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ADM-201 Administration Essentials for New Admins ADM201 Study Guide |

ADM-201 Study Guide - Administration Essentials for New Admins ADM201 Updated: 2023

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Exam Code: ADM-201 Administration Essentials for New Admins ADM201 Study Guide November 2023 by team

ADM-201 Administration Essentials for New Admins ADM201

Exam ID : ADM-201

Exam Title : Administration Essentials for New Admins ADM201 (Salesforce)

Questions : 60

Pass Marks : 65%

Duration : 105 minutes

Exam Type : Multiple Choice

Administration Essentials for New Admins is designed for:

• New system administrators responsible for the setup, configuration, and maintenance of their organizations Salesforce applications

• Other groups that would benefit from deepening their knowledge of Salesforce, including power users, sales operations, and IT managers

You can take this course in person or in a virtual classroom. Participants can save travel expenses by taking the class virtually. Both formats provide demonstrations, hands-on exercises, and personal attention from the instructor as well as interaction with your peers. For the virtual class, all you need is a web browser and a telephone to watch, listen, and get hands-on experience with the application.

Customize your application, including page layouts, fields, tabs, and business processes

• Create a secure Salesforce environment

• Maintain and import clean data

• Create high-value reports and dashboards

• Set up workflow automation

Getting Around the App

• Understand the data model and navigation

• Find answers in Help & Training

Getting Your Organization Ready for Users

• Set up the company profile

• Configure the user interface

• Set up activities and calendars

• Configure search settings

• Set up Chatter

Setting Up and Managing Users

• Manage user profiles

• Create and manage users

• Troubleshoot user login issues

• Understand SalesforceA capabilities

• Set up Chatter Free and Chatter external users

• Understand Salesforce1 settings

Security and Data Access

• Restrict logins

• Determine object access

• Set up record access

• Manage record access with the role hierarchy

• Deal with record access exceptions

• Control access to events

• Manage field-level security

Customization: Fields

• Administer standard fields

• Create new custom fields

• Create selection fields: picklists and lookups

• Create formula fields

• Work with page layouts

• Work with record types and business processes

• Maintain data quality

Managing Data

• Import new records using import wizards

• Update existing records with the data loader

• Keep records up to date with and social accounts and contacts

• Mass transfer records between users

• Back up data with a weekly export

• Mass delete records

Reports and Dashboards

• Run and modify reports

• Create new reports with the report builder

• Filter reports

• Summarize report data with formulas and visual summaries

• Print, export, and email reports

• Build dashboards Automation

• Manage email administration

• Set up workflow rules and Process Builder

• Automate leads and cases

Managing the Support Process

For virtual classroom attendees, this content is delivered as an online module.

• Automate the support process

• Understand the Salesforce Console

• Enable collaboration in the Service Cloud

• Analyze support data with reports and dashboards

The Salesforce Certified Administrator exam has the following characteristics:

 Content: 60 multiple-choice/multiple-select questions

 Time allotted to complete the exam: 105 minutes

 Passing score: 65%

 Registration fee: USD 200, plus applicable taxes as required per local law

 Retake fee: USD 100, plus applicable taxes as required per local law

 Delivery options: Proctored exam delivered onsite at a testing center or in an online proctored environment. Click here for information on scheduling an exam.

 References: No hard-copy or online materials may be referenced during the exam.

 Prerequisite: None required; course attendance highly recommended
Administration Essentials for New Admins ADM201
Salesforce Administration Study Guide

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Administration Essentials for New Admins ADM201
Question #137 Section 11
What are two considerations for the Org Recycle Bin? (Choose two.)
A. You can restore reports and dashboards.
B. Deleted records remain in the recycle bin for 15 days.
C. Records are permanently deleted when using the "Delete" button.
D. Records in the Recycle Bin count against your org's storage usage.
Answer: AB
Question #138 Section 11
Users at Universal Containers need the ability to save email templates in the following folder: "Unified Public
Email Templates"
Currently, users are unable to do so.
Which action should a System Administrator take to allow users to save emails to this folder?
A. Navigate to the profile of each user and check the box for Manage Public Templates.
B. Navigate to the email templates and manually share each with the specific users.
C. Navigate to the email templates and manually share each with the Profile of the specific users.
D. Navigate to the user record and check the box for Manage Public Templates.
Answer: A
Question #139 Section 11
Ursa Major Solar utilizes Accounts in its Sales process; however, not all users have access to them. New users
require Read access to Accounts. Additionally, four new users require Edit access.
What should an Administrator do to configure access for the new users?
A. Configure a profile to grant Account View access and a Permission Set to grant Account Edit access to
specific users.
B. Configure a profile to grant Account Edit access and a Permission Set to restrict Read access to specific
C. Configure a sharing rule for Account View access and another sharing rule for Edit access to specific
D. Configure a Permission Set to grant Account Edit access to specific users and modify the Standard User
Answer: A
Question #140 Section 11
Ursa Major Solar's support team currently has a very high call volume. They want to decrease this volume by
creating a self-service community that will host published articles with Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), and
provide a chat with Help Desk representatives.
Which two features should be used to fulfill this goal? (Choose two.)
B. Knowledge
C. Content
D. Chat
Answer: AD
Question #141 Section 11
At Ursa Major Solar, an Administrator has set up a new user.
The user needs to activate the account before the email link expires by default.
How long does the user have before the link expires?
A. 10 days
B. 14 days
C. 6 days
D. 7 days
Answer: D
Question #142 Section 11
Ursa Major is onboarding 15 new employees in three weeks.
The Administrator needs to create user records in Salesforce without activating them.
Which two methods allow the Administrator to achieve this goal? (Choose two.)
A. Click Add Multiple Users and ensure that Generate New Password and Notify User Immediately are
B. Create them with the User Import Wizard and ensure that Active is unchecked.
C. Schedule a Time-Dependent Workflow to create users in three weeks.
D. Create a .csv file ensuring that IsActive = False, and use the data loader to insert.
Answer: AD
Question #143 Section 11
Ursa Major Solar placed a time-dependent action in the workflow queue when the record was created.
What are two situations that will cause this action to be removed from the queue? (Choose two.)
A. If the action is deleted from the workflow queue
B. If another record triggers the same workflow rule
C. If the record no longer matches the rule criteria
D. If a validation rule is triggered for the record
Answer: AC
Question #144 Section 11
What are two considerations for sharing email template folders? (Choose two.)
A. Sharing on Lightning email templates in inherited from the folder it is in.
B. Sharing a folder shares all subfolders in that folder.
C. Subfolders are shared separately from the parent folder.
D. Lightning email templates support packaging.
Answer: AB
Question #145 Section 11
Anytime an Opportunity is moved to Closed Won, Sales reps at Universal Containers (UC) are supposed to create
a record on a child object of Opportunities called Survey Request.
This action, however, does not always occur. Sales reps do not always populate all fields correctly.
Which tool should be used to remove permissions from Sales to create these records and automate record creation?
A. Workflow
B. Flow
C. Process Builder
D. Approvals
Answer: C
Question #146 Section 11
In which two locations can a system administrator assign a page layout? (Choose two.)
A. Role
B. Profile
C. App
D. Record Type
Answer: BD
Question #147 Section 11
At Ursa Major Solar, Sales representatives use a custom report type for Account reports. New fields have been
created on the Account Object.
An Administrator needs to report on the newly created fields.
What should the Administrator do to achieve this goal?
A. From the Custom Report Type, Edit Layout, then add the new fields to the report.
B. From the Custom Report Type, Edit Object Relationships, then add the new fields to the report.
C. Create a new account report and add the new fields from the Report Builder.
D. Create a new account report folder, go to share, and then add the new fields.
Answer: A
Question #148 Section 11
Ursa major Solar's administrator needs to create a custom field to track a specific Tier 2 support user on a case
What is the appropriate data type to utilize when creating this custom field?
A. Hierarchical relationship
B. Lookup filter
C. Formula
D. Lookup relationship
Answer: D
Question #149 Section 11
After a recent restructure of its Sales Department, Ursa Major Solar is having issues with records being omitted in
the new Opportunity Report.
Which three questions should the Administrator ask to research this issue? (Choose three.)
A. Do owners of all records have Roles and correct Territory Assignments?
B. Do the records the sales managers expect to see match the filter criteria?
C. Are records currently being shared with the sales manager?
D. Have the owners of the records been frozen?
E. Did the sales manager start from a copy or clone of an existing report?
Answer: ABC
Question #150 Section 11
Which feature should Ursa Major Solar use if they want their support agents who are skilled in a particular product
line to own cases directly after customers log them from an automated channel?
A. Assignment Rules
B. Workflow Field Update
C. Case Escalation Rules
D. Case Team Routing
Answer: A
Question #151 Section 11
A user at Ursa Major Solar attempts to log in to Salesforce from an IP address that is outside the login IP range on
the user's profile but within the organization- wide trusted IP range.
What occurs as a result of this scenario?
A. The user will be able to log in after the computer is activated.
B. The user will be unable to log in at all.
C. The user will be able to log in without activating the computer.
D. The user will be able to log in after answering one security question.
Answer: B
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Salesforce Administration Study Guide - BingNews Search results Salesforce Administration Study Guide - BingNews Study guide

This bestselling textbook provides an engaging and user-friendly introduction to the study of language.

Assuming no prior knowledge of the subject, Yule presents information in bite-sized sections, clearly explaining the major concepts in linguistics – from how children learn language to why men and women speak differently, through all the key elements of language. This fifth edition has been revised and updated with new figures and tables, additional topics, and numerous new examples using languages from across the world.To increase student engagement and to foster problem-solving and critical thinking skills, the book includes thirty new tasks. An expanded and revised online study guide provides students with further resources, including answers and tutorials for all tasks, while encouraging lively and proactive learning. This is the most fundamental and easy-to-use introduction to the study of language.

Tue, 13 Jun 2023 02:25:00 -0500 en text/html
Industry bugaboo: A patchwork of AI rules


The telemedicine industry sees the importance of regulation when it comes to artificial intelligence in health care — it just wants the rules to be consistent.

The American Telemedicine Association, which represents players in the industry, including Google, Facebook and Salesforce plus universities, health systems and doctors, has released principles it thinks should guide AI’s adoption.

Yes, and: The association wants regulators to ensure that AI works, it doesn’t produce inaccurate or biased results and it has ongoing oversight.

It wants the federal government to lead the way.

States, it says, should prioritize alignment with federal rules and, if they do pursue their own regulations, should seek to harmonize them with each other.

Ideally, the association says, the United States should seek to align its rules with those of foreign countries.

What else? The group says makers of AI products must be transparent about what’s guiding the products’ decision-making and open to scrutiny and oversight.

Those using AI should be cognizant of their impact on the health care workforce and retrain workers displaced by technology to perform new roles.

Health care providers that use AI must ensure the privacy of patient data. The association has a “data work group” that’s creating a roadmap to that end.


This is where we explore the ideas and innovators shaping health care.

Those struggling with the loss of a loved one have a new option to ease their grieving: apps that will create a digital avatar of the deceased based on a customer’s old voicemails, videos, text messages and emails with the departed, according to a report in New Scientist.

Share any thoughts, news, tips and feedback with Carmen Paun at [email protected], Daniel Payne at [email protected], Evan Peng at [email protected], Ruth Reader at [email protected] or Erin Schumaker at [email protected].

Send tips securely through SecureDrop, Signal, Telegram or WhatsApp.

Today on our Pulse Check podcast, host Alice Miranda Ollstein talks with POLITICO health care reporter Robert King, who explains why the lack of a year-end omnibus spending bill creates uncertainty for doctors seeking 11th-hour legislation to avert Medicare physician payment cuts.


Medical and nursing students in the U.S. and around the globe are planning careers outside patient care due to fears of overwork and burnout, a new report found.

The report from Elsevier Health, an academic publisher, is based on a survey of more than 2,200 students from 91 countries and paints a picture of a field in deep trouble.

The survey found that most medical and nursing students in the U.S. are worried about their mental health and believe they will suffer from burnout as a clinician.

Nearly a quarter are considering quitting their studies.

Even among those not considering quitting, fears about the industry are having an effect. The report found that 58 percent of medical and nursing students globally see their current studies as a means toward a broader career in health that won’t involve patient care.

Why it matters: The medical field is already facing significant clinician shortages. A 2021 report from the Association of American Medical Colleges found a shortage of 19,800 doctors in the U.S. in 2019 and projected a shortage of physicians between 37,800 and 124,000 by 2034.

Complaints of understaffing have driven recent labor actions in the medical field.

Legislative movement: The Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee advanced a $26 billion primary care bill last month that included provisions for bolstering the health workforce, including $1.2 billion for two-year nursing education programs and $300 million for primary care physician education.


In a global first, the United Kingdom today approved a treatment for a group of rare blood diseases, including sickle cell, that uses the CRISPR gene editing technology to fix a patient’s genes.

The medicine, called Casgevy, was developed by two companies in the United States, Vertex Pharmaceuticals and CRISPR Therapeutics. It treats sickle cell disease and transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia, two inherited diseases that affect patients’ red blood cells, POLITICO’s Carlo Martuscelli reports.

In the U.S., advisers to the Food and Drug Administration considered evidence from the manufacturers last month.

Why it matters: Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder that results in deformed red blood cells with a faulty version of the protein hemoglobin, which delivers oxygen across the body. These malfunctioning cells can lead to complications including extreme fatigue, blood vessel blockages and debilitating pain that can require hospitalizations.

A 2019 study calculated the average life expectancy for those with sickle cell disease is 54 years compared to 76 years for those without the condition, and patients and their insurers may spend a total of between $1.6 million and $1.7 million managing the condition over the course of a lifetime.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are roughly 100,000 people in the U.S. living with sickle cell disease, most of whom are people of color. One of every 365 Black or Americans with African ancestry have the disease, as do one of every 16,300 people of Hispanic descent.

There are drugs that treat symptoms, including stem cell transfusions, but only stem cell transplants potentially cure the disease’s underlying cause. Stem cell transplants must come from a genetically matched healthy donor and put patients at risk of serious side effects, including death.

What’s next? The FDA is expected to decide whether to approve the new treatment in the U.S. next month.

Thu, 16 Nov 2023 04:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Selecting Your Program

Our programs vary in length from a week to a full academic year.  We offer short-term programs that take place during the summer, spring break, or winter break, as well as long-term programs that cover one or two semesters. 

If you are looking for a semester program, consider whether you would prefer to go abroad in the spring or fall.  Due to differences in academic calendars around the world, some programs work best for Purdue students in one semester or the other, so the search allows you to specify.  If you are open to spring and fall programs, selecting the “Semester” option will bring up results for both.

For adventurous students, we also offer programs that cover two semesters!  Many returning students say they wish they had studied abroad longer, and the cultural immersion and cost effectiveness of a year-long program can be hard to beat. 

Students interested in summer opportunities often ask if they can search for Maymester programs.  We don’t categorize these separately from other summer programs, but it’s possible to search for programs beginning in May.  See “Program Start Month” below.

Wed, 03 Jun 2020 05:36:00 -0500 en-US text/html
A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae

Written by the Priests and Pastoral Associates of Priests for Life


This study guide is based on the Vatican Translation of Humanae Vitae


Table of Contents:



Introduction to the Study Guide

Summary of the Introduction to the Encyclical and Section I: New Aspects of the Problem and Competency of the Magisterium

A Summary of Section II. Doctrinal Principles

Summary of Section III. Pastoral Directives 

Essay: Finding Our Way Back Home

Essay: Life, Purity and Humanae Vitae

Essay: The Transmission of Life -- On Whose Terms?

The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony

Glossary of Terms




A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae

Fr. Frank Pavone, National Director, Priests for Life


Forty years is not a long time in Church history. Indeed, we are still living in the moment of Humanae Vitae (issued on July 25, 1968), and of the challenge it presents to the world.

Humanae Vitae does not identify the key problem of our day in the realm of sex or birth or "the pill," but rather in the myth that we can be God. Pope Paul writes at the beginning of the document, "But the most remarkable development of all is to be seen in man's stupendous progress in the domination and rational organization of the forces of nature to the point that he is endeavoring to extend this control over every aspect of his own life -- over his body, over his mind and emotions, over his social life, and even over the laws that regulate the transmission of life” (n.2).


The Pope here is painting a wider vision of the problem. We think everything belongs to us, but the reality is that we belong to God. "Humanae Vitae" means "Of human life." Human life came from God, belongs to God, and goes back to God. "You are not your own," St. Paul declares. "You have been bought, and at a price" (1 Cor. 6:19-20). Sex and having children are aspects of a whole cluster of realities that make up our lives and activities. We suffer from the illusion that all of these activities belong to us. “This is my life, my body, my choice.


The problem we face is not that our society is obsessed with sex. Rather, it is afraid of it-- afraid of the total reality and power of what it represents, where it comes from, and where it leads. Sex properly understood requires that we acknowledge God who made it. More than that, sex can never be separated from its purpose: to insert us into this immense, powerful movement of life and love that started when God said "Let there be light" (Genesis 1:3) and culminates when the Spirit and the Bride say "Come, Lord Jesus!" (Revelation 22:17).


Sexual activity means so much that it is wrong to diminish its message or deny its full reality: it belongs in the context of committed love (sealed by marriage) and openness to life precisely because this is the only context great enough to hold its message and reflect the greater reality to which the gift of sexuality points us and to which it commits us.


This is a reality that is bigger than all of us. It is the self-giving which starts in the Trinity, and is revealed in a startling way on the Cross, and then challenges each of us in our daily interaction with others, with God, and with our own eternal destiny. It is so real and so big that it is scary. That's why so many today are afraid of the full reality and meaning of sex. That's why Pope Paul VI wrote Humanae Vitae.


That is also why our Priests for Life pastoral team wrote this Study Guide. We have also established a special website,, to promote the teachings of this document. It is our daily prayer that this effort will lead many believers to understand, embrace, and proclaim the beautiful truth of human life. 




James J. Pinto, Jr., M.E.V.
Editor: A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae 


This Study Guide will be most effective if one first thoroughly familiarizes himself with its content and layout. Review the table of contents and the location of each section listed. The Study Guide is to be used by an individual or group as a side by side companion with the text  of Humanae Vitae included in this booklet. The three Essays offer unique insight with questions for further discussion. The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony presents a riveting and practical witness to why Humanae Vitae is the wholesome truth.


The Glossary assists the reader in clarifying some key terms contained in the Encyclical. Glossary terms are listed by the number/paragraph in which they first appear. The terms will be marked with an *asterisk in the Humanae Vitae text as a note to the reader that the term is contained in the Glossary. 


After memorizing Fr. Pavone’s Foreword one should read the Summary of the Introduction and Section I, followed by the memorizing of the Introduction and Section I. of Humanae Vitae itself. After completing the Introduction and Section I. of Humanae Vitae; the reader answers the series of questions below the Summary of the Introduction and Section I.  The sequence followed for the Introduction and Section I is repeated for each following section: memorizing the Study Guide Section Summary, memorizing of the corresponding Encyclical section itself and returning to the Study Guide questions for that particular section. The questions are meant to refer the reader back to particular paragraphs/numbers (n.or n.n.) of that section where he/she will find the answers. One may work on the answers to these questions while memorizing the paragraph/number, or, wait until he/she has read the entire section and then complete the answers. Continual returning to the text of the encyclical helps emphasize that the document itself is the primary source of instruction and the basis for individual and group applications. 


The three Essays have several questions at their conclusion to help foster reflection and discussion. A personal witness to the truth and wisdom of Humanae Vitae is presented in The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony. 


This Study Guide is meant to be a “springboard” to delve more deeply into Humanae Vitae and its themes, in order to stimulate reflection, and a lifestyle of holiness. 


For those considering the possibility of facilitating a study group, this study guide lends itself to a discussion study group method of learning. While a leader/facilitator encourages the group and keeps it “on track”, it is the individual sharing and group dynamic that contribute most to the learning process. The facilitator is not a lecturer, neither is he there to supply all the answers. The facilitator seeks to shepherd the group learning process and does everything possible to solicit their contributions. Members interact and learn from everyone, including the facilitator. A Facilitator’s Guide is available through Priests for Life at The Facilitator’s Guide seeks to assist you in leading a group and lays out suggested study sessions.


It is our hope, that on the fortieth anniversary of Humanae Vitae, this study guide will assist in promoting the Church’s clear and authoritative word on transmitting human life. May all who hear this true, prophetic and lovely word be assured that: the Church has always issued appropriate documents on the nature of marriage, the correct use of conjugal rights, and the duties of spouses. These documents have been more copious in recent times. (n.4)


Sun, 11 Apr 2021 00:44:00 -0500 en text/html
Educational Administration Master’s Degrees: What To Know

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

Education professionals with titles like principal, dean of students, athletic director and superintendent often hold the highest leadership positions in their organizations. These professionals, who tend to enjoy excellent job security and pay, often hold educational administration master’s degrees.

A master’s in education administration is the most common pathway to becoming an education leader like a principal or college administrator. The degree can also apply in other professional areas, like nonprofits and government organizations, and even prepare educators to earn a Ph.D.

Educators with educational administration master’s degrees can affect whole institutions rather than just individual classrooms. So if you’re a teacher who wants to make a bigger impact in your field, read on to determine whether this degree is right for you.

What Is a Master’s in Education Administration?

A master’s degree in education administration is an advanced diploma that prepares students for leadership roles in education. Many programs offering this degree cater to students who are already licensed K-12 teachers. Some allow students to earn a principal certification at the same time as a master of education.

Education administration programs teach students to manage institutions, focusing on core competencies like instruction, school culture and ethical practice. Courses teach candidates to foster literacy, manage budgets and personnel, and develop cultures of continual school improvement.

Many of these programs are offered 100% online or in a hybrid format, providing flexibility to working teachers. Many programs favor a cohort model, where students progress through the program with a consistent group of classmates.

Credit requirements vary but generally fall within a range of 30 to 45 credits, which takes one to two years of full-time study to complete, or two to five years for part-time learners.

Many programs feature on-site school internships or fieldwork experiences, which students often complete through the schools where they already work, drawing on real school meetings and student data. Some programs also assist candidates with professional development activities, connecting candidates with current job openings and helping them craft their résumés.

Admission Requirements for an Education Administration Master’s

Specific program requirements vary, but candidates usually need the following to apply:

  • A minimum GPA and transcripts. Most programs ask for a minimum undergraduate GPA. Many require a 3.0, though others admit candidates with lower GPAs. Graduate programs often ask for transcripts from previously attended institutions, including bachelor’s programs.
  • Professional teaching experience and verification of employment. Some programs require candidates to complete four years of full-time classroom teaching. Additionally, schools often check to verify whether a candidate has received any major disciplinary infractions on their teaching license.
  • Letters of recommendation. Most programs ask for at least one personal reference, often preferring references who have supervised the candidate as a teacher. Some ask recommenders to fill out an online recommendation form.
  • Writing sample. Your application essay prompt may ask why you want to pursue a master’s in education administration.
  • Résumé. Yours should include details of your work and education history.
  • Screening interview. Some educational administration programs require candidates who meet initial admission requirements to interview with the program director.

Common Courses in an Educational Administration Master’s Program

School Finance and Resource Allocation

This course covers the leadership and financial tasks involved with managing staff and finances so that funds can be distributed to support all student learning. Students learn about school system processes and policies that impact a school’s ability to achieve its vision and goals.

Higher Education, Politics, Governance and Society

This course teaches about the central mission and structure of higher education in the United States. The course exposes students to the diverse postsecondary education landscape in the U.S. and the different forms of governance that characterize each sector.

Virtual Learning, Collaboration and Transmedia

This course investigates “future-ready” learning technologies, like virtual and integrated tools, and their application to schools and other educational settings. Students learn about virtual communication tools, digital storytelling, and how these methods apply to professional and scholarly interests.

Professional Field Studies

This unit exposes students to the basic on-site experiences of an entry-level administrator. Students work closely with on-site administrators and instructional personnel. Students may complete fieldwork and synthesize what they’ve learned from their field experience in a project.

Accreditation for Master’s Degrees in Education Administration

Programmatic accreditation validates that a degree meets industry standards in terms of curriculum, faculty and student support, among other factors. The Council for the Accreditation of Education Preparation (CAEP) accredits education administration master’s programs.

If your educational administration master’s program holds CAEP accreditation, you can rest assured that the program adequately prepares aspiring administrators for their future roles.

What Can You Do With an Educational Administration Master’s Degree?

The school principal role is an obvious choice for holders of an educational administration master’s degree, but it’s far from their only option. Read on to learn about potential careers for graduates with this degree.

We sourced salary data for this section from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and Payscale in October 2023.

Elementary, Middle or High School Principal

Median Annual Salary: $101,320
Minimum Required Education: Master’s in education leadership or a related field
Job Overview: Principals oversee school activities, including day-to-day operations. Principals typically work year-round. They manage school activities, establish class schedules, observe and evaluate teachers, develop curriculum standards, and ensure schools are in compliance with state and federal regulations. The job outlook for principals is expected to remain stable over the next 10 years.

Assistant Principal

Average Annual Salary: Around $76,000
Minimum Required Education: Bachelor’s degree
Job Overview: Assistant principals, also called vice principals, hold supervisory and management roles in elementary, middle and high schools. They assist and enforce the directives of principals and often ensure compliance with standards related to curriculum, discipline and school organization. Vice principals often administer discipline, facilitate staff training and evaluate teachers.

Postsecondary Education Administrator

Median Annual Salary: $99,940
Minimum Required Education: Master’s degree
Job Overview: Postsecondary education administrators perform managerial services for public and private institutes of higher education. They work in departments specializing in subjects including student affairs, academics, admissions, research and registration.

Instructional Coordinator

Median Annual Salary: $66,490
Minimum Required Education: Master’s degree
Job Overview: Also called curriculum specialists, instructional coordinators oversee teaching standards and school curricula. They create and implement instructional material and evaluate its effectiveness. Most work in elementary and secondary schools, colleges and professional schools. They analyze student data including test scores. They communicate with teachers including explaining new teaching methods and standards.

Preschool Director

Average Annual Salary: Around $47,000
Minimum Required Education: Bachelor’s degree
Job Overview: Preschool directors oversee childcare facilities catering to kids ages 3 to 5. They manage budgets and programs, ensuring their facilities comply with all relevant laws. These professionals manage instructors and interact with parents. Many preschool directors create a daily schedule, planning appropriate transitions and bathroom and snack breaks.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Educational Administration Master’s Degrees

Is a master’s in educational administration worth it?

For many people, yes. Holders of a master’s degree in education administration tend to earn relatively high wages. Plus, the degree itself can take as little as 12 months to complete.

What is the difference between educational management and educational administration?

The terms “administration” and “management” are similar but have important distinctions in the education context. Management, the organized way of supervising employees in an organization, functions below administration and is focused on overseeing the work of employees. Administration, by contrast, represents ownership, likely a school board, and is focused on the best allocation of limited resources.

Is a master’s in education the same as a master’s in teaching?

Master’s degrees in teaching and education are similar but have key differences. Both degrees feature similar curricula, but a master’s in teaching focuses on teaching and classroom management, while a master’s in education is broader in scope and prepares students for leadership positions in education.

Fri, 13 Oct 2023 03:18:00 -0500 Garrett Andrews en-US text/html
Study Administration Offices

Many students carry out a project (internship or student research project) at an institution outside ETH.

In some cases, it is possible for students to do their project through an exchange programme. There are exchange agreements with all Swiss and many European universities, which include stays for projects.

For internships and other projects/study work outside of Switzerland, there are funding opportunities such as SEMP Europe Projects & Internships and SEMP Worldwide Projects & Internships. These are not linked to exchange agreements and all institutions (companies, research institutions, universities) are open.

Please refer students to us or to our website as early as possible so that we can clarify whether one of the programmes is an option.

The students organise the projects independently. However, all projects must be agreed with the department. The main supervision of student research projects always lies with ETH, even if they are carried out externally. Internships must be approved by the person responsible for the internship in the department (only compulsory or recommended internships).

Wed, 23 Dec 2020 15:24:00 -0600 en text/html
HubSpot vs Salesforce (2023) – Which CRM Is Best and Why?

Our content is funded in part by commercial partnerships, at no extra cost to you and without impact to our editorial impartiality. Click to Learn More

Our research shows that HubSpot is better than Salesforce for sales and marketing, as well as being one of the best CRMs for small businesses, thanks to its robust free plan. On the other hand, Salesforce is better than HubSpot for customer service because it offers more communication channels to reach customers.

If you're in the market for CRM, you've almost certainly heard of Salesforce, as its easily the most popular CRM in the world, boasting a whopping third of CRM market share. Subsequently, Salesforce offers a lot of pricing plans for different sizes and types of businesses, which is why getting a quote for your business is likely your best move.

Still, the HubSpot vs Salesforce matchup is a lot closer than you might think. In this guide, we'll cover all the specifics about these two CRM providers — from features and pricing to customer support and ease of use — and explain when and why one might be a better fit for your business.

We'll be pitting HubSpot vs Salesforce head to head throughout this article. Of course, these aren't the only CRM tools to consider. Check out some of these further alternatives, below. Or, scroll on to learn more about Salesforce and Hubspot.


HubSpot vs. Salesforce – Which Should You Choose?

Before we get to all the nitty gritty details of HubSpot vs Salesforce, understanding the fundamental differences between the two popular CRMs will help you make a decision when it comes to choosing for your business. Here are some basics about the differences between HubSpot and Salesforce:

  • HubSpot is better for small businesses than Salesforce
  • Salesforce is better for larger businesses than HubSpot
  • HubSpot offers an easier to use interface than Salesforce
  • Salesforce offers better analytics and reporting tools than HubSpot
  • HubSpot has better sales and marketing features than Salesforce
  • Salesforce has better customer service features than HubSpot
  • HubSpot offers a free forever plan, and Salesforce doesn't

In earnest, Salesforce and HubSpot are a lot more similar than many other popular CRM providers in the market, but the free forever plan is a big differentiator between the two. Salesforce not only has no free plan, but also has a higher price tag than most HubSpot plans, which is why the former is better for larger businesses, and the latter more focused on smaller businesses.

Read to compare CRM providers?

Salesforce isn't the only name in the game.

HubSpot vs Salesforce Pricing

Both HubSpot and Salesforce can become very expensive, very fast, which can be concerning for businesses trying to navigate the looming recession. That's why it's essential to only sign up to the tiered plan that's right for the needs of your business. You can use our simple CRM tailored quotes form to narrow it down and get a price quote to help you decide.

Of course, HubSpot has one advantage over Salesforce – there's a free tier to HubSpot CRM. This isn't a short-term trial, either – you can use HubSpot free forever, should you choose. But, on the paid plans, you'll have far more HubSpot features – and these paid plans aren't always better value than Salesforce equivalents.

Both HubSpot and Salesforce offer industry-specific options, each with their own set of plans. This means that entry-level plans for sales businesses, for example, could be a different price than those of marketing businesses. Take note of that while checking out the breakdown below.

HubSpot Pricing

First off, we'll start with the Hubs. HubSpot offers three different types of service, or Hubs, aimed at the different purposes of CRM: sales, marketing, and customer service.

The Sales Hub and Service Hub are priced similarly, but the Marketing Hub is a bit more expensive, which is commonplace for marketing-focused CRM providers. Take a look at how these HubSpot Hubs match up against each other below and read on for an in-depth look at each Hub.

Check out our complete guide to HubSpot pricing for more information

HubSpot Sales Hub pricing

The HubSpot Sales Hub starts off quite affordable, but as you can see from the table below, it gets expensive pretty fast. The entry price is enticing, particularly considering the free plan is available, but the advanced features — like lead scoring and custom reports — don't unlock until you hit the Professional plan, which is far above the industry standard on price.

It's also worth remembering that the Sales Hub pricing plans have a minimum number of users required and per user pricing, so you'll definitely be paying more than the per month price listed. Here's how all of the HubSpot Sales Hub plans match up against each other:

(minimum 2 users)

(minimum 5 users)

(minimum 10 users)

Predictive scoring

HubSpot Service Hub pricing

As is also the case with Salesforce, the Service Hub is identically priced to the Sales Hub. This means that the prices start pretty competitive in the entry-level plans, but they get expensive fast. While the Starter plan is quite competitive in the industry, substantially undercutting Salesforce, the Professional plan ramps up the price by a lot, with the Enterprise sending it up even further.

Like the Sales Hub, the HubSpot Service Hub also has the same minimum user requirement and per user pricing, so your monthly cost is going to be higher than these listed prices. Here's how the HubSpot Service Hub pricing plans match up against each other:

(minimum 2 users)

(minimum 5 users)

HubSpot Marketing Hub pricing

If you thought the Sales Hub and Service Hub options were expensive, just wait until you see the Marketing Hub options. Prices are decidedly higher compared to HubSpot alternatives, although the Starter plan still stays below the comparative Salesforce plans by quite a bit.

The Marketing Hub does away with the per user pricing, and instead charges users based on the number of marketing contacts they would like to reach, starting at 1,000. Here's a breakdown of the Marketing Hub pricing plans:

Salesforce Pricing

Similar to HubSpot's Hubs, Salesforce offers different types of services depending on your needs, dubbed Clouds, for sales, marketing, and service. Each one offers a different set of pricing plans, but Salesforce offers some mix and match options that can save you some money if you want dual functionality.

Much like HubSpot, the Sales Cloud and Service Cloud are priced similarly, and can be combined for a cheaper option. Again, the Marketing Cloud is much more expensive, as it provides a wide range of additional features that are more valuable.

Check out our full guide to Salesforce pricing for more information

Salesforce Sales Cloud

The Sales Cloud is arguably the most popular option from Salesforce, despite being quite expensive compared to other Salesforce alternatives. The starting price is well ahead of the industry average (around $15 per month), and the more expensive plans are indeed far ahead of the market. Still, as one of the more feature-heavy options on this list, you're definitely getting what you pay for.

Unlike HubSpot, Salesforce does not have user minimum requirements for its plans, so what you see is what you'll pay for all options. Check out how these plans match up against each other below:

File storage: 1GB
Data storage: 10GB + 20MB per license

File storage: 10GB + 2GB per license
Data storage: 10GB + 20MB per license

File storage: 10GB + 2GB per license
Data storage: 10GB + 20MB per license

File storage: 10GB + 2GB per license
Data storage: 10GB + 20MB per license


Salesforce Service Cloud

In the same way that the Sales Hub and Service Hub cost the same for HubSpot, the Sales Cloud and Service Cloud from Salesforce also have nearly identical pricing, although the Service Cloud offers a few more pricing options, with five plans instead of four, adding an Unlimited+ plan that costs quite a bit more for advanced functionality like generative AI features.

The Service Cloud also doesn't have a minimum user requirement, so you'll pay the amount you see on the table below. Check out how these plans match up against each other now:

Website Live Chat Comms Channel

Requires Telephony Integration

Requires Telephony integration

Requires Telephony Integration or Service Cloud Voice Add-on

Yes – but limited to 1 license

Additional cost

Yes (Maximum of 2).

Yes (maximum of 2)

Yes (maxium of 2)

Yes (maximum of 2)

Yes (maximum of 2)

  • Internal knowledge base
  • Agent monitoring
  • Unified Case Queue
  • Task Dashboard
  • Team Comms
  • Manual Ticket Routing
  • User hierarchy
  • Int. knowledge base
  • Team SLAs
  • Agent monitoring
  • Ind. Targets
  • Unif. Case Queue
  • Calendar
  • Task Dashboard
  • Team Comms
  • Manual Ticket Routing
  • User hierarchy
  • Int. knowledge base
  • Team SLAs
  • Agent monitoring
  • Ind. Targets
  • Unif. Case Queue
  • Calendar
  • Task Dashboard
  • Team Comms
  • Manual Ticket Routing
  • User hierarchy
  • Int. knowledge base
  • Team SLAs
  • Agent monitoring
  • Ind. Targets
  • Unif. Case Queue
  • Calendar
  • Task Dashboard
  • Team Comms
  • Manual Ticket Routing
  • User hierarchy
  • Int. knowledge base
  • Team SLAs
  • Agent monitoring
  • Ind. Targets
  • Unif. Case Queue
  • Calendar
  • Task Dashboard
  • Team Comms
  • Manual Ticket Routing

Salesforce Marketing Cloud Engagement

The prices in the Salesforce Marketing Cloud are a bit jarring at first, but trust us, it's for good reason. The outrageously high prices stem from the fact that the Marketing Cloud is filled with a wide range of automation features that can handle operations in a streamlined way. Still, that doesn't change how expensive these plans are, making them clearly aimed at larger businesses than small startups.

Thankfully, these plans don't have a minimum user requirement either, but at this prices, you're going to be paying a lot no matter what. Here are how the Marketing Cloud Engagement pricing plans match up:

Custom automation builder

30 days

30 days

30 days

HubSpot vs Salesforce: Head-to-Head

Now that we understand the basics about how Salesforce and HubSpot differ on pricing and functionality, it's time to dig a little deeper. In this section, we'll explore how HubSpot and Salesforce compare on everything, including features, integrations, ease of use, customer support, reporting and analytics, automation, and training.

Salesforce and HubSpot both have a lot of features

Because Salesforce and HubSpot are both considered high-end CRM options, they both offer a vast array of features for a myriad of purposes. As we've said a few times now, it all comes down to what you need those features for, which is what we'll breakdown in this section.

Marketing features

When it comes to the specific features on Salesforce Marketing Cloud versus HubSpot Marketing Hub, we found that it's honestly not even close. HubSpot Marketing Hub is our top choice for CRM for marketing, thanks to its vast array of marketing channels, including content, social, email, and paid. Salesforce offers some very rudimentary options for channels like social, paid, and content, which is why we supply HubSpot the advantage on this one.

Additionally, we found HubSpot offers more when it comes to customer support, providing onboarding for new users and better customer support when you run into a problem.

Personalization in Email Marketing on HubSpot
Image: testing

Sales features

You'd think with a name like Salesforce that the popular CRM would easily take the cake on sales features. However, we found that HubSpot absolutely holds its own, offering plenty of options for your business. In fact, HubSpot beats Salesforce on features like lead capture and lead conversion. Still, Salesforce offers better customer support, so it's pretty much a toss-up between these two popular options.

The sales forecasting dashboard in Salesforce
Image: testing

Service features

Here is where Salesforce really shines. We found customer support CRM features thoroughly embedded in the Salesforce Service Hub, giving it an edge over HubSpot's Service Hub. It provides more communication channels, more ticketing channels, and more offline functionality than HubSpot.

The only weak spot we found for Salesforce when it comes to customer service features is customer feedback functionality, like surveys, as the CRM offers none to speak of. Still, that shouldn't deter you, as the other features more than make up for this small oversight.

Service Cloud dashboard in Salesforce
Image: testing

HubSpot is easier to use than Salesforce

While a massive feature catalog is a huge benefit for Salesforce, we found that it does create a lot of extra work, which can seriously impede ease of use – particularly for beginners. We found that the platform is laden with very specific terminology that needs to be learnt before it makes any sense, which could create a substantial learning curve for those unfamiliar with the software.

With HubSpot, you're getting a comprehensive, intuitive interface that is easy to navigate, even if you aren't familiar with CRM software. The biggest highlight with managing business contacts with HubSpot is the tidy user-interface where you view all the information related to a contact. HubSpot has designed a clear way of providing a holistic view of who your contact is, what interaction you’ve had, and where they work.

Simply put, HubSpot is built for ease of use, with a simple layout that will let you easily access all the tools available on the platform. There's even a little help icon at the bottom of some screens, which will provide you with tailored advice on how to move forward (pictured below).

In fact, HubSpot is so dedicated to improving ease of use that it tested its software on drunk users to be sure it's as straightforward as possible, no matter how impaired you might be.

Pop up Help Options in HubSpot
Image: testing

Which features do you need?

See how well each top CRM service functions now:

Salesforce has better customer support

While Salesforce may be lacking in the ease-of-use department, we found the customer support options to be quite robust, which can make it worth the hassle. Not only does Salesforce offer a huge catalog of online documentation and tutorial videos that can help you figure out any issues, but you'll also become part of the massive Salesforce community of users, who can help you solve any problems.

Our researchers found that HubSpot does not offer 24/7 live support on any of its plans, even the ones that cost thousands of dollars per month. Salesforce, on the other hand, provides it for an additional cost, and includes it for all Unlimited plans.

If you require an actual person to walk you through the complication of Salesforce, you're all set there too. Once you're logged into the platform, you can phone, email, and live chat with representatives to hammer out the details of your problem, so you don't have to rely on forms and forums to get it done.

Best for growing businesses


  • 30-day free trial
  • Tailored pricing plans
  • Provides sales and service functionality
  • Lots of analytics and data provided


  • Lacks basic marketing features
  • Limited help and support functionality
  • Busy interface can be hard to use

Salesforce has better reporting and analytics

As you might expect, Salesforce's robust feature catalog comes with equally robust reporting and analytics functionality. We found the built-in system to be widely customizable, just like the rest of the platform, giving you complete control over what you track and how you track it. We found that the best part of Salesforce analytics was that it allows you to store large levels of information, including emails, tasks, call logs, contact information, outreach campaign data and lead information.

Plus, with the new analytics add-on Tableau, you'll be able to get a full 360-degree view of how your customers interact with your business, giving you more actionable insights for improving sales.

HubSpot also offers a lot of reporting tools, and they're quite comparable to Salesforce actually. However, the only metric you get in every plan is to view revenue data, while other features like custom reports and sales forecasts are only available in the more expensive plans, which means you'll have to pay a lot to get access to the same features.

An example Sales Rep dashboard in Salesforce Sales Cloud
Image: testing

HubSpot and Salesforce offer lots of integrations with other software

While both HubSpot and Salesforce are considered two of the most robust CRM options on the market, they can't do it all. In that case, you might be interested in integrating these platforms with other third-party apps that can, in fact, do it all. Fortunately, both Salesforce and HubSpot offer a lot when it comes to integrations, so no need to worry there.

Both HubSpot and Salesforce offer massive app stores that can unlock a wide range of functionalities for your business. They can integrate with Google Workplace, WordPress, FreshBooks, Eventbrite, and dozens of others.

HubSpot Salesforce Integration

If you really can't decide between the two, HubSpot has a peculiar feature that allows you to sync information from Salesforce into HubSpot and then back again. This is very different from the usual features that let you import data from Salesforce in order to migrate to a new platform. It seems curious to offer deep integration with a competitor, but there are situations where this integration could become useful. If you already use HubSpot's Marketing Hub, for example, but the sales team is on Salesforce, then this integration could help bridge the gap between the data held by the two teams.

HubSpot's integration is bi-directional, which means you can send information to Salesforce as well as pull information from it. There are limits to how much data you can pull from Salesforce on any given day, depending on how many API calls your contract with Salesforce allows.

This feature is nice enough if you need it, though having both teams on the same platform would be much easier and offer more seamless data sharing. Salesforce integration is not available on the free or Starter tiers, requiring at least Sales Hub Professional.


  • Free plan available
  • Provides sales, marketing, and service functionality
  • Tidy, easy to navigate interface


  • Limited customization
  • Basically no customer support
  • File storage limit to 5 documents

HubSpot has simpler implementation and training

Because HubSpot is easy to use, the setup process is pretty easy. You won't have to spend hours setting up your metrics, your analytics, or your integrations, as most of them will be set up for you upon installation. If you do need a bit of help, you can sign up for onboarding sessions for between $1,500 and $5,000 for your whole team, which is obviously not very cheap.

More specifically, the first part of the onboarding process for HubSpot — where you’re following a demo — is quite easy to follow and provides hands-on information on how to use the platform.

With Salesforce, you're a lot more likely to need the help getting started, and the company offers a wide range of helpful tools to do so. Between the online community of users and the robust support team, you'll be taken care of and you'll need it, too, due to the complicated nature of the CRM. Salesforce even offers training seminars, which typically cost approximately $4,500. Again, definitely not the cheapest option.

In fact, our research found that the setup process for Salesforce was a full three minutes longer than that of HubSpot, mostly due to the clunkiness of the Salesforce platform and the ease of customer data import on HubSpot (pictured below).

Customer Data Import in HubSpot
Image: testing

Salesforce has better automation

One of the primary reasons why a business would sign up for CRM software is the use of automation to make business life a bit easier. Powered by artificial intelligence, these features can make a huge difference in freeing up time and resources for human employees to really get work done.

This matchup is a close one, but in the end, Salesforce's Einstein takes the cake. The AI-powered tool can help you automate a wide range of processes, from lead management to customer onboarding, with a world-leading company's resources behind it. Even better, these automation features are available at a much lower price than HubSpot, which is always beneficial.

Salesforce does, however, have a trick up its sleeve with Salesforce Marketing Cloud Account Engagement. This functionality – which is a part of the wider Salesforce Marketing Cloud – can automate sales funnels for new prospective customers and gives a killer edge to Salesforce's marketing capabilities.

Because CRM software is built on automation, HubSpot has solid options as well, although they're a bit less consolidated. Tools like lead and contact management features automation capabilities, with simple “if this then that” functionality, allowing you to automate where you see fit. Still, our research found HubSpot automation workflows to be complicated, which is unfortunate due to their invaluable nature for sales and marketing teams.

Cases page on Salesforce Lightning
Image: Testing

Other CRM Alternatives

While HubSpot and Salesforce are considered two of the best options out there when it comes to CRM, they aren't the only providers available. In fact, there are plenty of great alternatives to HubSpot and Salesforce out there for everything from marketing to sales to customer service. Take a look at some of the options below or check out our guide to the best easy CRMs for a different perspective on the market.

Best CRM for Sales

Yes, it's hard to beat Salesforce when it comes to sales, as you may have guessed from the name. Still, it's an incredibly robust option that can be a bit intimidating for smaller businesses or just businesses that don't need all those features. If you're looking for a provider that's a bit more manageable, like Zoho CRM, we've done a bunch of research on the subject and can help you find a better CRM for sales.

Best CRM for Marketing

HubSpot is truly a top-tier CRM for marketing, mostly because it offers a robust set of marketing features in its free plan. Even better, our research found that it offers great marketing integrations, like one with Canva that will allow you to design email elements straight from the email editing space.

Still, HubSpot is not perfect for everyone. The high prices and the massive feature catalog can be too much for some, which means that another alternative could be a better fit. Fortunately, we've done the research to find some of the best options out there for CRM for marketing, including options like Pipedrive. Take a look and get started today.

Get started
Click to get started and compare prices for your business

Microsoft Dynamics 365 Marketing

21 days

30 days

14 days

A very expensive option that provides robust email and omnichannel features

The best option for businesses looking to scale

A good option for email, but not great for scalability

A bit too expensive for most, but great for managing teams closely

A good budget option for covering multiple marketing channels

A suitable all-in-one platform for sales and marketing but a bit expensive

Best CRM for Customer Service

Neither HubSpot nor Salesforce are ideal as CRM for customer service, although they certainly provide some robust options to handle it. Salesforce is definitely better than HubSpot for customer service, mostly because we found it to provide a single hub that houses communication, so you can more effectively stay in touch with potential customers, while seeing all the information you need.

Still, we've done the research and found a wide range of other options that might be a better fit for your business. Zendesk is one of our favorite but take a look at some of the other CRM alternatives to get started today.

Website Live Chat Comms Channel
Get started
Click to get started and compare prices for your business

Microsoft Dynamics 365 Customer Service

30 days

30 days

21 days

15 days

30 days

30 days

An fully-featured yet pricey CRM solution with excellent team management tools.

A robust platform aimed at businesses looking to scale

A practical option with lots of channels but no survey functionality

An affordable option with plenty of features for smaller businesses

A great, customizable platform aimed at larger businesses

A solid budget option with low costs and few features

A weak offering with few native service channels available

Requires Telephony integration/Voice add-on on all plans

Requires Telephony integration on Support plans, available on Suite plans

Available with Omnichannel plans

Available with Enterprise plan

Limited to 1 license (Essentials), unavailable (Pro), additional cost (Enterprise)

Available with Omnichannel plans

Available with Enterprise plan

About Our Research

If you've made it this far, you've likely realized that takes our recommendations quite seriously. For all our business software reviews and guides, we've spent hours and hours doing in-depth research to bring you the most valuable, insightful, actionable information that ensure your business makes the right choice on the first try.

For CRM, we had a specific set of metrics by which we rated and ranked eleven different providers to supply you a clear picture of which ones are the best. The metrics we use are pricing, features, customization, team infrastructure, customer support, and scalability.

If you want to learn more about exactly what goes into our process here at, feel free to check out our thorough research guide for a peak behind the curtain.

HubSpot or Salesforce: - Which CRM Is Better?

If price is an issue and HubSpot's basic CRM is all you need, then you might get by with that, and if you need HubSpot's added features, the CRM's pricing is pretty good. Though for smaller teams with five or less, HubSpot doesn't beat Salesforce Essentials' pricing.

As far as features go, they both offer the key tools you need from a CRM, and both have third-party integrations and deep online support pages. If you don't have Gmail or Outlook as your corporate email of choice, then HubSpot is probably easier to deal with. In terms of interface, HubSpot is a little simpler compared to Salesforce, making the learning curve a little steeper with the latter.

That concludes our basic look at HubSpot and Salesforce but the best way to find the CRM that's right for your team is to get a customized quote based on your company's needs. Click the Get Quote button below to get started and find the CRM that's right for you.

Not exactly – they're both CRMs, but the functionality of each is decidedly different. Salesforce is a robust CRM with lots of features and a large company behind it to provide unparalleled customer support for users, making it perfect for larger companies. HubSpot, on the other hand, is aimed at smaller businesses, featuring an easier to use platform that's intuitive even for beginners. Plus, HubSpot offers a free plan, which Salesforce does not.

This truly depends on what you're looking for. Salesforce is considered the industry standard for CRMs, but it isn't perfect for every business. If you're a smaller company looking for an easy-to-use platform with a gentle learning curve, HubSpot is going to be the better option. However, if you need a robust CRM with lots of features, Salesforce is the most popular option for good reason.

HubSpot does offer users a free plan, rather than a trial, which can last forever – but it's understandably pretty weak. You'll have access to basic features, like contact management, task tracking, and forms, but you'll miss out on essentials like reporting and analytics. Still, it's a great way to test out the software before committing to a premium plan.

Salesforce has a somewhat affordable starting price of $25 per user, per month, which makes it within the budget of many small businesses. Still, with its robust functionality and sometimes hard to use interface, it can be a bit overwhelming for small businesses. HubSpot is a better option we've found, given its ease of use and affordable plans, not to mention a free forever option.

Salesforce does not offer a free forever plan, which means you'll have to pay $25 per user, per month minimum to use the platform for an extended period of time. Salesforce does, however, offer a 30-day free trial, which should be plenty of time to get a feel for the software before you commit.
Thu, 27 Sep 2018 02:16:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Study the Master of Business Administration

Our globally recognised MBA gives you the credibility to take on leadership roles. You will develop strategic thinking skills, learn to analyse and solve complex business issues, see global opportunities and demonstrate your financial literacy at management level.

You will join other emerging managers, learn from their experiences and expand your network.

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Benefits of Massey's MBA

Massey’s MBA is unique in New Zealand – the only MBA with specialisations offered part-time fully online or full-time in a year.

Gain practical knowledge you can use immediately at work. You will benefit from connection to practice through engagement with business leaders and assignments that often include corporate consultancy work.

Our MBA has no examinations, and all assessments are practical.

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Learn about how you can expand your opportunities with our internationally accredited MBA

A flexible and personalised journey to management and leadership

You can choose two convenient study programs - full-time for 12 months at our modern Auckland business school campus or fully online, from New Zealand or anywhere worldwide.

If you would like more information about what study option can work for you, email or speak to an MBA specialist.

Our full-time MBA provides international students with work experience in New Zealand, through a management internship placement. You will visit businesses, network with leaders, and we will help you prepare for the New Zealand market. Upon completion, international students can apply for a 3-year work visa.

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Our flexible and convenient fully-online MBA can be completed from anywhere in New Zealand or worldwide. With scheduled small group interactive sessions and on-call support, you'll be able to manage your workload while staying connected to support.

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Professor Dr Dr Jens Mueller


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Flavio Hangarter


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Flavio is a sought-after advisor for launching and scaling technology companies with 12+ years of experience working with executives, tech accelerators, governments and NGOs across the globe. 

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Sun, 09 Oct 2022 05:56:00 -0500 en-NZ text/html
Theratechnologies Announces Results from Trogarzo® (Ibalizumab-uiyk) Intramuscular Administration Study


This news release constitutes a “designated news release” for the purposes of the Company’s prospectus supplement dated December 16, 2021 to its short form base shelf prospectus dated December 14, 2021.

MONTREAL, Oct. 13, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Theratechnologies Inc. (“Theratechnologies” or the “Company”) (TSX: TH) (NASDAQ: THTX), a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of innovative therapies, today announced results from a study evaluating an intramuscular (IM) method of administration for Trogarzo® (ibalizumab-uiyk), a monoclonal antibody antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the treatment of heavily treatment-experienced adults with multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 infection failing their current antiretroviral regimen.

The TMB-302 study, conducted in partnership with TaiMed Biologics, enrolled 21 subjects (7 HIV-positive and 14 HIV-negative) to assess the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of IM administration of Trogarzo® as compared to intravenous (IV) infusion.

Mean Trogarzo® trough concentrations were greater than 15 µg/mL, suggesting that IM injection was sufficient at maintaining the drug trough concentration above the therapeutic level of 0.3 µg/mL. The mean trough concentrations were comparable between IV infusion and IM injection in HIV-positive subjects. However, the primary endpoint measuring a 90% confidence interval of the ratio of IM injection to IV infusion (0.69, 1.08) did not meet the equivalence limits (0.8, 1.25). Viral suppression, a key secondary clinical endpoint, was maintained in all HIV-positive subjects throughout the IM phase and the overall study.

Each study subject received IM maintenance doses for eight weeks of treatment and a total of 152 IM injections were administered, which were well tolerated. One subject reported injection-site pruritus (itching) at a single time point, and no subjects reported injection-site pain when Trogarzo® was administered intramuscularly.

With the TMB-302 data in hand, Theratechnologies is seeking expert advice prior to completing a regulatory submission of the Trogarzo® IM administration maintenance dose to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA is currently reviewing the Company’s submission for the loading dose of the Trogarzo® IV push method of administration and a decision is expected in mid-December.

About Trogarzo® (ibalizumab-uiyk)

Trogarzo® (ibalizumab-uiyk) is a long-acting, CD4-directed, post-attachment HIV-1 inhibitor. In the United States, Trogarzo®, in combination with other antiretroviral(s), is indicated for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heavily treatment-experienced adults with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection failing their current antiretroviral regimen. Trogarzo® is not approved in Canada.

Trogarzo® is administered by intravenous infusion as a single loading dose of 2,000 mg followed by a maintenance dose of 800 mg every two weeks after dilution in 250 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP. In October 2022, the Trogarzo® maintenance dose was approved by the FDA to also be administered as an undiluted IV push over 30 seconds.

Important Safety Information

Do not receive Trogarzo® if you have had an allergic reaction to Trogarzo® or any of the ingredients in Trogarzo®. Trogarzo® can cause allergic reactions, including serious reactions, during and after infusion. Tell your healthcare provider or nurse, or get medical help right away if you experience any symptoms of an allergic reaction. Before you receive Trogarzo®, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant as it is not known if Trogarzo® may harm your unborn baby, or if you are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed as it is not known if Trogarzo® passes into breast milk. Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including all prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.

Changes in your immune system (immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome) can happen when you start taking HIV-1 medicines. Your immune system might get stronger and begin to fight infections that have been hidden in your body for a long time. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you start having new symptoms after starting your HIV-1 medicine. The most common side effects of Trogarzo® include diarrhea, dizziness, nausea, and rash. Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. These are not all the possible side effects of Trogarzo®. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist.

Full prescribing information is available at

About Theratechnologies

Theratechnologies (TSX: TH) (NASDAQ: THTX) is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of innovative therapies addressing unmet medical needs. Further information about Theratechnologies is available on the Company's website at, on SEDAR at, and on EDGAR at Follow Theratechnologies on Linkedin and Twitter.

Forward-Looking Information

This press release contains forward-looking statements and forward-looking information (collectively, the “Forward-Looking Statements”), within the meaning of applicable securities laws, that are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. You can identify Forward-Looking Statements by terms such as "may", "will", "should", "could", “promising”, “would”, "outlook", "believe", "plan", "envisage", "anticipate", "expect" and "estimate", or the negatives of these terms, or variations of them. The Forward-Looking Statements contained in this press release include, but are not limited to, statements regarding the completion of a regulatory submission of the Trogarzo® IM administration maintenance dose with the FDA and the timelines about expected decision of the FDA on the Company’s submission for the IV push method of administration of the Trogarzo® loading dose. Certain assumptions made in preparing the Forward-Looking Statements include that: we will file the regulatory submission of the Trogarzo® IM administration maintenance dose with the FDA in the last calendar quarter of 2023; the FDA will approve the IM administration of Trogarzo® option for the maintenance dose and the IV push method of administration of the Trogarzo® loading dose; sales of Trogarzo® will increase with the addition of those two methods of administration; and Trogarzo® will continue being reimbursed by private and public payors. Forward-Looking Statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond Theratechnologies’ control that could cause actual results to differ materially from those that are disclosed in or implied by such Forward-Looking Statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those related to or arising from: a delay in the filing of the regulatory submission of the Trogarzo® IM administration maintenance dose to the FDA; the non-filing of the IM administration maintenance dose of Trogarzo® with the FDA if experts recommend against it; the non-approval by the FDA of the Trogarzo® IM administration maintenance dose and/or the IV push method of administration of the Trogarzo® loading dose; and, sales of Trogarzo® do not increase despite the approval by the FDA of both or any one of those new methods of administration of Trogarzo® . We refer current and potential investors to the “Risk Factors” section of our Annual Information Form dated February 27, 2023, available on SEDAR at and on EDGAR at as an exhibit to our report on Form 40-F dated February 28, 2023, under Theratechnologies’ public filings for additional risks involved in our business. The reader is cautioned to consider these and other risks and uncertainties carefully and not to put undue reliance on Forward-Looking Statements. Forward-Looking Statements reflect current expectations regarding future events and speak only as of the date of this press release and represent our expectations as of that date. We undertake no obligation to update or revise the information contained in this press release, whether as a result of new information, future events or circumstances or otherwise, except as may be required by applicable law.


Investor inquiries:
Phillipe Dubuc
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

Media inquiries:
Julie Schneiderman
Senior Director, Communications & Corporate Affairs

Fri, 13 Oct 2023 00:38:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Study Group Guide


  1. The Goal of Study Group Learning
  2. Benefits of Study Group Learning
  3. What to do at Your First Meeting
  4. Your Role in Your Group
  5. Common Problems and Possible Solutions
  6. Study Group Locations at UMass Lowell

The Goal of Study Group Learning

It is believed that students learn by doing. As opposed to being spoon-fed knowledge in lecture, study groups encourage students to go above and beyond what is being taught and to develop their own understanding of subject material. The goal of study group learning is to help students take ownership of course material; to learn to learn.

Benefits of Study Group Learning

  • You can verify with each other any confusing or complex subject material.
  • Learning math is more fun.
  • Math is better understood and retained.
  • Prof/TA will be seen as more approachable.
  • You will have a chance to dialogue with classmates and therefore opportunity to make friends; hopefully you will feel less isolated.
  • Fellow students can be a source of encouragement.
  • Math-anxious students will see themselves as tutor/teachers, not just recipients of someone else's knowledge.
  • An increase in confidence of mathematical ability.
  • You will have opportunity to learn new study habits from peers. In a nutshell, learning math is more personally relevant, and intellectually stimulating.

As you can see from this list, being in a study group can be really helpful. BUT these benefits come only to those who are serious about making their group work well together and serious about learning. So, although I expect you to have fun (eh, there is no reason why you can't have a study group meeting at a pub once in a while) the study group component of your course is serious stuff.

Are you interested in joining a group but don't know how to start? Talk to your classmates or instructor.

What to do at Your First Meeting

We hope that, 10 years from now, you will look back upon this first meeting of your study group with good sentiments. We realize that not all of you will form those "college-days" relationships that TV glamorizes, but some of you will. You just never know what might happen. Here are some things that will help get started on the right track:

Check off this list as you go.

  • Fill out the form called: Study Group Roster with your group members names, e-mail addresses, and phone numbers. Guard this sheet. You never know when it will come in handy (or, put the information in your funky address book...just make sure you have it.)
  • Get to know one another. How? Well, ask each other what your majors are or where you are from or how much you love to work in groups...etc. Make sure you have fun.
  • You may want to look around at the rooms that are suggested in this booklet for your study groups. You are going to spending a lot of time in these places (or wherever you hold your meetings).
  • Establish when and where you will hold your next meeting. In fact, I would advise you to decide exact dates for some of your meetings. Make dates--solid dates--right up until the end of term. This way, you will be sure to be able to keep these dates.
  • Establish a network by which you can contact each other for impromptu meetings.
  • Talk more. supply your group a name if you want.

What to Do at Other Meetings

Below is a list of things you should/can do at your meetings. Suggestions in bold I would recommend you do at every meeting.

  • Establish what you hope to accomplish at your meeting.
  • Review lecture notes together, discuss anything you did not understand.
  • Discuss key concepts from lecture.
  • Work on assignments.
  • Assign yourselves questions and work on them.
  • Study for tests or exams.
  • Discuss what questions you expect to be on tests and exams.
  • Go over copies of past exams.
  • Set aside time to talk about anything under the sun other than math.
  • At the end of each session, determine or verify location and time of you next meeting.

Your Role in Your Group

This page contains a section called Problems and Solutions. It's a good idea to read it so you know what can happen and so that you can recognize it when a problem arises. A lot of the problems can be prevented if you work hard not just at the math, but at making your group work. Below is a list of guidelines that, when followed, help to avoid the common pitfalls.

  • Listen carefully to each other. Try not to interrupt. Respond to, or at least acknowledge, comments made or questions asked by other group members. To do so shows respect.
  • Do not accept confusion passively. If you do not understand the information that someone is presenting, try to paraphrase what was said, or ask someone to help you paraphrase it.
  • Ask for clarification whenever someone uses a word in a way that you find confusing (you will likely help him or her.) The correct use of terminology is an essential part of successful communication in math. If you can say it, you understand it.
  • Do not split up the work. I know it's so tempting...but it leads to SOOO many problems. Everyone should focus their attention on the same thing at the same time. It is much easier to resolve conflicts when group members work together and check for agreement frequently.
  • Make a habit of explaining your reasoning or of "thinking out loud," and ask others to do the same. The process of constructing and refining explanations helps everyone to relate the information being presented to what they already know.
  • Be aware of time constraints. It is appropriate (and important) to ask each other how what you are doing will help your group complete an assignment
  • If your group gets stuck, review and summarize what you've done so far. This process creates new opportunities for group members to ask questions, and often it will reveal important connections that have been overlooked.
  • You should always feel comfortable to switch from talking about math to talking about how your group is working. If you have a concern about how your group is functioning, bring it up. Be direct, honest and calm.
  • When someone raises a concern about your group, listen to it carefully. If you have a problem with his or her problem, be sure to criticize the problem and not the person.

Common Problems and Possible Solutions

There are some problem situations in which a study group might find itself. Occasionally a group just doesn't have any interaction among its members. More frequent is the problem of one student is doing all the work, either because no one else will or because he or she doesn't trust the other group members to do a good job. These problems undermine the whole idea behind study groups and are actually detrimental to learning. Not to over-dramatize this but: BE AWARE!!! Just knowing about what can happen helps to prevent or nip in the bud serious problems.

The following list is offered to increase your awareness of potential problems as well as to offer advice on how to deal with them. We cannot stress enough how important it is to discuss your problems in your group. This is why it is so important to establish an open working environment in which you can be objective about how things are going in your group and comfortable enough to point out problems.

Problem: Lack of interaction

Possible Cause: Lack of Experience with Learning in Study Groups


  • Talk about the problem.
  • As a group, review the section of this booklet entitled, "Your Role in Your Group." You may find that you have not been following one of the guidelines. For example, the impulse to split up the work just kills group interaction.
  • I know this sounds a little corny, but maybe you need to practice how to learn in your groups. Forget about math for the moment and try this activity: choose a really hot issue like abortion or immigration. Let someone in your group make a clear statement about a point of view (it does not have to be their own point of view). Then another person has to counter that opinion without criticizing the first person. Interruptions are not allowed. Go around in a circle until the issue is exhausted.

Possible Cause: You Feel Coerced to Participate


  • Recall that your study group is for your benefit. If your study group isn't serving your needs you should discuss the matter in your group. Try to come up with strategies for making the group work better for you. Remember, your primary obligation is to yourself and to your group members, not to your professor, UMass Lowell, or some set of rules.

Possible Cause: Physical Arrangement


  • Make sure you are all sitting facing each other and no one feels isolated by the seating arrangement. When your meeting starts, mentally put yourself in the place of other group members. Is there anyone who you think might feel cut off from the group?

Problem: Group members are participating unequally

Possible cause: Intolerance of Silence

Some people feel a strong need to fill in moments of silence with speech. In the same way that nature abhors a vacuum, some people abhor silence in conversations.


  • Ask for silence. You could cut into someone's aimless babbling by saying
    "Wait a second! I need some space to think about this!"
  • Bring up the problem carefully with the person one-on-one. Often people who rush into a conversation to keep it going don't realize they are doing it. Explaining that you like long pauses in conversations in order to think could solve the problem.
  • Make sure you are not talking non-stop.

Possible Cause: Dominant Speakers Monopolize the Discussion.


  • Talk to dominating speakers privately. Find out why they are talking so much and whether they are aware of the problem. Often such people are simply outgoing by nature and are unaware of the problem. If they are aware of the problem, usually they feel they have not had their point fully appreciated, or they feel some need to compete. In all three cases, just talking to them in private can reduce the need for them to dominate conversations.

Possible Cause: A Group Member Has No Interest in Speaking.

Some students feel that they learn better by listening than by talking. Others feel that speaking and helping others requires too much effort.


  • Try to draw the person into the conversation without being obvious about it. Occasionally ask for their opinion.
  • Make it clear that you appreciate what the person does contribute.

Problem: A Group Member is Doing All the Work

Possible Cause: Lack of Trust between Members to Work


  • Tell the group member directly that you would like to help. Interrupt the group member with an "excuse me," and voice your ideas. Sit beside the group member and supply your opinions about what he or she is doing. Question this group member about what he or she is doing.
  • Talk to the group member in private. Explain how you want to help with the work. After a private discussion with the person, he or she may come to view you as a serious student and open up to your ideas. Demonstrate cooperative learning to this student by involving the rest of the group in the work at hand.
  • If you are the group member who doesn't trust anyone else to do the work, then it is your responsibility to work with your group to make changes so that trust is reestablished. Although you may have a personal goal to complete assignments perfectly, it is a fundamental principle of study groups that everyone in the group understands the material presented in assignments.

Possible Cause: The Rest of Your Group is Slacking Off.


  • Don't be so eager to be the person who asks to get started. Wait until someone else takes the initiative to start the work. It may take a long time for someone else to pick up the reins, but after you do this a couple of times, the others will realize that they can no longer expect you to be the baby-sitter. Let them see the consequences of their inaction.
  • Enlist the help of other members either by asking them for it directly or by pretending you don't understand something. When they see that you can't do all the work on your own, they have to help.
  • Talk about your problem with your group as a whole. Say that you are ticked off (I realize that it takes a lot of courage to say that you are miffed— What if the rest of the group doesn't care that you are ticked off? Then again, maybe the only way for your group to care a little is for you show some emotion. Maybe they do not realize that you are upset.)

Possible Cause: A Group Member is the Brightest Student In the Group.


  • Talk to the brightest student. It may be as simple as saying "It's clear that you really get this stuff. But since we are all supposed to understand, going slower would help."
  • If you think you are head and shoulders above the rest of your group, then your task is particularly challenging. Although it is difficult, you must strike a good balance between contributing your own ideas and listening to others to ensure they understand your, their own, and others' ideas. One of the best ways to learn is by doing. Clearly, your group members need the opportunity to do mathematics. Make sure your zealousness doesn't take that away from them. Also, accept that there are many ways to approach a problem. Even when you know one solution to a problem, there is a lot to be learned from listening to alternative approaches. You also learn more by helping other students understand the material. Professors will tell you that they really began to understand math/stats well when they started to teach it!

Problem: A Group Member is Being Uncooperative.


  • Try talking to the group member in private. He or she may have a problem with how the group is being run but doesn't feel comfortable bringing it up with the whole group.
  • Hold a group meeting and invite your professor to discuss the problem.

Problem: Reinforcing Misconception

It is quite easy for a group of students to mistakenly agree, for example, that when they get zero over zero they can cancel to get one. Or to misread what it means for a function to be continuous. Or to confuse "if" with "only if." Who will be around to point out these errors?


  • Those who are sensitive to the careless use of language must make a practice of requesting clarification. If something doesn't sound right to you, say so. You may actually discover a wide-spread misconception.
  • If you are uncertain about what is correct or incorrect, have someone in the group ask the professor at the end of the next class or during their office hours. Have the phrase repeated to the professor. You could also ask a prof or tutor in OS219A.

Study Groups Locations at UMass Lowell

  • In Olsen Hall, the lobbies in the middle of floors 2 through 5 are large enough for a meeting.
  • Most departments have a lounge for their majors. As long a one member of your study group is a major in a department, it should be appropriate for the whole group to use the lounge for meetings. Mathematics and Chemistry majors share a lounge in Olney 407.
  • CLASS - Second floor of Southwick.
  • Basement of Southwick- good for meetings, particularly at mealtimes.
  • Off - campus
    • Places on University Ave. would love to have you as long as you buy a drink, at least. 
Tue, 22 Dec 2015 05:48:00 -0600 en text/html

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