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Confession: I love my women’s sleeping bag. It’s made by Mountain Hardwear, before 2016, when that company stopped making gendered options for its pinnacle product, the Phantom. My 15-degree women’s version weighs less than two pounds, envelops me in a blissful bubble of down, and fits my particular length and girth. That last detail is crucial, because sleeping in a too-tight mummy bag ranks as its own circle of hell. 

Most companies still make separate sleeping bags for women and men (Mountain Hardwear still offers many women’s bags). But there are signs that, like gender-specific restrooms in some parts of the country, women’s sleeping bags may be on the way out. Led by new initiatives from REI, major brands from The North Face to Big Agnes are debating whether gendered bags do an adequate job of keeping a diverse range of backpackers comfortable—and if using the still widely-accepted binary labels is necessary in a world that seems to be moving away from them. Although companies haven’t officially axed women’s models entirely from their product lineups, many are moving to gender-neutral lines that could serve male, female, and nonbinary-identifying backpackers across the board—which may ultimately mean the end of women’s-specific sleeping bag design.

When the first women’s sleeping bag hit the market in 1995, it was heralded as an empowering piece of gear. Made by Sierra Designs, the 20-degree Calamity Jane was the brainchild of company president Sally McCoy, who had climbed some of the world’s highest mountains and felt poorly served by bags built for men. Her women’s bag was narrower through the shoulders but wider at the hips, shorter in length (it came in 5’ 5” and 5′ 10” options), and generously insulated with beefed-up padding in the core and footbox. Women took its existence as a sign of their inclusion within the male-dominated outdoor culture—and sales soared.

Inspired by the success of Calamity Jane, a flood of companies brought women’s bags to market and promoted shorter lengths, hip-accommodating widths, and extra insulation.  European Norm (EN) ratings for sleeping bags, established in 2005, confirmed through repeated independent testing McCoy’s suspicion that women sleep colder than men on average (although the specific science is still fuzzy) and allowed manufacturers to publish gendered comfort ranges for their sleeping bags. REI embraced the system, and by 2010, the retailer required all brands that manufactured mummy-style bags to reveal the product’s EN rating. Instead of making one unisex bag that didn’t appear to perform as well for women, manufacturers doubled down on gendered bags.

But, as with the ongoing dialogue about traditional gender labeling in everything from political language to high fashion, future product lines suggest a new, less binary direction. When The North Face presented its spring 2023 line to the media in September, women’s bags were part of the assortment—but TNF’s rep also forecast that it might be the brand’s last year making them. NEMO is another sleeping bag manufacturer that’s reevaluating the concept of women’s bags.

“There’s currently a lot of discussion among brands and retailers about the future of gendered bags and whether gender-neutral options might serve campers better,” says Mike Welch, NEMO’s vice president of global sales. 

Why the sudden sea change? TNF says that REI is urging brands into the new approach with sleeping bags—one that saves shoppers from having to identify as either male or female and still have a bag that keeps them comfortable at night.

“It’s ironic, since REI was behind the creation of women’s bags in the first place,” notes Tim Beck, TNF’s sleeping bags category manager. Indeed, REI’s influence on the outdoor industry can’t be overstated: Given the retailer’s vast scale, it drives the trends that other brands follow. When REI declares a new direction for gendered sleeping bags, it’s a big deal.

Case in point: For spring 2023, REI is introducing a gender-neutral line of backpacking gear and apparel that’s aiming for maximum inclusivity across gender, budget, and body size. The Trailmade 20 sleeping bag won’t be sold in men’s and women’s versions. But it will come in three lengths with a wide-cut option for each, for a total of six possible fits per temperature rating. 

“We didn’t want people to have to choose bags based on their gender, ” says Derek Temple, REI’s camp category merchandise manager. The every-body Trailmade bags allow shorter-than-average men to purchase the right-fitting bag without feeling like they’re getting gear built for women, or allow non-binary shoppers to bypass uncomfortable questions. (Admittedly, some women have long expressed skepticism about the need for gendered bags.)

For now, REI expects to keep selling women’s-specific bags for as long as demand continues.

“We do a strong women’s-specific business,” says Courtney Gearhart, REI’s senior public affairs program manager. But offering women’s models while also developing a broad size-inclusive unisex range creates a glut of sleeping bags—so campers’ purchases over the coming year will likely determine whether women’s bags stay or go. 

REI, along with other brands with growing all-gender lines, like Big Agnes, haven’t determined how their new bags will represent the formerly-gendered temperature ratings. “Comfort” ratings (the temperature threshold for cold sleepers) currently appear on women’s bags, while “limit” ratings indicate the temperature range for warm sleepers and appear on bags that have historically been marketed at men. Test standards for gender-neutral bags don’t yet exist. And although brands aren’t required to use standards Tested by the EN or the International Organization for Standardization (ISO is another third-party regulator), these guidelines have become a key factor in how brands market bags—and how campers buy them. 

Consequently, NEMO won’t make firm decisions about gendered bags until it can work out a fair and understandable way to represent temperature ratings. Says Welch, “NEMO is focused on presenting options that create the best shopping experience by speaking clearly about temperature ratings across all bags.”

Campers aren’t likely to know whether women’s bags will remain on the market until 2024 or beyond. In the meantime, people who identify as female—and who want a women’s-specific sleeping bag—might want to start shopping now. And as brands work out temperature ratings for non-gendered bags, these new models may do what women’s bags did decades ago: validate participants’ inclusion in the outdoor realm, while making the actual experience more enjoyable too.

Tue, 13 Dec 2022 07:35:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.outsideonline.com/outdoor-gear/camping/you-may-have-bought-your-last-womens-sleeping-bag/
Killexams : Testing Environments Help DHS S&T and CISA Secure Transportation Infrastructure

Strengthening and protecting our nation’s critical cyber infrastructure is a monumental task, one that the Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) takes seriously. Together with the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), S&T is developing and testing new technologies and tools that will help combat daily threats, both physical and online.

“All critical infrastructure sectors—including the energy, manufacturing, and transportation sectors—rely heavily on sophisticated technologies like industrial control systems, cellular networks, and artificial intelligence,” said S&T program manager Alex Karr. “These are all accessed, monitored, and controlled via the internet, which, in turn, makes them susceptible to hacking, malware attacks, and other malicious activities.”

Our critical infrastructure and associated online networks and technologies play a vital role in ensuring that the most essential services of our government and private sectors can do their job. Because of this, any potential weaknesses that can be exploited, disrupted, or damaged represent a significant threat to the safety of our citizens and our country. “This is why it’s crucial that we do everything we can to boost our online security and make sure we’re ready to respond to any attempts to compromise these crucial services and related systems,” Karr said.

S&T is working with a multi-agency team to do just that, collaborating with CISA, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other government and private stakeholders to design and implement two state-of-the-art training tools, both a part of CISA’s Control Environment Laboratory Resource (CELR) test environment. These CELR test environments, one designed by INL and the other by PNNL, will eventually be integrated into CISA’s existing suite of internet security tools.

“CELR test environments are miniaturized test environments that emulate crucial facilities and their associated technologies and physical components,” explained Tim Huddleston, INL program manager for Infrastructure Assurance and Analysis. “They are designed to provide first responders and security professionals with a safe setting to simulate cyberattacks, conduct research on and analysis of these attacks, and practice the implementation of countermeasures that will enable them to detect, mitigate, or prevent such incidents in the real world.”

“S&T, CISA, INL and PNNL currently operate six CELR test environments: a chemical processing plant; an electric distribution substation; an electric transmission substation; a natural gas compressor station; a building automation system; and a water treatment facility,” explained Karr. “And recently, we’ve identified the need to develop additional training and testing tools for our transportation sector, which is why we are working with INL, PNNL and subject matter experts in this field to build and implement two new cutting-edge automotive and rail test environments.”

Thanks to a new partnership with the auto industry, S&T, CISA, and INL have procured a state-of-the-art electric, semi-autonomous car and are converting it into an automotive testbed that will host cybersecurity incident response training, research, and analysis on this increasingly utilized class of energy-efficient, “smart” vehicles.

“This test environment will provide CISA staff, automotive manufacturers, and transportation security experts with a tool to help them gain a better understanding of electric semi-autonomous vehicles, their communications systems, control units and other electrical and physical components, and the ways that these systems and components can potentially impact other drivers and vehicles that share our roads,” explained CISA’s branch chief of Industrial Control Systems Section, Alex Reniers. “It will also help them discover whether or not these vehicle technologies—such as over the air maintenance, safety sensors, Bluetooth capabilities, key fobs, payment systems, and charging station ports—can be accessed and hacked for malicious purposes.”

Any potential IT vulnerabilities that are discovered during the development and implementation of the automotive test environment will promptly be shared with the auto industry in order to help them develop appropriate security measures that can be deployed in future models of their energy-efficient, “smart” vehicles.

“Semi-autonomous electric vehicles and their associated technology and infrastructure requirements represent a significant and ongoing evolution in the world of automotive transportation,” said Reniers. “And we want to ensure the safe development and rollout of these vehicles as they become more popular and widely available to consumers everywhere.”

In addition to the automotive test environment, S&T, CISA, and PNNL are also working with rail transportation subject matter experts to develop a similar CELR test environment that will provide CISA, other internet security professionals, and rail operators and manufacturers with a tool that enables them to better understand, manage, and reduce the possibility and effects of successful hacking and cyber-physical attacks aimed at our trains and associated infrastructure.

“Our test environment will model freight line operations; emulate traffic control, train control, and train communications systems; and serve as an educational platform for rail industry IT staff, manufacturers, and operators to prepare for real-world cyberattacks,” explained PNNL cyber security research scientist Thomas Edgar. “Communications disruptions and hacking of the computer systems used to ensure the safety of our rail systems are two of the most common threats that rail operators face on a regular basis—and our test environment will ensure that they are ready to mitigate or prevent these threats before they negatively impact these crucial systems and associated technologies.”

While both the automotive and rail CELR test environments are still in the early stages of implementation and development, Karr is optimistic about the positive benefits that they will offer to professionals in the critical transportation infrastructure cybersecurity field.

“Strengthening, maintaining, and securing our critical infrastructure and associated networks and assets requires proactive and coordinated efforts from everyone in the field, ranging from federal agencies like S&T, all the way down to state and local government, and owners and operators of these crucial systems and associated technologies,” he said. “This is exactly why we collaborate with so many industry leaders to design and implement these test environments. All professionals in this field can experience tangible benefits from using CELR—whether it’s for research and development or training purposes. Once they’re fully developed and implemented, I’m sure that the automotive and rail test environments will serve as valuable tools that—along with our other test environments—will continue to help our subject matter experts and first responders Boost their readiness and preparedness, and ensure that they can meet any challenges they might face in the future.”

With more CELR environments being explored by CISA, INL, and PNNL, S&T looks forward to supporting these efforts that will expand the diversity and coverage of the training tools they provide to critical infrastructure cybersecurity professionals.

Read more at DHS S&T

Fri, 09 Dec 2022 21:05:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.hstoday.us/federal-pages/dhs/testing-environments-help-dhs-st-and-cisa-secure-transportation-infrastructure/
Killexams : Alibaba Vs. Amazon: Fundamentals Still Matter
Text BACK TO BASICS on keboard with magnifier , glasses and pen on beige background

Iryna Drozd/iStock via Getty Images

Thesis

The stock market habitually ignores fundamentals completely when the mood is at either the greed or fear extreme. And Alibaba (NYSE:BABA) and Amazon (NASDAQ:AMZN) as simply the latest examples as you can see from the following chart. Not that long ago (around 2021), both stocks had been trading at immense valuation premiums. To wit, BABA demanded a P/S multiple of around 10x and AMZN around 5.0x. Then the bubbles burst quickly and now BABA is trading only at 1.73x P/S ratio and AMZN at 1.97x, both at only a fraction of the market average of 4.61x represented by the NASDAQ 100 index.

Chart, line chart, histogram Description automatically generated

Source: Seeking Alpha data.

Thus, it is the thesis of this article to examine if the above valuation correction is overdone (an almost 6x P/S ratio contraction for BABA and almost 3x contraction for AMZN). And you will see that my conclusion is yes.

It is true that both businesses have faced strong headwinds (some common and some unique to each of them) as you can clearly see from the following chart. BABA suffered a large decline in EBIT profit margin since 2021 both due to the macroeconomic slowdown of China's economy and also the tightened regulations. Its EBIT margin dropped from an average of 24% to a bottom of around 0% in the first half of 2022. Its margin has recovered to a healthy 13.5% in the most recent quarter, but still a far cry from its long-term average (only about ½ of its long-term average). The picture of AMZN is quite similar, although less dramatic. Its EBIT margin has been in a nosedive since ~2021 too. Its EBIT margin has been consistently above its average of 5.25% (except for two quarters) before 2021. However, it dropped to below 0% in the first of 2022. Its margin has recovered to a positive 2.8% in the most recent quarter, but still only ½ of its long-term average.

However, in the remainder of this article, I will argue that despite such profitability headwinds, the overvaluation correction is overblown. The current valuations in both stocks have ignored the growth curve from the secular e-commerce penetration and also their various high-growth initiatives. Their current profitability headwinds could persist but are ultimately temporary the way I see things. And furthermore, I see the price volatilities created thy such headwinds to be entry opportunities for long-term investors. To wit, for AMZN, near-term headwinds such as shipping congestion and inflation persisting could cause its prices to be stuck in a $90~$95 trading range, providing a reasonable entry point. For Alibaba, its current valuation is already very attractive, and China's ongoing protest and Zero COVID policy could create an even better entry point for long-term holdings.

Chart, line chart Description automatically generated

Source: Seeking Alpha data.

The "China Risk"

First, let me start with what's comparable and what's not between these two businesses. I view BABA and AMZN as the bellwether stocks in the e-commerce sector - that is why this article picked them to gain a more vantage view of the current status of the e-commerce sector. And both stocks are comparable, or even identical, in many of their operation details and initiatives (e.g., both are leaders in the cloud space).

However, the elephant in the room is that BABA faces a "China risk" that AMZN does not. I won't dive too much into the "China risk". It is a broad and vague concept. Different readers and authors seem to interpret it differently. As the title of this article suggests, I will focus more on business fundamentals rather than geopolitics.

For the "China risk", I would refer readers to Ray Dalio and his writing. In particular, I highly recommend his book, The Changing World Order (a few quotes are provided below from this book). I read all of his books (not that many anyway) and follow his writings closely. And I view him as a leading expert on both China and the U.S., and especially their interplays.

  • "I urge those of you who have not spent considerable time in China to look past the caricatured pictures that are often painted by biased parties and rid yourself of any stereotypes you might have that are based on what you thought you knew about the old "communist China" - because they are wrong."
  • "Triangulate whatever you are hearing or reading with people who have spent a lot of time in China working with Chinese people."
  • "As an aside, I think the widespread medium distortions and the blind and the near-violent loyalties that stand in the way of the thoughtful exploration of our different perspectives are a frightening sign of our times."

BABA and AMZN's R&D sustainability

As detailed in my earlier writings, for "new-economy" stocks like BABA and AMZN, a key business fundamental aspect I always check is their R&D: especially the sustainability and yield.

Therefore, let's first see how sustainable BABA and AMZN have been funding their new R&D efforts. The chart below displays their R&D expenditures in the past 10 years as a fraction of their total sales. As you can see, both BABA and AMZN have been consistently and also aggressively investing in R&D. In AMZN's case, it has been only spending a minimal amount on R&D before 2016 (less than 1% of its revenues). But after 2016, it cranked up its R&D substantially to a level of 12.0% of its total sales and has maintained it at this level since then. In BABA's case, it has been spending on average 10.0% of total revenues on R&D efforts systematically.

Chart, bar chart Description automatically generated

Source: Author based on Seeking Alpha data.

After establishing their R&D sustainability, let's examine how effective their R&D processes have been. The examination in this article follows a method detailed in my earlier article. The essential idea is to apply Buffett's $1 test on R&D expenditures. More specifically:

  • The purpose of any corporate R&D is obviously to generate profit. Therefore, this analysis quantifies the yield by taking the ratio between profit and R&D expenditures. We used the operating cash flow as the measure of profit.
  • Also, most R&D investments do not produce any results in the same year. They typically have a lifetime of a few years. Therefore, this analysis assumes a 3-year average investment cycle for both BABA and AMZN's R&D expenses. As a result, we used the 3-year moving average of operating cash flow to represent this 3-year cycle.

And the results are shown in the chart below for BABA and AMZN. As you can see, their R&D yields are different qualitatively, with BABA's yielding about $3.31 per $1 of R&D expenses and AMZN yielding only about $0.90. However, note that despite the qualitative differences, both BABA and AMZN have been demonstrating consistency in their R&D yield, signaling an efficient and sustainable process.

Also, to put things under a broader perspective, the next chart compares BABA and AMZN against the rest of the FAAMG stocks. As seen, the FAAMG stocks as a group feature an average R&D yield of $2.94. And BABA's $3.13 is only behind Apple and Facebook (or Meta Platforms).

Chart, bar chart Description automatically generated

Source: Author based on Seeking Alpha data.

Chart, bar chart Description automatically generated

Source: Author based on Seeking Alpha data.

BABA vs. AMZN: profitability issues and potentials

We've examined their profitability above by the EBIT margin. Here, I will use ROCE (return on capital employed) as the main metric to take a closer look. As detailed in my blog article, ROCE is the most fundamental metric because:

ROCE considers the return of capital ACTUALLY employed and therefore provides insight into how much additional capital a business needs to invest to earn a given extra amount of income - a key to estimating the long-term growth rate. Because when we think as long-term business owners, the growth rate is "simply" the product of ROCE and reinvestment rate, i.e.,

Long-Term Growth Rate = ROCE * Reinvestment Rate

The ROCE results for BABA and AMZN are shown in the chart below. It is no secret that BABA's profitability has suffered tremendously in the past few years, and this is clearly shown in its ROCE data. Even just a few years back in 2019~2020, its ROCE has been astronomical, exceeding 100% (rivaling that of AAPL, the one with the highest ROCE in the FAAMG pack). But as aforementioned, due to the slowdown of China's macroeconomic growth and also the tightened regulation controls since 2021, its ROCE has suffered immensely. To wit, its ROCE has been on average 79.5% since 2020. And it currently hovers around 62.4% based on its most recent 2022 Q3 TTM financials as shown in the 2nd chart below.

AMZN's ROCE in recent years has unfortunately followed a similar trend as seen, except with a less dramatic decline. AMZN boasted a superb ROCE in the earlier part of the decade too, between 50% and 100%. In recent years since 2020, AMZN's ROCE has contracted substantially to an average of 29.0%. And its most recent 2022 Q3 TTM ROCE is even below this average as seen.

However, when we broaden our view a bit wider, both AMZN and BABA still enjoy robust ROCE. As a reference point, the overall economy's ROCE is around 20%. And as I will argue next, AMZN and BABA enjoy far better growth potential than the overall economy thanks to the secular shift towards e-commerce.

Chart, bar chart Description automatically generated

Source: Author based on Seeking Alpha data.

Chart Description automatically generated

Source: Author based on Seeking Alpha data.

BABA vs. AMZN: secular trend and growth prospects

As aforementioned, I see BABA and AMZN as the bellwether stocks in the e-commerce space, and I also see both of the best-positioned stocks to capitalize on the secular growth of e-commerce. With all the online shopping apps installed on our smartphones, it is sometimes easy to form the misconception that e-commerce penetration is already toward an end. But the reality is nothing but. The global e-commerce penetration is at ~20%. Thus, the majority (80% of it) of commerce is still offline. Global retail e-commerce sales only reached $4.2 trillion in 2020. The bulk of the growth curve is still yet to come, with retail e-commerce projected to double in size by 2026, hitting $7.4 trillion.

Chart of Global Ecommerce Sales (2019 to 2025)

Source: Oberlo data

Another key growth area for both BABA and AMZN is could. AMZN is the leading cloud provider in the U.S., with a market share far higher than MSFT and GOOG as seen from the following IOT report. In particular,

The cloud market has seen revenues grow at high double digits for years according to the report. The global public cloud market reached $157 billion in 2021and is expected to grow into a $2 to $10 trillion industry in a few years according to another.

And just AMZN is the dominant cloud provider in the U.S., BABA is the dominant player in China and other overseas markets. With the rapid growth potential in the could space, I anticipate AMZN and BABA to enjoy the support of this secular trend for many years to come.

IOT

Source: IOT report

Risks and final verdict

As aforementioned, there are definitely headwinds for both stocks in the near term. For BABA, China's COVID-19 restrictions are still impacting many parts of the country's economy (with ripple effects to other countries). Customer growth in its China Commerce division (TaoBao and Tmall in particular) could take time to recover depending on the macroeconomic conditions. AMZN faces a range of near-term uncertainties such as inflation, supply chain pressures, and also currency exchange rates. The profitability of AMZN has been pressured by these headwinds in recent years as mentioned above and I see them persisting into 2023. These headwinds have created a challenging environment for its retail operations, which reported operating losses in recent quarters (as seen from the EBIT margin earlier). In response, AMZN has been dealing with cost control issues. For example, it had to shut down its subsidiary, fabric.com (which sold fabrics for almost 30 years), as a way to slash costs.

All told, I see the market sentiment toward the eCommerce sector has shifted from extreme greed to extreme fear in the past 2 years, as represented by the tremendous valuation contraction in BABA and AZMN stocks. However, business fundamentals still matter and will always matter. As you can see from the table below (which summarizes the key fundamentals and valuation metrics discussed throughout the article), both are still excellent businesses if you just look past the immediate headwinds. In particular, the PE of BABA (around 10x) is so low that it implies a permanently stagnating business despite the tremendous growth opportunities mentioned above. In particular, its cloud segment and International Commerce Retail segment, including Lazada and AliExpress, offer plenty of growth potential.

Table Description automatically generated

Source: Author based on Seeking Alpha data.

Thu, 01 Dec 2022 19:24:00 -0600 en text/html https://seekingalpha.com/article/4561913-alibaba-vs-amazon-fundamentals-still-matter
Killexams : How drinks manufacturers are using AI

From crop yields to flavour development and marketing campaigns, drinks makers are turning to AI to drive efficiencies and meet demand.

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Thu, 08 Dec 2022 05:05:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.just-drinks.com/features/how-drinks-manufacturers-are-using-ai/
Killexams : New RISC-V Certification to Help Those Seeking Entry-Level RISC-V Roles or to Transition from Another Architecture

The RISC-V Foundational Associate (RVFA) exam demonstrates the fundamental knowledge and skills necessary for RISC-V hardware and software professionals

SAN FRANCISCO, Nov. 30, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- The Linux Foundation, the nonprofit organization enabling mass innovation through open source, and RISC-V International, the global open hardware standards organization, have announced the immediate availability of the new RISC-V Foundational Associate (RVFA) certification exam, which is designed to test foundational knowledge of the RISC-V instruction set architecture (ISA).

The Linux Foundation logo

RISC-V is an open standard Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) enabling a new era of processor innovation through open collaboration. RISC-V adoption has accelerated in recent years, as evidenced by expanding industry alliances and investments by leading hardware manufacturers around the globe. These trends are expected to further progress as the requirements continue to evolve for new automotive, data center and IoT chipsets coming onto the market. To ensure vendors have the skills necessary to meet their goals and continue this growth, the talent pool must also grow.

"The increasing interest and adoption of RISC-V are driving global demand for talent, and employers value a RISC-V knowledge base," said Calista Redmond, CEO of RISC-V International. "As RISC-V continues to proliferate everywhere, it is important that we collaborate with our members and partners such as the Linux Foundation to ensure we have programs in place to train talent around the world and meet the continuously increasing demand."

The RVFA certification is ideal for those pursuing a career in roles such as embedded systems engineer, RTL design engineer, design verification engineer, software developer, or documentation engineer. Candidates should already have familiarity with git, high-level programming languages such as C, debuggers like GDB, and system architecture. They should also have programming or design experience, and it may be helpful to have completed computer science, software engineering, computer engineering, or electrical engineering coursework.

The multiple-choice exam takes 90 minutes to complete and tests areas including the RISC-V ISA; embedded hardware design including IoT, industrial, medical, and automotive applications; the ability to write, debug, optimize, and compile code in RISC-V assembly language; the ability to use toolchains including GCC and LLVM; and an understanding of RISC-V calling conventions.

"We have previously partnered with RISC-V International to build out a series of free online training courses to help individuals get started with this important technology, which have proven to be both popular and beneficial to the RISC-V community," said Clyde Seepersad, SVP, and general manager of training & certification at The Linux Foundation. "Providing a verifiable certification exam will enable individuals to take the next step in pursuing a RISC-V career, by providing their knowledge and skills to potential employers who are seeking more talent in this rapidly growing field."

The RVFA exam is available for immediate registration for $250. RISC-V International and Linux Foundation Training & Certification also offer the Introduction to RISC-V (LFD110x), Building a RISC-V CPU Core (LFD111x), and RISC-V Toolchain and Compiler Optimization Techniques (LFD113x) online courses, each of which can be audited at no cost through the edX online learning platform.

About RISC-V International

RISC-V is an open standard Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) enabling a new era of processor innovation through open collaboration. RISC-V International comprises more than 2,400 members building the first open, collaborative community of software and hardware innovators powering an open era of processor innovation. The RISC-V ISA delivers a new level of free, extensible software and modular hardware, paving the way for the next 50 years of open computing design freedom and innovation.

RISC-V International, a non-profit organization controlled by its members, directs the future development and drives the adoption of the RISC-V ISA. Members of RISC-V International have access to and participate in the development of the RISC-V ISA specifications and related ecosystem. To learn more about RISC-V, please visit: www.riscv.org

About the Linux Foundation

Founded in 2000, the Linux Foundation is supported by more than 1,000 members and is the world's leading home for collaboration on open source software, open standards, open data, and open hardware. Linux Foundation's projects are critical to the world's infrastructure, including Linux, Kubernetes, Node.js, and more. The Linux Foundation's methodology focuses on leveraging best practices and addressing the needs of contributors, users, and solution providers to create sustainable models for open collaboration. For more information, please visit us at linuxfoundation.org. The Linux Foundation has registered trademarks and uses trademarks. For a list of trademarks of The Linux Foundation, please see its trademark usage page: www.linuxfoundation.org/trademark-usage. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.

Media Contact:
Amanda Quraishi
The Linux Foundation
512-577-1800
aquraishi@linuxfoundation.org

Cision

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SOURCE The Linux Foundation

Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.yahoo.com/now/risc-v-certification-help-those-140000854.html
Killexams : Ex-FDA vaccine inspectors call for better training

Training in the Food and Drug Administration’s office that oversees licensed vaccines has decreased dramatically in recent years, raising concerns that the team is not equipped to identify quality control issues in manufacturing, according to three former inspectors.

An agency-wide reorganization and an influx of inexperienced inspectors led to an increased workload, particularly during the pandemic, they said. In the last several years, multiple inspectors have left the team, citing internal frustrations over the lack of training and concern that supervisors had little knowledge of the complexities associated with the inspections they oversee.

All three former inspectors worked in one of the FDA’s most critical offices, Team Biologics, which is responsible for inspecting licensed vaccine products, as well as cord blood, allergenic, gene and cell-therapy products.

The former inspectors said they do not know of any instances in which Team Biologics accidentally missed a contamination of a vaccine or failed to report a manufacturing issue. However, they said they are concerned about inspectors misidentifying a problem or overlooking a serious issue if more rigorous training is not reinstated and experienced inspectors are not brought on to the team.

The FDA is already dealing with the fallout of an infant formula crisis after a Michigan manufacturing plant reported that Cronobacter bacteria had come into contact with plant equipment, contaminating the product. That exacerbated a national formula shortage. Many of the themes discussed in a recent FDA report about the baby formula crisis mirror the current problems on Team Biologics, the former inspectors said. One of the agency’s main admissions: The food division is understaffed and its inspectors lack adequate training.

FDA commissioner says agency’s food program needs improvement

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Audra Harrison, a spokesperson for the FDA, said the inspectors on Team Biologics are “highly trained professionals” who produce thorough assessments of each facility during inspection.

“The FDA’s highest priority is protecting public health and, as an agency, that commitment is firm in the best of times or when facing a global pandemic,” Harrison said. “The American public can and should be confident that they remain our foremost concern.”

Two of the ex-inspectors left the agency in the last nine months and worked at the agency for more than 15 years. All were granted anonymity because they feared retribution from their former agency.

Inspections of many of the products overseen by Team Biologics require extensive understanding of how different specialized biological drug products are manufactured, packaged and stored, the former inspectors said. The team has led some of the most high-profile vaccine inspections during the pandemic, including a series of inspections at Emergent Biosolutions, the vaccine maker that accidentally botched 15 million Johnson & Johnson doses because of contamination.

However, close to half of the inspectors on the team have not received the training that they need to identify missteps or abnormalities in manufacturing when visiting facilities — a critical step in ensuring the products are safe for use once released to the market, the former inspectors said.

“The very reason Team Biologics was formed the way it was formed is because the substance is very complex and we wanted people who were hyper-specialized, and if they needed to get additional training, you would train this cadre and keep them up to speed,” said John Taylor, a former senior FDA official.

Taylor said he is aware of concerns about training among inspectors throughout the agency — not just on Team Biologics. “If training is diminishing and or the experience level of the people joining is diminishing then I can see that being a problem,” he said.

The year before Covid emerged, Team Biologics carried out, on average, about 75 inspections a year, one of the former inspectors said. When the pandemic hit, on-site inspections were significantly reduced and the backlog grew, as the team worked hard to complete in-person inspections for all the Covid-19 vaccines being produced in the United States. 

But even as the urgency of the office’s work increased — with all Americans eligible for Covid-19 vaccinations — it suffered from a continued loss of veteran inspectors.

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At least nine inspectors have left Team Biologics in recent years in part because the lack of training for new hires forced more veteran inspectors — inspectors who were required to pass rigorous classes when they started the job — to take on additional work, the former inspectors said. Others left because of disagreements with supervisors — almost all of whom did not have backgrounds in dealing with the procuts the inspectors on Team Biologics are required to oversee, according to the former inspectors.

Team Biologics normally has between 13 and 16 inspectors. But it has struggled to bring on new staff with prior experience working with biological drug products, the former inspectors said. Some of the newer team members joined the team after the FDA launched an internal reorganization in 2017. The reorganization paired the vaccine inspectors with those that specialized in blood and tissue products, meaning that some people who had little or no prior experience working with biological drug products started going on inspections of those manufacturing facilities.

The new hires did not receive the same kinds of intensive, in-person classroom training that inspectors hired earlier had received, focused on the biological drug products or how the products are made, the former inspectors said.

Harrison did not offer details on the number of courses or specific kind of training the FDA requires its inspectors to attend. She said inspectors who join the team “receive training on how to conduct inspections at vaccine facilities.”

Harrison acknowledged the agency’s need to build out its inspection staff and said it is pushing to expand the educational opportunities it offers its employees. The FDA is asking Congress for more than $23 million for its inspections program to help address the postponed surveillance inspections — a backlog that grew during Covid — and maintain staff.

“FDA investigators have been critical to the nation’s response to COVID-19, ensuring FDA-regulated Covid-19 products are able to be used to save American lives,” Harrison said in a statement. “Staff turnover in public health is high and the FDA is not immune to these conditions, particularly the biologics staff who have been working on two public health emergencies while keeping the normal cadence of agency business moving forward.”

The former inspectors said the unspecified promise of additional training while blaming the pandemic for staff turnover carries a familiar echo.

“They keep promising that they will be trained, they will be trained. But it never happens,” the first former inspector, who recently left the agency, said.

The second former inspector who recently left the agency put it this way: “What our directors are doing now — they’re just like, ‘we'll create our own training’ — which they haven't been able to do for five years — and ‘we'll figure it out from there.’ This is all while inspections are actively going on.”

Several of the complaints raised by former staff, including mismanagement by supervisors, were reflected in part in a 2019 whistleblower complaint first reported by Vanity Fair. The complaint detailed a scenario in which an inspector, Arie Menachem, flagged unsafe practices at a Merck manufacturing facility only to have his supervisor downplay his findings.

But the training issues described by the former inspectors are far more extensive than previously understood and have persisted, according to the former inspectors.

The former inspectors said they participated in more than a dozen training courses during their time at the agency. Some of those classes lasted weeks and required inspectors attend in-person instructional courses with industry representatives on how to inspect, manufacture and test specialized products overseen by the team.

The current inspection staff did not attend the same training courses as their veteran colleagues. The newer hires completed virtual video tutorials on basic inspection rules and procedures, the former inspectors said. Now, about half of the inspectors do not have any background in inspecting biological drug products and they are often forced to learn on the job, the former inspectors said.

“Now, they've just moved some of these people over, like ‘Oh, you do blood inspections, you can just come over and start doing drug [and vaccine] inspections,’ which is ridiculous,” the second of the former inspectors said. “That institutional knowledge of the manufacturing process is important.”

Executives in the pharmaceutical industry — including those that work in vaccine facilities — have begun to pick up on the lack of training, according to a person familiar with the matter who has worked with several high-profile vaccine manufacturers.

“They used to be feared in industry,” the person said of Team Biologics. “But recently it’s been clear that the training isn’t there. The inspectors make observations on what the operator does — if they move too fast or don’t sanitize their hands in the right way. It is important that the inspector is experienced and knows what to look for. The inspector who doesn’t know couldn’t catch a problem or could question a perfectly good practice.”

A serious mission

Congress founded Team Biologics in 1997 to help oversee inspections of biological drug manufacturers. The FDA at the same time created the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, a separate office that oversees pre-approval and pre-license investigations of the same products.

“Team Biologics … promote[s] and protect[s] the public health through coordinated, integrated assessments of the compliance status of biological drug manufacturers,” according to the FDA website.

The team began oversight of the industry manufacturing, processing and distributing of products like allergenics, vaccines, therapeutic drugs as well as in vitro diagnostic products. The team started taking on inspections of placental and umbilical cord blood products later in 2010 and gene and cell therapy several years after that.

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Many of the products overseen by Team Biologics are manufactured using aseptic processing, a specific system that produces sterile injectable products.

“It is important to become thoroughly familiar with each step in the process, before attempting to evaluate the system for compliance,” a section of the FDA’s website on inspections says.

But the former inspectors say the managers of Team Biologics haven’t provided newer inspectors with rigorous training opportunities that educate them on how aseptic processing works and how to ensure everything from the equipment to the manufacturing is sound.

Harrison pushed back on that claim, saying some of the courses offered to Team Biologics inspectors focus on biological drugs, sterilization and aseptic processing. She did not provide details of how long those courses lasted or whether they were conducted in person.

When the FDA hired people onto Team Biologics during the early years after its formation, inspectors were required to go through a series of training programs, including training that educated inspectors about aseptic processing. Those programs also included sessions on the freezing of vaccine product, the fermentation process, medical device training as well as special classes on products overseen by the team.

“[Some of] the newer hires have … not even attended basic drug school,” the second former inspector said, adding that they had also not completed nearly as many hours of rigorous training as those who were hired after Team Biologics formed.

The first former inspector said they participated in one training course that lasted three weeks.

“It was intense. And you had to pass things by 90 percent or so. If you didn’t, you had to retake,” the former inspector said. “Then every year thereafter we had to go to headquarters where we were retrained on whatever is new. But that has not happened for more than 10 years.”

Harrison did not answer questions about exactly how many inspectors who have joined Team Biologics since 2020 have prior experience inspecting facilities that produce drug products. She also did not answer questions about how many people had experience inspecting vaccine facilities before joining the team.

A Merger

Team Biologics merged with another team— one that focused on unlicensed blood and tissue products — after the FDA moved in 2017 to reorganize parts of the agency, the inspectors said. The reorganization came to be known internally as “program alignment.” The move attempted to streamline processes, including inspections, within the FDA. But former inspectors said it complicated the work because their new supervisors did not have experience working in complex biological drug inspections.

In the years that followed, a new set of inspectors — both from the previous unlicensed blood and tissue product investigative team as well as new hires — did not have the experience necessary for inspecting biological drug products, the former inspectors said.

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“Blood, along with the other biologics — they are life-sustaining products. It requires complex manufacturing. The risk profile of not doing it well is profound,” Taylor, the former FDA official, said. “You want people who are really well versed in the science and issue spotting so they can identify these issues quickly … and steps can be taken to address the problem.”

The newer staff were also never enrolled in the same training programs as their veteran colleagues had completed, making it difficult for them to actively participate in inspections outside of completing basic, administrative tasks, one of the former inspectors said.

One of the former inspectors said the current inspectors plunge into the job having only watched online instructional videos, most of which focused on how to wear proper inspection gear and how to clean manufacturing areas. Some of the videos also included details on how to conduct visual inspections of facilities. The current inspectors learn primarily on the job, the former inspector said.

“Not only were we supposed to cover and do the inspections, we were supposed to train them [ourselves],” the second former inspector said of needing to help educate newer inspectors.

The former inspectors who spoke to POLITICO also shadowed their colleagues on the job when they first started. The one main difference: They were required to pass through intensive training programs — mostly in person — that gave them specific knowledge of the products they were required to oversee. Some of those trainings were held in conjunction with CBER, the former inspectors said.

Over the last several years, particularly since the pandemic began, the newer hires on Team Biologics have, on average, issued fewer Form 483s — documents that lay out specific findings during inspections such as instances where manufacturing staff improperly handled drug substances or a facility having unsanitary equipment, the former inspectors said.

The number of inspections that occurred during the pandemic dropped off — a fact that could explain the lower rates of issuing 483s. But the former inspectors said the lower rates are also reflective of a far more serious and systematic issue on the team — that the inspectors may not know what to look for while on inspections. Harrison did not answer questions about how many 483s have been filed by the newer hires on Team Biologics.

The FDA realignment in 2017 also paired inspectors who had been accustomed to working on inspections of manufacturers who used extremely technical, often difficult-to-master production concepts for products like vaccines, with supervisors who have never worked on biological drug inspections, the former inspectors said.

Harrison did not answer questions about whether the supervisors of Team Biologics have experience inspecting facilities that produce the products the team is responsible for overseeing.

“[They] … have a scientific educational background coupled with experience in inspectional techniques,” Harrison said.

In his whistleblower report, former inspector Menachem called out his managers who decided to issue a less serious finding than he had suggested following his inspection at Merck in 2018 where he found the company was destroying evidence of possible violations, according to his whistleblower letter obtained by POLITICO. In the letter, he also said his managers declined his request for additional staff to help him with the inspection.

U.S. Special Counsel Henry Kerner wrote about Menachem’s whistleblower complaint in a letter to President Joe Biden in March 2021, confirming that the downgrading of the finding compromised “compliance and safety efforts,” according to the letter.

Menachem left the FDA in 2019. Since then, others have left Team Biologics, some to join the private sector where salaries are significantly higher than those offered at the FDA. In recent weeks, one of the supervisors on Team Biologics announced their departure.

The FDA regularly publishes stats on its inspection backlog and has made progress this year, in part because in some instances, inspectors are conducting remote assessments and because many of the restrictions on in-person inspections imposed during the pandemic have been lifted.

Mon, 05 Dec 2022 19:30:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/other/ex-fda-vaccine-inspectors-call-for-better-training/ar-AA14X7xV
Killexams : Boom to Lead New Powerplant Design for Supersonic Jet

Months after losing its primary engine manufacturer, Boom Supersonic is now leading a consortium of industry partners in designing a powerplant for its Overture supersonic airliner, it announced.

Boom said it is leading the collaborative effort in developing the new supersonic engine—dubbed Symphony— alongside Florida Turbine Technologies (FTT) for engine design, GE Additive for additive technology design consulting, and StandardAero for maintenance for Symphony.

The announcement comes three months after engine manufacturer Rolls-Royce exited its contract with the commercial airline manufacturer, prompting Boom to look to other engine manufacturers with supersonic propulsion programs. At the time, Rolls-Royce said commercial supersonic flight was no longer a short-term priority for the company.

Company officials, however, then decided the solution was to design the aircraft and engine together.

“Developing a supersonic engine specifically for Overture offers by far the best value proposition for our customers,” said Blake Scholl, founder and CEO of Boom Supersonic,

The announcement comes at a pivotal point of development for Boom following Rolls-Royce’s exit. The first Overture aircraft—expected to fly as fast as Mach 1.7, as high as 60,000 feet msl, and carry between 65 to 88 passengers—was scheduled to roll out in 2025 and begin commercial service with passengers by 2029.

Symphony will be a medium-bypass turbofan engine with the same basic engine architecture that currently powers all modern commercial aircraft. [Courtesy: Boom Supersonic]

Now, with Symphony, Boom said that design is already underway and that Overture is expected to achieve type certification in 2029. The company will build Overture at the Overture Superfactory in Greensboro, North Carolina, with ground testing to begin in 2026 and flight test in 2027.

“Through the Symphony program, we can provide our customers with an economically and environmentally sustainable supersonic airplane—a combination unattainable with the current constraints of derivative engines and industry norms,” Scholl said.

A Boom-Led Partnership

FTT, a Kratos Defense & Security Solutions, Inc business unit, will lead the engine design portion. Boom indicated that it would leverage FTT’s “supersonic engine design expertise,” notably because FTT’s workforce, including engineers involved in the “designing the F-119 and F-135 supersonic engines that power the F-22 and F-35,” Boom said.

“The team at FTT has a decades-long history of developing innovative, high-performance propulsion solutions,” FTT President Stacey Rock said. “We are proud to team with Boom and its Symphony partners and look forward to developing the first bespoke engine for sustainable, economical supersonic flight.”

Boom has also tapped GE Additive for additive manufacturing design consulting. Boom said the partnership would enable more streamlined development, reduced weight, and improved fuel efficiency.

“GE Additive will bring industry-leading capabilities to Symphony, providing additive manufacturing design consulting and technology while looking for additional areas to potentially collaborate,” Chris Schuppe, general manager of engineering and technology at GE Additive, said in a statement.

Looking ahead to maintenance, Boom selected StandardAero in order to deliver “reliable and economical operations and provision of maintenance services for the life of the aircraft,” it said.

StandardAero also has experience as a supersonic engine assembler.

“Our current qualifications, capabilities, and experience assembling and servicing supersonic military jet engines make us the intelligent solution for future commercial supersonic engine MRO applications,” said Russell Ford, chairman, and CEO of StandardAero.

Here’s What to Know About Symphony

According to Boom, the powerplant will be a medium-bypass turbofan engine, similar to powerplants on current commercial aircraft. However, unlike subsonic turbofans, Boom said its Symphony would feature a Boom-designed axisymmetric supersonic intake, a variable-geometry, low-noise exhaust nozzle, and a passively cooled high-pressure turbine. It won’t have an afterburner. 

Boom said the powerplant would produce 35,000 lbs of thrust on takeoff and would run on 100 percent sustainable aviation fuel. To keep things quiet and meet Chapter 14 noise level requirements, Symphony will be designed with a single-stage fan. The process will include additive manufacturing to keep its weight and parts count low and reduce assembly costs. Finally, it will need to meet FAA and EASA Part 33 engine certification requirements.

Boom said it expects Symphony to reduce airplane operating costs for airline customers by 10 percent compared to other derivative powerplants.

Tue, 13 Dec 2022 07:47:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.flyingmag.com/boom-to-lead-new-powerplant-design-for-supersonic-jet/
Killexams : Test Data Management (TDM) Market Trends, Size, Share and Forecast 2028 with Top Countries Data

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Dec 06, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of Russia-Ukraine War and COVID-19 on this industry.

"Test Data Management (TDM) Market" Insights 2022 - By Applications (Data subsetting, Data masking, Data profiling and analysis, Data compliance and security, Synthetic test data generation, Others (data provisioning and data monitoring)), By Types (Implementation, Consulting, Support and Maintenance, Training and Education), By Segmentation analysis, Regions and Forecast to 2028. The Global Test Data Management (TDM) market Report provides In-depth analysis on the market status of the Test Data Management (TDM) Top manufacturers with best facts and figures, meaning, Definition, SWOT analysis, PESTAL analysis, expert opinions and the latest developments across the globe., the Test Data Management (TDM) Market Report contains Full TOC, Tables and Figures, and Chart with Key Analysis, Pre and Post COVID-19 Market Outbreak Impact Analysis and Situation by Regions.

Test Data Management (TDM) Market Size is projected to Reach Multimillion USD by 2028, In comparison to 2021, at unexpected CAGR during the forecast Period 2022-2028.

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables and Figures with Charts that provides exclusive data, information, vital statistics, trends, and competitive landscape details in this niche sector.

Considering the economic change due to COVID-19 and Russia-Ukraine War Influence, Test Data Management (TDM), which accounted for % of the global market of Test Data Management (TDM) in 2021

TO KNOW HOW COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND RUSSIA UKRAINE WAR WILL IMPACT THIS MARKET - REQUEST SAMPLE

Moreover, it helps new businesses perform a positive assessment of their business plans because it covers a range of Topics market participants must be aware of to remain competitive.

Test Data Management (TDM) Market Report identifies various key players in the market and sheds light on their strategies and collaborations to combat competition. The comprehensive report provides a two-dimensional picture of the market. By knowing the global revenue of manufacturers, the global price of manufacturers, and the production by manufacturers during the forecast period of 2022 to 2028, the reader can identify the footprints of manufacturers in the Test Data Management (TDM) industry.

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Test Data Management (TDM) Market - Competitive and Segmentation Analysis:

Test Data Management (TDM) Market Reportproviding an overview of successful marketing strategies, market contributions, and recent developments of leading companies, the report also offers a dashboard overview of leading companies' past and present performance. Several methodologies and analyses are used in the research report to provide in-depth and accurate information about the Test Data Management (TDM) Market.

The Major players covered in the Test Data Management (TDM) market report are:

● Broadcom (US)
● Cigniti Technologies (India)
● Compuware (US)
● DATPROF (Netherlands)
● Delphix Corporation (US)
● Ekobit (Croatia)
● IBM (US)
● Informatica (US)
● Infosys (India)
● Innovative Routines International (US)
● MENTIS (US)
● Original Software Group (UK)
● Solix Technologies (US)

Short Description About Test Data Management (TDM) Market:

The Global Test Data Management (TDM) market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2022 and 2028. In 2021, the market is growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

Highlights

The global Test Data Management (TDM) market is projected to reach USD million by 2028 from an estimated USD million in 2022, at a CAGR of % during 2023 and 2028.

North American market for Test Data Management (TDM) is estimated to increase from USD million in 2022 to reach USD million by 2028, at a CAGR of % during the forecast period of 2023 through 2028.

Asia-Pacific market for Test Data Management (TDM) is estimated to increase from USD million in 2022 to reach USD million by 2028, at a CAGR of % during the forecast period of 2022 through 2028.

The major global companies of Test Data Management (TDM) include Broadcom (US), Cigniti Technologies (India), Compuware (US), DATPROF (Netherlands), Delphix Corporation (US), Ekobit (Croatia), IBM (US), Informatica (US), Infosys (India), Innovative Routines International (US), MENTIS (US), Original Software Group (UK), Solix Technologies (US)etc. In 2021, the world's top three vendors accounted for approximately % of the revenue.

The global market for Test Data Management (TDM) is estimated to increase from USD million in 2022 to USD million by 2028, at a CAGR of % during the forecast period of 2022 through 2028.

Report Scope

This report aims to provide a comprehensive presentation of the global market for Test Data Management (TDM), with both quantitative and qualitative analysis, to help readers develop business/growth strategies, assess the market competitive situation, analyze their position in the current marketplace, and make informed business decisions regarding Test Data Management (TDM).

The Test Data Management (TDM) market size, estimations, and forecasts are provided in terms of output/shipments (K PCs) and revenue (USD millions), considering 2021 as the base year, with history and forecast data for the period from 2017 to 2028. This report segments the global Test Data Management (TDM) market comprehensively. Regional market sizes, concerning products by types, by application, and by players, are also provided. The influence of COVID-19 and the Russia-Ukraine War were considered while estimating market sizes.

For a more in-depth understanding of the market, the report provides profiles of the competitive landscape, key competitors, and their respective market ranks. The report also discusses technological trends and new product developments.

The report will help the Test Data Management (TDM) manufacturers, new entrants, and industry chain related companies in this market with information on the revenues, production, and average price for the overall market and the sub-segments across the different segments, by company, product type, application, and regions.

Get a trial Copy of the Test Data Management (TDM) Report 2022

Test Data Management (TDM) Market is further classified on the basis of region as follows:

● North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) ● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.) ● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam) ● South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.) ● Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

This Test Data Management (TDM) Market Research/Analysis Report Contains Answers to your following Questions

● What are the global trends in the Test Data Management (TDM) market? Would the market witness an increase or decline in the demand in the coming years? ● What is the estimated demand for different types of products in Test Data Management (TDM)? What are the upcoming industry applications and trends for Test Data Management (TDM) market? ● What Are Projections of Global Test Data Management (TDM) Industry Considering Capacity, Production and Production Value? What Will Be the Estimation of Cost and Profit? What Will Be Market Share, Supply and Consumption? What about Import and Export? ● Where will the strategic developments take the industry in the mid to long-term? ● What are the factors contributing to the final price of Test Data Management (TDM)? What are the raw materials used for Test Data Management (TDM) manufacturing? ● How big is the opportunity for the Test Data Management (TDM) market? How will the increasing adoption of Test Data Management (TDM) for mining impact the growth rate of the overall market? ● How much is the global Test Data Management (TDM) market worth? What was the value of the market In 2020? ● Who are the major players operating in the Test Data Management (TDM) market? Which companies are the front runners? ● Which are the recent industry trends that can be implemented to generate additional revenue streams? ● What Should Be Entry Strategies, Countermeasures to Economic Impact, and Marketing Channels for Test Data Management (TDM) Industry?

Customization of the Report

Our research analysts will help you to get customized details for your report, which can be modified in terms of a specific region, application or any statistical details. In addition, we are always willing to comply with the study, which triangulated with your own data to make the market research more comprehensive in your perspective.

Inquire more and share questions if any before the purchase on this report at -https://www.360researchreports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/19943208

Detailed TOC of Global Test Data Management (TDM) Market Insights and Forecast to 2028

1 Test Data Management (TDM) Market Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Test Data Management (TDM)
1.2 Test Data Management (TDM) Segment by Type
1.2.1 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Market Size Growth Rate Analysis by Type 2022 VS 2028
1.3 Test Data Management (TDM) Segment by Application
1.3.1 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Consumption Comparison by Application: 2022 VS 2028
1.4 Global Market Growth Prospects
1.4.1 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Revenue Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.4.2 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Production Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5 Global Market Size by Region
1.5.1 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Market Size Estimates and Forecasts by Region: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028
1.5.2 North America Test Data Management (TDM) Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.3 Europe Test Data Management (TDM) Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.4 China Test Data Management (TDM) Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.5 Japan Test Data Management (TDM) Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.6 South Korea Test Data Management (TDM) Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)

2 Market Competition by Manufacturers
2.1 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Production Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.2 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Revenue Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.3 Test Data Management (TDM) Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3)
2.4 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Average Price by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.5 Manufacturers Test Data Management (TDM) Production Sites, Area Served, Product Types
2.6 Test Data Management (TDM) Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.6.1 Test Data Management (TDM) Market Concentration Rate
2.6.2 Global 5 and 10 Largest Test Data Management (TDM) Players Market Share by Revenue
2.6.3 Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion

3 Production by Region
3.1 Global Production of Test Data Management (TDM) Market Share by Region (2017-2022)
3.2 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Revenue Market Share by Region (2017-2022)
3.3 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.4 North America Test Data Management (TDM) Production
3.4.1 North America Test Data Management (TDM) Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.4.2 North America Test Data Management (TDM) Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.5 Europe Test Data Management (TDM) Production
3.5.1 Europe Test Data Management (TDM) Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.5.2 Europe Test Data Management (TDM) Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.6 China Test Data Management (TDM) Production
3.6.1 China Test Data Management (TDM) Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.6.2 China Test Data Management (TDM) Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.7 Japan Test Data Management (TDM) Production
3.7.1 Japan Test Data Management (TDM) Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.7.2 Japan Test Data Management (TDM) Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.8 South Korea Test Data Management (TDM) Production
3.8.1 South Korea Test Data Management (TDM) Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.8.2 South Korea Test Data Management (TDM) Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)

4 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Consumption by Region
4.1 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Consumption by Region
4.1.1 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Consumption by Region
4.1.2 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Consumption Market Share by Region
4.2 North America
4.2.1 North America Test Data Management (TDM) Consumption by Country
4.2.2 United States
4.2.3 Canada
4.3 Europe
4.3.1 Europe Test Data Management (TDM) Consumption by Country
4.3.2 Germany
4.3.3 France
4.3.4 U.K.
4.3.5 Italy
4.3.6 Russia
4.4 Asia Pacific
4.4.1 Asia Pacific Test Data Management (TDM) Consumption by Region
4.4.2 China
4.4.3 Japan
4.4.4 South Korea
4.4.5 China Taiwan
4.4.6 Southeast Asia
4.4.7 India
4.4.8 Australia
4.5 Latin America
4.5.1 Latin America Test Data Management (TDM) Consumption by Country
4.5.2 Mexico
4.5.3 Brazil

5 Segment by Type
5.1 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Production Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.2 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Revenue Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.3 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Price by Type (2017-2022)

6 Segment by Application
6.1 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Production Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.2 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Revenue Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.3 Global Test Data Management (TDM) Price by Application (2017-2022)

7 Key Companies Profiled
7.1 Company 1
7.1.1 Company 1 Test Data Management (TDM) Corporation Information
7.1.2 Company 1 Test Data Management (TDM) Product Portfolio
7.1.3 Company 1 Test Data Management (TDM) Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.1.4 Company 1 Main Business and Markets Served
7.1.5 Company 1 recent Developments/Updates

Continued..

8 Test Data Management (TDM) Manufacturing Cost Analysis
8.1 Test Data Management (TDM) Key Raw Materials Analysis
8.1.1 Key Raw Materials
8.1.2 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
8.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
8.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Test Data Management (TDM)
8.4 Test Data Management (TDM) Industrial Chain Analysis

9 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers
9.1 Marketing Channel
9.2 Test Data Management (TDM) Distributors List
9.3 Test Data Management (TDM) Customers

10 Market Dynamics
10.1 Test Data Management (TDM) Industry Trends
10.2 Test Data Management (TDM) Market Drivers
10.3 Test Data Management (TDM) Market Challenges
10.4 Test Data Management (TDM) Market Restraints

11 Production and Supply Forecast
11.1 Global Forecasted Production of Test Data Management (TDM) by Region (2023-2028)
11.2 North America Test Data Management (TDM) Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
11.3 Europe Test Data Management (TDM) Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
11.4 China Test Data Management (TDM) Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
11.5 Japan Test Data Management (TDM) Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
11.6 South Korea Test Data Management (TDM) Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)

12 Consumption and Demand Forecast
12.1 Global Forecasted Demand Analysis of Test Data Management (TDM)
12.2 North America Forecasted Consumption of Test Data Management (TDM) by Country
12.3 Europe Market Forecasted Consumption of Test Data Management (TDM) by Country
12.4 Asia Pacific Market Forecasted Consumption of Test Data Management (TDM) by Region
12.5 Latin America Forecasted Consumption of Test Data Management (TDM) by Country

13 Forecast by Type and by Application (2023-2028)
13.1 Global Production, Revenue and Price Forecast by Type (2023-2028)
13.1.1 Global Forecasted Production of Test Data Management (TDM) by Type (2023-2028)
13.1.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of Test Data Management (TDM) by Type (2023-2028)
13.1.3 Global Forecasted Price of Test Data Management (TDM) by Type (2023-2028)
13.2 Global Forecasted Consumption of Test Data Management (TDM) by Application (2023-2028)
13.2.1 Global Forecasted Production of Test Data Management (TDM) by Application (2023-2028)
13.2.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of Test Data Management (TDM) by Application (2023-2028)
13.2.3 Global Forecasted Price of Test Data Management (TDM) by Application (2023-2028)

14 Research Finding and Conclusion

15 Methodology and Data Source
15.1 Methodology/Research Approach
15.1.1 Research Programs/Design
15.1.2 Market Size Estimation
15.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
15.2 Data Source
15.2.1 Secondary Sources
15.2.2 Primary Sources
15.3 Author List
15.4 Disclaimer

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Killexams : AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market 2022 : Key Product Segments, Application Analysis, and Industry Growth Forecast by 2028

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Dec 09, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of Russia-Ukraine War and COVID-19 on this industry.

"AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market" Insights 2022 - By Applications (Primary and Secondary Education, Test Preparation, Reskilling and Certifications, Higher Education, Language and Other Learnings), By Types (AR Audio, AR Video, AR Game, AR Content, Other), By Segmentation analysis, Regions and Forecast to 2028. The Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education market Report provides In-depth analysis on the market status of the AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Top manufacturers with best facts and figures, meaning, Definition, SWOT analysis, PESTAL analysis, expert opinions and the latest developments across the globe., the AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Report contains Full TOC, Tables and Figures, and Chart with Key Analysis, Pre and Post COVID-19 Market Outbreak Impact Analysis and Situation by Regions.

AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Size is projected to Reach Multimillion USD by 2028, In comparison to 2021, at unexpected CAGR during the forecast Period 2022-2028.

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables and Figures with Charts that provides exclusive data, information, vital statistics, trends, and competitive landscape details in this niche sector.

Considering the economic change due to COVID-19 and Russia-Ukraine War Influence, AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education, which accounted for % of the global market of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education in 2021

TO KNOW HOW COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND RUSSIA UKRAINE WAR WILL IMPACT THIS MARKET - REQUEST SAMPLE

Moreover, it helps new businesses perform a positive assessment of their business plans because it covers a range of Topics market participants must be aware of to remain competitive.

AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Report identifies various key players in the market and sheds light on their strategies and collaborations to combat competition. The comprehensive report provides a two-dimensional picture of the market. By knowing the global revenue of manufacturers, the global price of manufacturers, and the production by manufacturers during the forecast period of 2022 to 2028, the reader can identify the footprints of manufacturers in the AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education industry.

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AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market - Competitive and Segmentation Analysis:

AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Reportproviding an overview of successful marketing strategies, market contributions, and recent developments of leading companies, the report also offers a dashboard overview of leading companies' past and present performance. Several methodologies and analyses are used in the research report to provide in-depth and accurate information about the AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market.

The Major players covered in the AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education market report are:

● Google
● EON Reality
● GAMOOZ
● QuiverVision
● Magic Leap
● Chromville
● EnGage
● Lenovo
● zSpace
● Alchemy VR
● VIRAL

Short Description About AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market:

The Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2022 and 2028. In 2021, the market is growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

Highlights

The global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education market is projected to reach USD million by 2028 from an estimated USD million in 2022, at a CAGR of % during 2023 and 2028.

North American market for AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education is estimated to increase from USD million in 2022 to reach USD million by 2028, at a CAGR of % during the forecast period of 2023 through 2028.

Asia-Pacific market for AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education is estimated to increase from USD million in 2022 to reach USD million by 2028, at a CAGR of % during the forecast period of 2022 through 2028.

The major global companies of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education include Google, EON Reality, GAMOOZ, QuiverVision, Magic Leap, Chromville, EnGage, Lenovo, zSpace, Alchemy VR, VIRALetc. In 2021, the world's top three vendors accounted for approximately % of the revenue.

The global market for AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education is estimated to increase from USD million in 2022 to USD million by 2028, at a CAGR of % during the forecast period of 2022 through 2028.

Report Scope

This report aims to provide a comprehensive presentation of the global market for AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education, with both quantitative and qualitative analysis, to help readers develop business/growth strategies, assess the market competitive situation, analyze their position in the current marketplace, and make informed business decisions regarding AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education.

The AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education market size, estimations, and forecasts are provided in terms of output/shipments (K PCs) and revenue (USD millions), considering 2021 as the base year, with history and forecast data for the period from 2017 to 2028. This report segments the global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education market comprehensively. Regional market sizes, concerning products by types, by application, and by players, are also provided. The influence of COVID-19 and the Russia-Ukraine War were considered while estimating market sizes.

For a more in-depth understanding of the market, the report provides profiles of the competitive landscape, key competitors, and their respective market ranks. The report also discusses technological trends and new product developments.

The report will help the AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education manufacturers, new entrants, and industry chain related companies in this market with information on the revenues, production, and average price for the overall market and the sub-segments across the different segments, by company, product type, application, and regions.

Get a trial Copy of the AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Report 2022

AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market is further classified on the basis of region as follows:

● North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) ● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.) ● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam) ● South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.) ● Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

This AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Research/Analysis Report Contains Answers to your following Questions

● What are the global trends in the AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education market? Would the market witness an increase or decline in the demand in the coming years? ● What is the estimated demand for different types of products in AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education? What are the upcoming industry applications and trends for AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education market? ● What Are Projections of Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Industry Considering Capacity, Production and Production Value? What Will Be the Estimation of Cost and Profit? What Will Be Market Share, Supply and Consumption? What about Import and Export? ● Where will the strategic developments take the industry in the mid to long-term? ● What are the factors contributing to the final price of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education? What are the raw materials used for AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education manufacturing? ● How big is the opportunity for the AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education market? How will the increasing adoption of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education for mining impact the growth rate of the overall market? ● How much is the global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education market worth? What was the value of the market In 2020? ● Who are the major players operating in the AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education market? Which companies are the front runners? ● Which are the recent industry trends that can be implemented to generate additional revenue streams? ● What Should Be Entry Strategies, Countermeasures to Economic Impact, and Marketing Channels for AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Industry?

Customization of the Report

Our research analysts will help you to get customized details for your report, which can be modified in terms of a specific region, application or any statistical details. In addition, we are always willing to comply with the study, which triangulated with your own data to make the market research more comprehensive in your perspective.

Inquire more and share questions if any before the purchase on this report at -https://www.360researchreports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/18702596

Detailed TOC of Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Insights and Forecast to 2028

1 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education
1.2 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Segment by Type
1.2.1 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Size Growth Rate Analysis by Type 2022 VS 2028
1.3 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Segment by Application
1.3.1 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Consumption Comparison by Application: 2022 VS 2028
1.4 Global Market Growth Prospects
1.4.1 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Revenue Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.4.2 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5 Global Market Size by Region
1.5.1 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Size Estimates and Forecasts by Region: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028
1.5.2 North America AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.3 Europe AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.4 China AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.5 Japan AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.6 South Korea AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)

2 Market Competition by Manufacturers
2.1 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.2 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Revenue Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.3 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3)
2.4 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Average Price by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.5 Manufacturers AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production Sites, Area Served, Product Types
2.6 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.6.1 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Concentration Rate
2.6.2 Global 5 and 10 Largest AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Players Market Share by Revenue
2.6.3 Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion

3 Production by Region
3.1 Global Production of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Share by Region (2017-2022)
3.2 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Revenue Market Share by Region (2017-2022)
3.3 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.4 North America AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production
3.4.1 North America AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.4.2 North America AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.5 Europe AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production
3.5.1 Europe AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.5.2 Europe AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.6 China AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production
3.6.1 China AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.6.2 China AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.7 Japan AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production
3.7.1 Japan AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.7.2 Japan AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.8 South Korea AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production
3.8.1 South Korea AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.8.2 South Korea AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)

4 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Consumption by Region
4.1 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Consumption by Region
4.1.1 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Consumption by Region
4.1.2 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Consumption Market Share by Region
4.2 North America
4.2.1 North America AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Consumption by Country
4.2.2 United States
4.2.3 Canada
4.3 Europe
4.3.1 Europe AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Consumption by Country
4.3.2 Germany
4.3.3 France
4.3.4 U.K.
4.3.5 Italy
4.3.6 Russia
4.4 Asia Pacific
4.4.1 Asia Pacific AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Consumption by Region
4.4.2 China
4.4.3 Japan
4.4.4 South Korea
4.4.5 China Taiwan
4.4.6 Southeast Asia
4.4.7 India
4.4.8 Australia
4.5 Latin America
4.5.1 Latin America AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Consumption by Country
4.5.2 Mexico
4.5.3 Brazil

5 Segment by Type
5.1 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.2 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Revenue Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.3 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Price by Type (2017-2022)

6 Segment by Application
6.1 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.2 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Revenue Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.3 Global AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Price by Application (2017-2022)

7 Key Companies Profiled
7.1 Company 1
7.1.1 Company 1 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Corporation Information
7.1.2 Company 1 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Product Portfolio
7.1.3 Company 1 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.1.4 Company 1 Main Business and Markets Served
7.1.5 Company 1 recent Developments/Updates

Continued..

8 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Manufacturing Cost Analysis
8.1 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Key Raw Materials Analysis
8.1.1 Key Raw Materials
8.1.2 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
8.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
8.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education
8.4 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Industrial Chain Analysis

9 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers
9.1 Marketing Channel
9.2 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Distributors List
9.3 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Customers

10 Market Dynamics
10.1 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Industry Trends
10.2 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Drivers
10.3 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Challenges
10.4 AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Market Restraints

11 Production and Supply Forecast
11.1 Global Forecasted Production of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education by Region (2023-2028)
11.2 North America AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
11.3 Europe AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
11.4 China AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
11.5 Japan AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
11.6 South Korea AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)

12 Consumption and Demand Forecast
12.1 Global Forecasted Demand Analysis of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education
12.2 North America Forecasted Consumption of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education by Country
12.3 Europe Market Forecasted Consumption of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education by Country
12.4 Asia Pacific Market Forecasted Consumption of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education by Region
12.5 Latin America Forecasted Consumption of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education by Country

13 Forecast by Type and by Application (2023-2028)
13.1 Global Production, Revenue and Price Forecast by Type (2023-2028)
13.1.1 Global Forecasted Production of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education by Type (2023-2028)
13.1.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education by Type (2023-2028)
13.1.3 Global Forecasted Price of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education by Type (2023-2028)
13.2 Global Forecasted Consumption of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education by Application (2023-2028)
13.2.1 Global Forecasted Production of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education by Application (2023-2028)
13.2.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education by Application (2023-2028)
13.2.3 Global Forecasted Price of AR (Augmented Reality) in Training and Education by Application (2023-2028)

14 Research Finding and Conclusion

15 Methodology and Data Source
15.1 Methodology/Research Approach
15.1.1 Research Programs/Design
15.1.2 Market Size Estimation
15.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
15.2 Data Source
15.2.1 Secondary Sources
15.2.2 Primary Sources
15.3 Author List
15.4 Disclaimer

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Killexams : Wi-Fi 7 requires ‘exhaustive and predictive’ testing: Keysight Q&A

Wi-Fi 7, which is designed from the ground up for operation in the 6 GHz band, is also known as Extremely High Throughput, thanks to its support of up to 30 Gbps throughput. The next generation of Wi-Fi also promises higher spectrum and power efficiency, better interference mitigation, higher-capacity density and better cost efficiency. 

In the below conversation, which has been edited for length and clarity, Keysight Technologies’ Senior Application Engineer Bill Koerner discusses the state of 6 GHz Wi-Fi and how many of Wi-Fi 7’s exciting features like — Multi-Link Operation and Automatic Frequency Coordination — are impacting the test and measurement industry.

As Wi-Fi 7 is starting to emerge as the primary Wi-Fi conversation, what are your thoughts on the state of 6 GHz adoption?

Koerner: Over the last year, the number of countries adopting part, or all the 6 GHz band has increased. A portion have adopted different frequency ranges. For example, some countries in the EU have adopted 5945-6425 MHz, while the rest have adopted 5925-6425 MHz. This will place more design constraints to device manufacturers. Some countries have adopted 5925-6425 MHz but are considering the range of 6425-7125 MHz. This could create interesting market deployments for device manufacturers, as they may need to have their original products reassessed in the future should those countries adopt the higher frequencies. They may also decide to leave their existing products with the original frequency range.

In the U.S., the FCC has seen certifications for 6E products increase substantially, from an estimated 89 products in 2020 to over 285 as of November 2022. Most of these devices have been station, or client devices (such as smart TVs, Wi-Fi cards for computers, etc.).

Reporting data for the EU is harder to come by, as manufacturers are not required to get their products certified before use (as in the case of the United States). Therefore, it is difficult to predict the growth of 6E products available for use in the EU. Given the EU adopted their portion of the 6 GHz spectrum in late 2021, it is reasonable to expect the number of 6E products is lower than the U.S.

Has 6 GHz operation made testing more complex? How so?

Koerner: Most test equipment solutions were designed to cover up to 6 GHz. With the 6E requirements, this will require upgrades to cover up to at least 7.125 GHz.

The FCC has added a Contention Based Protocol (CBP) test for the 6 GHz band. This is a relatively new approach for the FCC to focus on the receiver functionality and employ a Listen Before Talk (LBT) capability. This will require a slightly different test set-up, and potentially new equipment. The figure below shows an example measurement result using the Keysight XA5002A FCC Test Software. The graphic gives an example of a power level where the device failed to detect the incumbent signal and stop transmitting.

This type of testing (LBT) has been required for the EU for all frequency bands and is not new for the 6 GHz band.  However, some of the other receiver tests are more complex than the lower frequency bands; notably the Receiver Selectivity tests will require testing at more frequencies. The figure below shows an example measurement result of receiver selectivity; the measured Packet Error Rate (PER) on the operating channel was less than 10% for interference signals 20 MHz below and above the operating channel using the Keysight XA5001A ETSI Test Software.

The move to Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax) to use OFDMA within the 5 and 6 GHz region has brought additional challenges. One new capability, preamble or channel puncturing will allow a Station device to ‘puncture’ an existing channel used by another Station device to transmit its data. This represents some unusual changes to existing tests, specifically the interference-type tests.

While the 6 GHz band has been available for over two years in the U.S., there are still additional changes to come, when the FCC announces rules for what are considered Phase 2 devices. These will be focused on outdoor devices and will require Automatic Frequency Coordination (AFC) to operate. That introduces another regulatory test, but what and how is currently unknown.

What other challenges might Wi-Fi 7 bring to the table? Will these challenges target certain sectors over others? The RF guys, for instance?

Koerner: Besides the 6GHz previously discussed, Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax) and Wi-Fi 7 (802.11be) introduced OFDMA, MRU (Multiple Resource Unit) and MLO (Multi-Link Operation). We see these features as a three-legged stool. Each requires the other to work well — but come up short on any and the stool will fall.

To that end, exhaustive and predictive testing must be made available to cover the many test cases these three features introduce. From an RF perspective, there will be little change from Wi-Fi 6E, it will still use the 6 GHz band, but with wider channel bandwidths available. Some of the tests required for Wi-Fi 7 are already being designed into the regulatory test standards.

How is Keysight addressing this increased complexity?

Koerner: Keysight enables solutions (IOT0047A Regulatory Test Solution) to allow not only Layer 1 testing of these features, but also the complex interactions that happen at Layer 3 and above (IxVeriwave). Selection of PHY rates, choice of bandwidth utilization (OFDMA/MRU), and choice of link (MLO) all are tied to decisions created well above Layer 1.

Keysight also … participate[s] in several industry association groups developing standards, including the FCC’s Technical Advisory Council (TAC), Telecommunication Certification Bodies (TCB), the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI), and the IEEE 802.11 working groups.

What are some of the Wi-Fi 7 features that you’re most excited about? And what advanced applications might they help enable?

Koerner: The combination of MRU and MLO that come from Wi-Fi 7 provide several Wi-Fi enhancements. MRU will allow band management and MLO will allow for throughput management as well as latency selectivity. Add to that the 320 MHz channel bandwidths that will potentially allow amazing high-speed data rates.

Wi-Fi 7 enables a host of advanced cases. Many people see Wi-Fi 7 as the entry to the VR/AR world as it allows for significant latency reduction, groomed throughput and dedicated links — if needed.

Mon, 12 Dec 2022 02:47:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.rcrwireless.com/20221212/test-and-measurement/wi-fi-7-requires-exhaustive-and-predictive-testing-keysight-qa
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