and complicity with torture, the smear campaign against Palestinian psychoanalyst Lara Sheehi.

Many responses are wholly incommensurate with the genocidal reality. Anna Freud Centre: “Specialist online support resources can have a role to play in helping adults support affected children and young people. The UK Trauma Council, with a project of Anna Freud, has developed free, evidence-based resources to support schools, colleges and practitioners working with traumatically bereaved children and young people and these can be accessed online. The UK Trauma Council is currently producing a dedicated portfolio of free resources to support adults working with children and young people directly affected by war and conflict. These will be released in the coming weeks.”

The hateful immorality: about ninety Israeli doctors told the Israeli army that it must bomb Gaza’s hospitals, stating that “the residents of Gaza” have “brought their annihilation upon themselves” for allowing hospitals to become “terrorist nests”. Israeli right-wing journalist Amit Segal shared a letter from 45 influential Israeli rabbis (initial list) to Israeli leaders explicitly affirming the right of the state to bomb the Al-Shifa’ hospital in Gaza – the main hospital in the strip.

Notable dissent: Noted psychoanalyst Hanna Segal helped found an NGO to protect Palestinians (Hamoked). She authored an article Silence is the Real Crime. Israeli psychoanalyst Ruchama Marton founded Physicians for Human Rights/Israel. US and UK Palestine Mental Health Network: The moral bankruptcy of Psychoanalysis. “Psychoanalytic concepts were instrumentalized to crank up the IPA’s demonization of Hamas, asserting that its operation represented. We ask whether the shallowness of this position, adhering closely to the stance taken by all Western governments to mobilize and justify Israel’s bloody response, violates moral and professional ethics? Israel’s President denied that there were any innocent people in Gaza; Defence Minister Yoav Gallan described the Palestinians as ‘human animals’. Such sentiments were repeated at all levels of society, as the pain and anger of the Jewish Israeli public was whipped up into a frenzy of vengeance, with many calls for the wholesale demolition of Gaza and destruction of its people.  …on behalf of the leading psychoanalytic and Jungian associations this letter described the Hamas operation as being ‘like a violent eruption of a volcano, the earth unleashed the most absolute explosion of evil’. Also see The Red Clinic PSYCHOANALYSIS IN SOLIDARITY WITH GAZA.

I want to insert here my experience with my psychoanalytic organization. In 2009 together with a Jewish physician and a Palestinian therapist, we wrote a health professional petition in response to Operation Cast Lead, when Canada was the only country on the UN Human Rights Council to vote against a ceasefire. We documented the horrific health effects of the siege, the destruction of infrastructure, the use of prohibited weapons including white phosphorus, Dense Inert Metal Explosives (DIME), Flechette shells, and the targeting of UNRWA schools. [3] I sent the statement to all the members of the Toronto Institute. A prominent member immediately wrote that the letter was “inflammatory” and not “ nuanced”, and there followed an outpouring of outrage about my inappropriate use of the membership list, that the list was for Society business only. The following email was from the president: “This email is about a party!” Not one member signed the statement, though several literally whispered to me their astonishment about the reaction.

I’ve again sent around a statement about the current situation, and several analysts have written to me about their shock about Israel. I realize that there are many reasons for a person to be silent, even in the face of knowing incontrovertible facts. I sharply disagree with generalizations about ‘human nature’, including Adorno’s authoritarian personality or Arendt’s extension of Eichman’s pathology to other genocidaires. People are different and group processes are obscure. There is much excellent research on historical and psychological complexity.

It is also highly disturbing that there is a great deal of knowledge from Freudian therapists, from the work of attachment and infant research, from careful historical studies of other extreme genocidal situations, that are not known or not used. I speculate that there is a hegemony of psychological assumptions about people: deterministic biological reductionism, quantifiable measures, or postmodern subjectivity. In contrast, Freudian psychology (not the separate schools such as Lacanian, relational) posits a maturational capacity to perceive reality, to have a constant sense of other people’s reality, a capacity for usable guilt and for ambivalence. Early on Freud described thinking in dreams and earliest childhood: not differentiating human and non-human (snakes, insect), not differentiating animate from inanimate (humans as elements), or not even perceiving anything (scorched earth killing is called mowing the lawn). Words are equivalent to things, or as having magical power to destroy (e.g. BDS), or are parsed to mean their opposite. Words and their meanings are conflated and combined: Palestine is conflated with ancient Philistines, as eternal enemies of Jews. There are applicable insights about guilt, such as when guilt about a lesser crime obfuscates a bigger crime: apartheid and settler colonialism does not include the greater crime of genocide.

For Palestinian children and their loved ones killed by the most moral army, the light onto nations, a culture that atones but one day/year.

“…The majesty and burning of the child’s death.

I shall not murder the mankind of her going with a grave truth

Nor blaspheme down the stations of the breath

With any further

Elegy of innocence and youth….

After the first death, there is no other. Dylan Thomas
The darkness drops again; but now I know   

That twenty centuries of stony sleep

Were vexed to nightmare by a rocking cradle,   

And what rough beast, its hour come round at last,   

Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?


Out of the cradle endlessly rocking,

Out of the mocking-bird’s throat, the musical shuttle,

Out of the Ninth-month midnight,

Over the sterile sands and the fields beyond, where the child leaving his bed wander’d alone, bareheaded, barefoot,

Down from the shower’d halo…

Death, death, death, death, death.

Walt Whitman

[1] Joseph Goldstein, Anna Freud, Albert J. Solnit, Beyond the Best Interests of the Child, the Free Press, New York, 1973.

[2] Henry Siegman Israel’s Lies, Sara Roy Hamas and Civil Society in Gaza, engaging the Islamist social sector, Princeton U. Press, Princeton, 2011. George Awad in Ramzy, N., Awad, G. A., Strenger, C. & Portuges, S. (2007) The Application of Psychoanalytic Thinking to Social Problems: Analytic Perspectives on the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies 4:286-294.

Also see references documenting Israel’s strategy of surreptitious provocation in , and questions raised by Jonathan Cook.

[3] There is much about Israel’s weapons. For example the youtube The Lab, Antony Loewenstein, The Palestine Laboratory: how Israel exports the technology of occupation around the world, Verso, London, 2023. Jeff Halper, War Against the People: Israel, the Palestinians and global pacification, Pluto Press, London, 2015. Eyal Weizman, Forensic Architecture: violence at the threshold of detectability, Zone Books, New York, 2018.

Thu, 16 Nov 2023 16:53:00 -0600 en-US text/html
History of the SETI Institute

The SETI Institute was incorporated as a 501(c)3 California Non-Profit Corporation on November 20, 1984. The inaugural officers of the Institute were CEO Thomas Pierson and SETI scientist Jill Tarter. The Institute began operations on February 1, 1985.

Prior to the inception of the SETI Institute, NASA was funding a small project in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. John Billingham, Chief of Life Sciences at NASA Ames Research Center and Bernard (Barney) Oliver, formerly of Hewlett-Packard invited Tom Pierson and others into discussions about maximizing the effectiveness of the funds, and ways of putting more money into the research and less into institutional overhead. These discussions led to the concept of a dedicated non-profit research organization focused on research and education around the factors of the Drake Equation. This vision was realized in the 1984 incorporation of the SETI Institute.

The newly-formed SETI Institute’s first Trustees were Frank Drake, Andrew Fraknoi, Roger Heyns, and William Welch. Over the years, such well-known figures as Carl Sagan, Lew Platt, and Nobel Prize winners Baruch Blumberg and Charles Townes have served on the Board of Trustees. Jill Tarter is currently a Trustee of the Institute.

The first grant-funded proposal at the Institute was for SETI research, led by Jill Tarter. Following shortly thereafter, the first astrobiology grant (then known as exobiology) was received, with Harold Klein as the Principal Investigator. Hundreds of research and education grants have been successfully managed at the SETI Institute since those first few awards.

Founder and CEO Tom Pierson helmed the SETI Institute from its inception until ill health overtook him in 2013. He passed away in 2014. Acting CEO Edna DeVore led the Institute until she was succeeded by President and CEO David Black in 2014, who served for a year.

Current President and CEO Bill Diamond took charge in June 2015. New directions for the SETI Institute have led to a restructuring of the operations of the Institute, folding the SETI research program into the larger science umbrella of the Carl Sagan Center. Nathalie Cabrol holds the position of Director of the Carl Sagan Center. Simon Steel is the Senior Director of Education and STEM Programs, while Pamela Harman and Rebecca McDonald are Director of Education and Director of Communications, respectively. Education and Public Outreach has always been an integral part of the Institute, including space science and astrobiology curricula for formal and informal education, the popular radio show/podcast Big Picture Science, the SETI Talks lecture series, public lectures by scientists, and popular science writing. Outreach to the general public via social media and other efforts has received new emphasis as the Institute looks forward to continuing its mission to explore the possibilities of life in the universe and share discoveries with the public

Mon, 04 Jun 2018 17:54:00 -0500 en text/html
APA Stock Sees Relative Strength Performance Rise; Still Shy Of Technical Benchmark No result found, try new keyword!APA stock is building a cup with handle with a 46.15 entry. See if the stock can break out in volume at least 40% higher than normal. It's a later-stage pattern, and investors should be aware that ... Wed, 01 Nov 2023 06:19:00 -0500 en-us text/html APA Corporation Common Stock (APA) No result found, try new keyword!*Data is provided by Data reflects weightings calculated at the beginning of each month. Data is subject to change. **Green highlights the top performing ETF by % change in the past ... Thu, 15 Nov 2012 07:02:00 -0600 Everything Mike Johnson has said about LGBTQ issues and why it matters

When Republicans were scrambling to replace the impeached Speaker of the House Kevin McCarthy after he was impeached on Oct. 3, the future of the vacant seat was up in the air.

McCarthy’s impeachment was triggered by internal divisions within the Republican Party, starting with opposition from ultraconservative GOP lawmakers dissatisfied with McCarthy’s leadership and culminating in a series of contentious events, including his handling of the debt ceiling negotiations and the appropriations process, leading to a historic vote that resulted in his removal from the position.

With the House Speaker’s seat empty, Republicans sought to quickly fill in the role. Enter Mike Johnson, a 51-year-old Republican Congressman from northern Louisiana who was elected to the House of Representatives in 2015.

In 2017, Johnson was elected to represent the fourth district of his state, and he is now on his fourth term in Congress. Throughout his roles in office, Johnson has been publicly vocal about his Christianity, and his denouncement of LGBTQ rights—even spearheading Stop the Sexualization of Children Act, the federal version of Florida’s “Don’t Say Gay” bill.

Johnson was ultimately elected as Speaker of the House on Oct. 25. Later that day, Kelley Robinson, president of the nation’s largest LGBTQ advocacy group Human Rights Campaign, released a statement that described Johnson as a speaker who would be “the most anti-equality” speaker in U.S. history.

“This is a choice that will be a stain on the record of everyone who voted for him,” she wrote.

Prior to joining Congress in 2017, Johnson has had a long-standing and vocal opposition to LGBTQ rights, spending years building his career and profile by denouncing queer, trans and nonbinary people.

Reckon broke it all down so you can see it for yourself. Here’s the rundown of where the new U.S. Speaker of the House stands regarding all things LGBTQ-related:

What happened and why it matters:

Johnson’s history as an attorney for the Alliance Defense Fund (ADF)—a conservative Christian legal group now known as Alliance Defending Freedom—highlights his past harsh usage of anti-LGBTQ language.

At ADF in 2003, he filed an amicus brief in the Supreme Court’s case Lawrence v. Texas, arguing to allow states to criminalize same-sex consensual sex. The brief claims that sex between men should be banned because of the risk of spreading STDs more than sex between men and women, therefore posing a “distinct public health problem.”

The next year, in an editorial at his local Shreveport magazine The Times, Johnson published a story on his opposition to gay marriage. He called homosexuality a “inherently unnatural” and “dangerous lifestyle” that he deemed would end up in the legalization of pedophilia and even potentially destroying the “entire democratic system.”

The following year, he published another piece at The Times, titled, “Sexual orientation move should be opposed,” where he wrote: “Your race, creed, and sex are what you are, while homosexuality and cross-dressing are things you do. This is a free country, but we don’t provide special protections for every person’s bizarre choices.”

Although Johnson’s contribution to Lawrence v. Texas case in 2003 failed, the final ruling to decriminalize same-gender sexualities echoes the sentiments we see today anyway, with legislative efforts of trying to criminalize trans people’s existence in public.

From bathroom usage restrictions, to barring sports participation, and even teachers’ requirement to disclose to families of trans students using chosen names and pronouns, experts say the trans youth of today are extremely vulnerable. Having Johnson as a Speaker at a time where trans rights are up in the air only jeopardizes what the future of this battle might hold, according to an Oct. 26 statement from GLAAD President and CEO Sarah Kate Ellis who described his nomination as “a blight in history.”

What happened and why it matters:

Johnson and ADF worked with Exodus International, a group that used religious and counseling methods to convert queer people to become straight. Exodus was also connected with ministries all over the world who were using these methods.

An archive of their website described their mission as: “Exodus has challenged those who respond to homosexuals with ignorance and fear, and those who uphold homosexuality as a valid orientation.”

Johnson, ADF and Exodus worked together in 2005 to establish the “Day of Truth,” which is a rebuttal of “Day of Silence,” a tradition in which students stay silent to bring awareness to the bullying LGBTQ students dealt with. The Day of Truth, however, sought to counter that silence by distributing information about what Johnson described as the “dangerous” gay lifestyle.

In a 2008 radio segment promoting the day, Johnson said, “Homosexual behavior is something you do, it’s not something that you are.”

As of today, 19 states and four U.S. territories have no protections against conversion therapy for minors—including Louisiana, according to the Movement Advancement Project. Affiliated with a Williams Institute study, 47% of LGBTQ youth (ages 13-17) live in states that ban conversion therapy for minors.

Even when Johnson established a “Day of Truth” in 2005, the American Psychiatric Association had already stopped treating homosexuality as a mental illness since 1973, while being trans does not merit a mental illness treatment since “gender identity disorder” was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) in 2013.

What happened and why it matters:

Mike Johnson’s wife Kelly Lary Johnson runs a counseling business where the agreement compares homosexuality to bestiality and incest. According to HuffPost, the couple has been long-time business collaborators with each other.

In the late 90s, the two went on national television as the face of Louisiana’s new marriage covenant law, which makes getting a divorce difficult—shaped by a religious belief that claims divorce to be sinful.

Kelly’s business, Onward Christian Counseling Services, offers pastoral counseling using the Bible—something House speaker Johnson himself has referenced as a source of his worldview. Although his wife has taken the website down, writer of South Park and MadTV Toby Morton had already screenshot the site and took it to Instagram.

The website’s operating agreement said: “The agreement states that Onward Christian Counseling Services is grounded in the belief that [...] puts being gay, bisexual or transgender in the same category as someone who has sex with animals or family members.” The agreement was notarized by Speaker Johnson, who signed it in 2017.

Critics of Johnson have found this paradoxical to his Christian values, especially after Johnson spoke out about how he and his son monitor each other’s porn consumption to hold each other “accountable.”

Sexual orientations, as defined by the American Psychological Association, refers to heterosexuality, homosexuality and bisexuality—not bestiality or incest. Prior to the 1973′s removal of homosexuality from the list of mental illnesses, same-gender sexualities was viewed par-to-par with other frowned-upon behaviors like bestiality, pedophilia and incest.

The danger in the Johnson couple’s counseling business is that it harkens back harmful, outdated and incorrect perceptions of queer people being comparable to nonconsenting animals.

What happened and why it matters:

On Oct. 26, during his press day after his election, Johnson sat down with Fox News to address concerns and comments about his anti-LGBTQ stances. In response, he said that his worldview is simply: “Go pick up a Bible off your shelf and read it.”

In his and his wife’s counseling business, they reference the Bible as their guide on viewing “any form of sexual immorality” as “sinful and offensive to God.”

His blatant opinions on the queer community in addition to his disinterest in LGBTQ rights comes in contrast with his demeanor, which many people have described as “polite.” However, it doesn’t change the extremity of his outdated and religious perspective on the community, and what harm that may cause.

There are millions of faithful Christians around the world who have come to recognize the work of God in and through the relationships of LGBTQ people, according to HRC. As New Testament scholar Daniel Kirk has pointed out, “God has already clearly embraced LGBTQ people into full communion, and it is now the church’s responsibility to simply honor that reality.”

Johnson’s usage of Christianity to validate his anti-LGBTQ viewpoints only further feeds into the idea that religion and gender and sexuality are mutually exclusive.

What happened and why it matters:

In March, Johnson co-sponsored a bill to bar young trans girls from competing in women’s and girls’ sports teams at federally funded schools to “protect children.” He eventually helped pass this bill.

This July, a House Judiciary subcommittee chaired by him held a hearing to “examine and expose” the alleged dangers of gender-affirming care for trans youth. In his opening statement, Johnson claimed that it is dangerous to coerce kids into transitioning and into believing they are transgender, ultimately “mutilated” by doctors.

“Something has gone terribly wrong, and deep down everybody in this country knows it,” Johnson said.

Despite the talking point that gender-affirming care equates to invasive surgical procedures and “mutilated” children’s bodies, toddlers can’t actually get gender-affirming surgeries.

Nationally-recognized medical guidelines recommend patients be at least 15 years old to receive the surgeries. Even then, it happens in rare circumstances. Johnson’s notion, like many other anti-trans right-wing opinions, spins the fact that gender-affirming care is to a person’s benefit, not detriment.

This year has seen an unprecedented wave of bills in legislation actively attempting to curtail LGBTQ rights with hundreds of bills introduced on the floor this year. According to Brian Levin, author of the 2023 Report to the Nation, a study by the CSUSB, there is a direct link between the negative rhetoric around queer, trans and nonbinary people along with the hate crimes that the community faces.

Guthrie Graves-Fitzsimmons, author of Just Faith: Reclaiming Progressive Christianity wrote for MSNBC’s Opinion column on Oct. 28 about Johnson’s weaponization of faith against queer people using the Bible. In his essay, he uses Johnson’s own terminologies that he used against the LGBTQ community to explain to him why Johnson’s views don’t align with the Christianity Graves-Fitzsimmons holds onto.

“It is destructive to the future of Christianity to make anti-LGBTQ views central to what it means to be a Christian,” he wrote. “Johnson’s crusade is physically dangerous to the lives of LGBTQ people, especially trans youth. His obsession with our sex lives is inherently unnatural, and his cruel ideology is deviant from the mainstream.”

Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg, who was the second ever openly gay presidential candidate, also spoke out against Johnson’s comments against the LGBTQ community.

“I will admit it’s a little bit difficult driving the family minivan to drop our kids off at daycare, passing the dome of the Capitol knowing that the speaker of the House sitting under that dome doesn’t even think our family ought to exist,” he told CNN on Nov. 3. “If being gay is a choice, that was a choice that was made way above my pay grade.”

From outdated homophobic tropes to the use of his religious faith in upholding anti-LGBTQ views, Johnson’s presence in a public and powerful role is bound to set back what many LGBTQ advocates have long fought for. Johnson’s views could very well contribute to a hostile environment for the LGBTQ community, and his position as Speaker of the House could have a detrimental impact on legislative efforts aimed at promoting equality and protection for LGBTQ individuals.

As Johnson settles into his newfound role, only time will tell what will be ahead of us.

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Tue, 14 Nov 2023 07:59:00 -0600 en text/html
Exploring the origin of nucleosynthetic isotope variations in Ryugu samples

The observed variations in chromium (Cr) isotope ratios in the Ryugu asteroid samples collected by Hayabusa2 likely resulted from elemental redistribution of slightly soluble Cr by water within the parent body, reveals a multinational study led by researchers from Tokyo Tech. The results provide useful insights for expanding our understanding of the origin and evolution of materials in our solar system.

Hayabusa2 space mission by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) returned home with samples of the asteroid Ryugu that orbits the Sun between Earth and Mars. Preliminary chemical analysis of Ryugu samples revealed that the asteroid is rich in volatile and organic-rich materials, which shows similarities to the class of meteorites known as Ivuna-type carbonaceous chondrites (CIs). Such asteroids have gained the attention of scientists due to their close chemical resemblance with elemental environments during the birth of the solar system.

Studies have shown that isotopic anomalies in chromium (54Cr/52Cr) and titanium ratios (50Ti/47Ti), often expressed as ε54Cr and ε50Ti, respectively, can help decipher the nucleosynthetic origins of chemical components in extraterrestrial materials. While the isotopic variability of other elements in bulk Ryugu samples is similar to that in CIs, anomalies in Cr isotopes are slightly different from those recorded in the literature. To unravel the origin of these deviations, an international team of scientists led by Professor Tetsuya Yokoyama from Tokyo Institute of Technology has recently investigated ε54Cr and ε50Ti in five different Ryugu samples. Their results have been published in Scientific Advances.

"Prior studies on the asteroid samples established that Ryugu and Ivuna-type carbonaceous chondrites were born in a common place; more distant part of the solar system than other meteorite parent bodies. However, the slight discrepancy in isotopic anomalies of Cr between Ryugu and CIs gave rise to the question whether the heterogeneity is due to the difference in the birth place, or did it arise from secondary processes that occurred after the accretion of their parent bodies," explains Prof. Yokoyama.

For precise analysis of the Cr and Ti anomalies, the team selected two Ryugu samples from the first touchdown and three from the second touchdown site. The samples were first digested in acids and subjected to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). The test results in samples weighing less than 24 milligrams indicated that the variation in ε50Ti is marginal and agrees with the data available on CIs. The same was not true for ε54Cr values, where the dispersions exceeded formerly reported values for CIs. However, when the trial was greater than 90 milligrams, isotopic similarity was found. This observation suggested that Cr isotopes are not uniformly distributed in the Ryugu parent body at the microscopic level, while Ryugu has a Cr isotopic composition similar to CIs at the macroscopic level, thus corroborating the idea that Ryugu and CIs share a common genetic heritage.

Further analysis of the samples indicated that the microscopic heterogeneity in Cr isotope distribution arose from the physicochemical fractionation of 54Cr-rich presolar nanoparticles and Cr-bearing secondary minerals. This phenomenon was attributed to the aqueous alteration within the asteroid. The water in the asteroid dissolved the mildly soluble Cr while 54Cr-rich presolar nanoparticles undissolved, circulated the 54Cr-depleted fluid within the body, resulting in the precipitation of secondary minerals depleted in 54Cr. This scenario was supported by the analysis of radiogenic isotope 53Cr carried out by the team, which revealed that the precipitation of secondary minerals occurred around 5.2 million years after the birth of the solar system.

Nucleosynthetic 54Cr anomalies in extraterrestrial materials are often connected to their nebular origins, but this study reveals that apparent 54Cr variabilities in asteroidal materials could also rise from parent body processes such as elemental redistribution by water.

"Unlike meteorites that plummet to earth from space, Ryugu samples are unaffected by terrestrial contamination, and they are particularly valuable for unravelling the earliest history of the solar system as they retain primitive chemical characteristics. Therefore, this study is a step closer to fully understanding our chemical past," concludes Prof. Yokoyama.

Thu, 16 Nov 2023 13:04:00 -0600 en text/html

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