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AAMA-CMA test - AAMA Certified Medical Assistant Updated: 2023

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Exam Code: AAMA-CMA AAMA Certified Medical Assistant test November 2023 by Killexams.com team

AAMA-CMA AAMA Certified Medical Assistant

Follow a step-by-step guide to apply for the exam:

- Eligibility

- Documentation

- Policies

- Applying

- Scheduling

- Preparing

- Score Notification

- Certificate

Content Outline for the CMA (AAMA)® Certification Exam

I. A–G General

A. Psychology

1. Understanding Human Behavior

a. Behavioral theories

(1) Maslow

(2) Erikson

b. Defense mechanisms

(1) Common types

(2) Recognition and management

2. Human Growth and Development

a. Normal developmental patterns/milestones

3. Death and Dying Stages

B. Communication

1. Therapeutic/Adaptive Responses to Diverse Populations

a. Visually impaired

b. Hearing impaired

c. Age specific

(1) Geriatric

(2) Pediatric/adolescent

d. Seriously/terminally ill

e. Intellectual disability

f. Illiterate

g. Non-English speaking

h. Anxious/angry/distraught

i. Socially/culturally/ethnically diverse

2. Nonverbal Communication

a. Body language

(1) Posture

(2) Position

(3) Facial expression

(4) Territoriality/physical boundaries

(5) Gestures

(6) Touch

(7) Mannerisms

(8) Eye contact

3. Communication Cycle

a. Sender-message-receiver-feedback

b.Listening skills

(1) Active/therapeutic

c. Assess level of understanding

(1) Reflection

(2) Restatement

(3) Clarification

(4) Feedback

d. Barriers to communication

(1) Internal distractions

(a) Pain

(b) Hunger

(c) Anger

(2) External/environmental distractions

(a) Temperature

(b) Noise

4. Collection of Data

a. Types of questions

(1) Exploratory

(2) Open-ended

(3) Closed/Direct

5. Telephone Techniques

a. Call management

(1) Screening/gathering data

(2) Emergency/urgent situations

b. Messages

(1) Taking messages

(2) Leaving messages

6. Interpersonal Skills

a. Displaying impartial conduct without regard to race, religion, age, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, physical challenges, special needs, lifestyle choices

b. Recognizing stereotypes and biases

c. Demonstrating empathy/sympathy/compassion

C. Professionalism

1. Professional Behavior

a. Professional situations

(1) Displaying tact, diplomacy, courtesy, respect, dignity

(2) Demonstrating responsibility, integrity/honesty

(3) Responding to criticism

b. Professional image

2. Performing as a Team Member

a. Principles of health care team dynamics

(1) Cooperation for optimal outcomes

(2) Identification of the roles and credentials of health care team members

b. Time management principles

(1) Prioritizing responsibilities

D. Medical Law/Regulatory Guidelines

1. Advance Directives

a. Living will

b. Medical durable power of attorney

c. Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA)

2. Uniform Anatomical Gift Act

3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

4. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

5. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA '88)

6. Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act (ADAAA)

7. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

a. Health insurance portability access and renewal without preexisting conditions

b. Coordination of care to prevent duplication of services

8. Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act

a. Patient's right to inspect, amend, and restrict access to his/her medical record

9. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)

a. Controlled Substances Act of 1970

10. Medical Assistant Scope of Practice

a. Consequences of failing to operate within scope

11. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA)

12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

13. Consumer Protection Acts

a. Fair Debt Collection Practices Act

b. Truth in Lending Act of 1968 (Regulation Z)

14. Public Health and Welfare Disclosure

a. Public health statutes

(1) Communicable diseases

(2) Vital statistics

(3) Abuse/neglect/exploitation against child/elder

(a) Domestic abuse

(4) Wounds of violence

15. Confidentiality

a. Electronic access audit/activity log

b. Use and disclosure of personal/protected health information (PHI)

(1) Consent/authorization to release

(2) Drug and alcohol treatment records

(3) HIV-related information

(4) Mental health

16. Health Care Rights and Responsibilities

a. Patients' Bill of Rights/Patient Care Partnership

b. Professional liability

(1) Current standard of care

(2) Standards of conduct

(3) Malpractice coverage

c. Consent to treat

(1) Informed consent

(2) Implied consent

(3) Expressed consent

(4) Patient incompetence

(5) Emancipated minor

(6) Mature minor

17. Medicolegal Terms and Doctrines

a. Subpoena duces tecum

b. Subpoena

c. Respondeat superior

d. Res ipsa loquitor

e. Locum tenens

f. Defendant-plaintiff

g. Deposition

h. Arbitration-mediation

i. Good Samaritan laws

18. Categories of Law

a. Criminal law

(1) Felony/misdemeanor

b. Civil law

(1) Contracts (physician-patient relationships)

(a) Legal obligations to the patient

(b) Consequences for patient noncompliance

(c) Termination of medical care

(i) Elements/behaviors for withdrawal of care

(ii) Patient notification and documentation

(d) Ownership of medical records

(2) Torts

(a) Invasion of privacy

(b) Negligence

(c) Intentional torts

(i) Battery

(ii) Assault

(iii) Slander

(iv) Libel

c. Statutory law

(1) Medical practice acts

d. Common law (Legal precedents)

E. Medical Ethics

1. Ethical Standards

2. Factors Affecting Ethical Decisions

a. Legal

b. Moral

F. Risk Management, Quality Assurance, and Safety

1. Workplace Accident Prevention

a. Slips/trips/falls

2. Safety Signs, Symbols, Labels

3. Environmental Safety

a. Ergonomics

b. Electrical safety

c. Fire prevention/extinguisher use/regulations

4. Compliance Reporting

a. Reporting unsafe activities and behaviors

b. Disclosing errors in patient care

c. Insurance fraud, waste, and abuse

d. Conflicts of interest

e. Incident reports

G. Medical Terminology

1. Word Parts

a. Basic structure

(1) Roots/combining forms

(2) Prefixes

(3) Suffixes

2. Definitions/Medical Terminology

a. Diseases and pathologies

b. Diagnostic procedures

c. Surgical procedures

d. Medical specialties

II. H-M Administrative

H. Medical Reception

1. Medical Record Preparation

2. Demographic Data Review

a. Identity theft prevention

b. Insurance eligibility verification

3. Handling Vendors/Business Associates

4. Reception Room Environment

a. Comfort

b. Safety

c. Sanitation

5. Practice Information Packet

a. Office policies

b. Patient financial responsibilities

I. Patient Navigator/Advocate

1. Resource Information

a. Provide information about community resources

b. Facilitate referrals to community resources

c. Referral follow-up

J. Medical Business Practices

1. Written Communication

a. Letters

b. Memos/interoffice communications

c. Reports

2. Business Equipment

a. Routine maintenance

b. Safety precautions

3. Office Supply Inventory

a. Inventory control/recordkeeping

4. Electronic Applications

a. Medical management systems

(1) Database reports

(2) Meaningful use regulations

b. Spreadsheets, graphs

c. Electronic mail

d. Security

(1) Password/screen saver

(2) Encryption

(3) Firewall

e. Transmission of information

(1) Facsimile/scanner

(2) Patient portal to health data

f. Social media

K. Establish Patient Medical Record

1. Recognize and Interpret Data

a. History and physical

b. Discharge summary

c. Operative note

d. Diagnostic test/lab report

e. Clinic progress note

f. Consultation report

g. Correspondence

h. Charts, graphs, tables

i. Flow sheet

2. Charting Systems

a. Problem-oriented medical record (POMR)

b. Source-oriented medical record (SOMR)

L. Scheduling Appointments

1. Scheduling Guidelines

a. Appointment matrix

b. New patient appointments

(1) Identify required information

c. Established patient appointments

(1) Routine

(2) Urgent/emergency

d. Patient flow

(1) Patient needs/preference

(2) Physician preference

(3) Facility/equipment requirements

e. Outside services (e.g., lab, X-ray, surgery, outpatient procedures, hospital admissions)

2. Appointment Protocols

a. Legal aspects

b. Physician referrals

c. Cancellations/no-shows

d. Physician delay/unavailability

e. Reminders/recall systems

(1) Appointment cards

(2) Phone calls/text messages/e-mail notifications

(3) Tickler file

M. Practice Finances

1. Financial Terminology

a. Accounts receivable

b. Accounts payable

c. Assets

d. Liabilities

e. Aging of accounts

f. Debits

g. Credits

h. Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs)

i. Relative Value Units (RVUs)

2. Financial Procedures

a. Payment receipts

(1) Co-pays

b. Data entry

(1) Post charges

(2) Post payments

(3) Post adjustments

c. Manage petty cash account

d. Financial calculations

e. Billing procedures

(1) Itemized statements

(2) Billing cycles

f. Collection procedures

(1) Aging of accounts

(2) Preplanned payment options

(3) Credit arrangements

(4) Use of collection agencies

3. Diagnostic and Procedural Coding Applications

a. Current Procedural Terminology (CPT)

(1) Modifiers

(2) Upcoding

(3) Bundling of charges

b. International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modifications (ICD-CM) (Current schedule)

c. Linking procedure and diagnosis codes

d. Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS Level II)

4. Third-Party Payers/Insurance

a. Types of plans

(1) Commercial plans

(2) Government plans

(a) Medicare

(i) Advance Beneficiary Notice (ABN)

(b) Medicaid


(3) Managed care organizations (MCOs)

(a) Managed care requirements

(i) Care referrals

(ii) Precertification

[a] Diagnostic and surgical procedures

(iii) Prior authorization

[a] Medications

(4) Workers' compensation

b. Insurance claims

(1) Submission

(2) Appeals/denials

(3) Explanation of benefits (EOB)

III. N-V Clinical

N. Anatomy and Physiology

1. Body as a Whole

a. Structural units

b. Anatomical divisions, body cavities

c. Anatomical positions and directions

d. Body planes, quadrants

2. Body Systems Including Normal Structure, Function, and Interrelationships Across the Life Span

a. Integumentary

b. Musculoskeletal

c. Nervous

d. Cardiovascular, hematopoietic, and lymphatic

e. Respiratory

f. Digestive

g. Urinary

h. Reproductive

i. Endocrine

j. Sensory

3. Pathophysiology and Diseases of Body Systems

a. Integumentary

b. Musculoskeletal

c. Nervous

d. Cardiovascular, hemtopoietic, and lymphatic

e. Respiratory

f. Digestive

g. Urinary

h. Reproductive

i. Endocrine

j. Sensory

O. Infection Control

1. Infectious Agents

a. Bacteria

b. Viruses

c. Protozoa

d. Fungi

e. Parasites

2. Modes of Transmission

a. Direct

b. Indirect

c. Airborne

d. Droplet

e. Inhalation

3. Infection Cycle/Chain of Infection

4. Body's Natural Barriers

5. Medical Asepsis

a. Hand hygiene

(1) Hand washing

(2) Alcohol-based hand rub

b. Sanitization

c. Disinfection

6. Surgical Asepsis

a. Surgical scrub

b. Sterilization techniques/Autoclave

(1) Preparing items

(2) Wrapping

(3) Sterilization indicators

7. Standard Precautions/Blood-borne Pathogen Standards

a. Body fluids

b. Secretions

c. Excretions

d. Blood


e. Mucous membranes

f. Personal protective equipment (PPE)

(1) Gowns

(2) Gloves

(3) Masks

(4) Caps

(5) Eye protection

g. Post-exposure plan

8. Biohazard Disposal/Regulated Waste

a. Sharps

b. Blood and body fluids

c. Safety data sheets (SDS)

d. Spill kit

P. Patient Intake and Documentation of Care

1. Medical Record Documentation

a. Subjective data

(1) Chief complaint

(2) Present illness

(3) Past medical history

(4) Family history

(5) Social and occupational history

(6) Review of systems

b. Objective data

c. Making corrections

d. Treatment/compliance

Q. Patient Preparation and Assisting the Provider

1. Vital Signs/Anthropometrics

a. Blood pressure

(1) Technique

(2) Equipment

(a) Stethoscope

(b) Sphygmomanometer

b. Pulse

(1) Technique

(a) Pulse points

(b) Rate and rhythm

c. Height/weight/BMI

(1) Technique

(2) Equipment

d. Body temperature

(1) Technique

(2) Equipment

e. Oxygen saturation/pulse oximetry

(1) Technique

(2) Equipment

f. Respiration rate

(1) Technique

2. Recognize and Report Age-Specific Normal and Abnormal Vital Signs

3. Examinations

a. Methods

(1) Auscultation

(2) Palpation

(3) Percussion

(4) Mensuration

(5) Manipulation

(6) Inspection

b. Body positions/draping

(1) Sims

(2) Fowlers

(3) Supine

(4) Knee-chest

(5) Prone

(6) Lithotomy

(7) Dorsal recumbent

c. Pediatric exam

(1) Growth chart

(a) Measurements

(i) Techniques

b. OB-GYN exam

(1) Pelvic exam/PAP smear

(2) Prenatal/postpartum exams

4. Procedures

a. Procedure explanation and patient instructions

b. Supplies, equipment, and techniques

(1) Eye irrigation

(2) Ear irrigation

(3) Dressing change

(4) Suture/staple removal

(5) Sterile procedures

(a) Surgical assisting

(b) Surgical tray prep

(c) Antiseptic skin prep

(d) Sterile field boundaries

(e) Surgical instruments

(i) Classifications

(ii) Instrument use

5. Patient Education/Health Coach

a. Health maintenance and disease prevention

(1) Diabetic teaching and home care

(a) Home blood sugar monitoring

(2) Instruct on use of patient mobility equipment and assistive devices

(3) Pre-/post-op care instructions

(4) Patient administered medications

(5) Home blood pressure monitoring and lifestyle controls

(6) Home anticoagulation monitoring

(7) Home cholesterol monitoring

b. Alternative medicine

6. Wellness/Preventive Care

a. Cancer screening

b. Sexually transmitted infections

c. Hygienic practices

(1) Hand washing

(2) Cough etiquette

d. Smoking risks and cessation

e. Recognition of substance abuse

f. Osteoporosis screening/bone density scan

g. Domestic violence screening and detection

R. Nutrition

1. Basic Principles

a. Food nutrients

(1) Carbohydrates

(2) Fats

(3) Proteins

(4) Minerals/electrolytes

(5) Vitamins

(6) Fiber

(7) Water

b. Dietary supplements

2. Special Dietary Needs

a. Weight control

b. Diabetes

c. Cardiovascular disease

d. Hypertension

e. Cancer

f. Lactose sensitivity/intolerance

g. Gluten free

h. Food allergies

3. Eating Disorders

S. Collecting and Processing Specimens

1. Methods of Collection

a. Blood

(1) Venipuncture

(a) Site selection

(b) Site prep

(c) Equipment

(i) Evacuated tubes

(ii) Tube additives

(iii) Needles

(2) Capillary/dermal puncture

b. Urine

(1) Random

(2) Midstream/clean catch

(3) Timed 24-hour collection

(4) Catheterization

(5) Pediatric urine collector

c. Fecal specimen

d. Sputum specimen

e. Swabs

(1) Throat

(2) Genital

(3) Wound

(4) Nasopharyngeal

2. Prepare, Process, and Examine Specimens

a. Proper labeling

b. Sources of contamination

c. Specimen preservation

(1) Refrigeration

(2) Fixative

d. Recordkeeping

e. Incubator

f. Centrifuge

g. Microscope

h. Inoculating a culture

i. Microbiologic slides

(1) Wet mount

3. Laboratory Quality Control/Quality Assurance

a. Testing protocols

b. Testing records and performance logs

c. Daily equipment maintenance

d. Calibration

e. Daily control testing

f. Monitor temperature controls

g. Reagent storage

h. CLIA-waived tests

4. Laboratory Panels and Performing Selected Tests

a. Urinalysis

(1) Physical

(2) Chemical

(3) Microscopic

(4) Culture

b. Hematology panel

(1) Hematocrit

(2) Hemoglobin

(3) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

(4) Automated cell counts

(a) Red blood cell (RBC)

(b) White blood cell (WBC)

(c) Platelet

(5) Coagulation testing/INR

c. Chemistry/metabolic testing

(1) Glucose

(2) Kidney function tests

(3) Liver function tests

(4) Lipid profile

(5) Hemoglobin A1c

d. Immunology

(1) Mononucleosis test

(2) Rapid Group A Streptococcus test

(3) C-reactive protein (CRP)

(4) HCG pregnancy test

(5) H. pylori

(6) Influenza

e. Fecal occult blood/guaiac testing

T. Diagnostic Testing

1. Cardiovascular Tests

a. Electrocardiography (EKG/ECG)

(1) Perform standard 12-lead

(2) Lead placement

(3) Patient prep

(4) Recognize artifacts

(5) Recognize rhythms, arrhythmias

(6) Rhythm strips

b. Holter monitors

c. Cardiac stress test

2. Vision Tests

a. Color

b. Acuity/distance

(1) Snellen

(2) E chart

(3) Jaeger card

c. Ocular pressure

d. Visual fields

3. Audiometric/Hearing Tests

a. Pure tone audiometry

b. Speech and word recognition

c. Tympanometry

4. Allergy Tests

a. Scratch test

b. Intradermal skin testing

5. Respiratory Tests

a. Pulmonary function tests (PFT)

b. Spirometry

c. Peak flow rate

d. Tuberculosis tests/purified protein derivative (PPD) skin tests

6. Distinguish Between Normal/Abnormal Laboratory and Diagnostic Test Results

U. Pharmacology

1. Medications

a. Classes of drugs

b. Drug actions/desired effects

c. Adverse reactions

d. Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR)

e. Storage of drugs

2. Preparing and Administering Oral and Parenteral Medications

a. Dosage

(1) Metric conversion

(2) Units of measurements

(3) Calculations

b. Routes of administration

(1) Intramuscular

(a) Z-tract

(2) Subcutaneous

(3) Oral/sublingual/buccal

(4) Topical

(5) Inhalation

(6) Instillation (eye-ear-nose)

(7) Intradermal

(8) Transdermal

(9) Vaginal

(10) Rectal

c. Injection site

(1) Site selection

(2) Needle length and gauge

d. Medication packaging

(1) Multidose vials

(2) Ampules

(3) Unit dose

(4) Prefilled cartridge-needle units

(5) Powder for reconstitution

e. Six Rights of Medication Administration

(1) Right patient, right drug, right route, right time, right dose, right documentation

3. Prescriptions

a. E-prescribing

b. Controlled substance guidelines

4. Medication Recordkeeping

a. Reporting/documenting errors

5. Immunizations

a. Childhood

b. Adult

c. Recordkeeping

(1) Vaccine information statement (VIS)

d. Vaccine storage

V. Emergency Management/Basic First Aid

1. Assessment and Screening

a. Treatment algorithms/flow charts

b. Triage algorithms/flow charts

2. Identification and Response to Emergencies

a. Bleeding/pressure points

b. Burns

c. Cardiac and respiratory arrest

d. Foreign body obstruction

e. Choking

f. Diabetic ketoacidosis

g. Insulin shock

h. Bone fractures

i. Poisoning

j. Seizures

k. Shock

l. Cerebral vascular accident (CVA)

m. Syncope

n. Vertigo

o. Wounds

p. Cold exposure

q. Heat exposure

r. Joint dislocations/sprains/strains

s. Asthmatic attack

t. Hyperventilation

u. Animal bite

v. Insect bite

w. Concussion

3. Office Emergency Readiness

a. Equipment

(1) Crash cart supplies

(2) Automated external defibrillator

b. Emergency response plan

(1) Evacuation plan
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AAMA Certified Medical Assistant
Question: 454
Which of the following values is considered a desirable cholesterollevel?
A. 0 mg/dl
B. 180 mg/dl
C. 230 mg/dl
D. 250 mg/dl
E. 300 mg/dl
Answer: B
A level less than 200 mg/dl is desirable. Cholesterol is necessary in the body for several reasons. A level of 0 mg/dl
(A) would be detrimental to the body. Levels 200239 mg/dl are considered borderline high (C). Levels of 240
mg/dl and above are considered high (D and E).
Question: 455
Using sterile instruments to perform a breast biopsy is an exampleof
A. surgical asepsis
B. sterilization
C. medical asepsis
D. personal protective equipment
E. sanitization
Answer: A
Surgical asepsis is removing all organisms prior to entering the body. This is done by using sterile technique and
sterile instruments in a procedure. Medical asepsis (C) is disposing of organisms aer they leave the body, as in the
correct disposal of biohazardous waste. Sterilization (B) is the removal of all organisms from objects, not people.
Sanitization (E) is the removal of debris from objects. Personal protective equipment or PPE are items such as
gloves, masks, gowns, and eye protection (D).
Question: 456
Wearing a mask, gown, and gloves when working with a patient isan example of using
A. barrier method
B. standard procedure
C. personal protective equipment
D. body substance isolation
E. surgical asepsis
Answer: C
Equipment that serves as protection for health care workers is called personal protective equipment. This includes
gowns, gloves, face masks, eye protection, shields, and hair and shoe covers.
Question: 457
Applying an elastic or ACE wrap to a sprained ankle is an exampleof
A. bandaging
B. applying a dressing
C. splinting
D. casting
E. treating a wound
Answer: A
An elastic or ACE wrap is an example of bandaging. The function of bandaging in this case would be to provide
even pressure and support to the ankle by applying a bandage made of elastic cloth.
Question: 458
Which one of the following is the correct angle for a needle to enterthe vein for venipuncture?
A. 5 degrees
B. 15 degrees
C. 30 degrees
D. 45 degrees
E. 90 degrees
Answer: B
A 15-degree angle is optimal for placing the needle in the center of the selected vein. A 5-degree angle (A) is
utilized when seating the needle during placement of a butterfly-winged infusion device. A 30-degree angle (C) is
too much for venipuncture. This angle may cause the needle to go through the vein by puncturing the posterior wall
resulting in a hematoma. A 45-degree angle (D) is utilized for subcutaneous injections. A 90-degree angle (E) is
utilized during an intramuscular injection.
Question: 459
Which of the following is a Gram-positive cocci that grows inclusters?
A. Staphylococcus aureus
B. Neisseria meningitidis
C. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
D. Escherichia coli
E. Streptococcus pneumoniae
Answer: A
Staphylo- is a Greek term that denotes bunch of grapes. Staphylococci are round bacteria that grow in grapelike
clusters. Neisseria meningitidis (B) is a gram-negative bacterium. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (C) has a straight,
curved, or branched rod shape and requires an acid-fast stain. Escherichia coli (D) is a gram-negative bacillus.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (E) is a gram-positive bacterium, but this species grows in chains.
Question: 460
A scraping of the superficial layer of skin is called a/an
A. abrasion
B. avulsion
C. laceration
D. incision
E. contusion
Answer: A
A scraping of the superficial layer of skin is called an abrasion. An avulsion (B) is a flap of skin that is forcibly
torn or separated. A laceration (C) is a jagged or irregular tear of the tissues due to trauma. An incision (D) is a
clean cut with a sharp object. A contusion (E) is an injury involving bleeding into the tissues without breaking the
Question: 461
When preparing the skin for a minor surgical procedure, themedical assistant should
A. wash the skin with antiseptic soap in an up and down motion
B. wash the skin with antiseptic soap from the inner area to the
C. wash the skin with alcohol and air dry
D. wash the skin with antiseptic soap a..er applying sterile gloves
E. wash the skin with a disinfectant solution from the inner area
Answer: B
You should wash the skin with an antiseptic soap in a circular manner from the inside to the outside, not going
back once you have moved further out. Up and down (A) is inappropriate direction. You would not use alcohol (C)
or a disinfectant solution (E), and sterile gloves (D) are not necessary for this procedure.
Question: 462
Which one of the following diseases is confirmed by a positiveVDRL and RPR?
A. Hepatitis
B. Mononucleosis
C. Syphilis
D. Rheumatoid arthritis
E. Systemic lupus erythematosus
Answer: C
Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) and rapid plasma regain (RPR) are both serological tests that detect
syphilis. Hepatitis (A) detection utilizes a serological test. Mononucleosis (B) testing detects the heterophil
antibody within 6 to 10 days of the disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (D) can be detected by testing for rheumatoid
factor. Systemic lupus (E) diagnosis requires antinucleotide antibody.
Question: 463
If the medical assistant notices a small tear in her sterile gloveduring a procedure, she should
A. put a piece of sterile tape over the hole in the glove
B. alert the physician that she is not able to assist any longer
C. ask a coworker to put on sterile gloves and take over for her
D. continue the procedure but do not pick up sterile objects with
E. step away from the procedure and replace her gloves with
Answer: E
If a tear is noted, the assistant needs to replace the gloves. Putting tape over the tear (A) will not restore sterility.
Continuing the procedure (D) is an unlikely option since most procedures require two hands. Involving a coworker
(C) is unnecessary in a routine procedure. Alerting the physician (B) may not be needed if the physician is present
for the procedure
Question: 464
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. A. spirometer is used to measure the relative humidity of
B. The specific gravity of urine is part of the microscopic
C. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a means of identifying
D. Hematocrit is expressed in mm/sec.
E. Hemoglobin measures the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood
Answer: E
Hemoglobin is measured by weight and is expressed in grams per deciliter (g/dl). A spirometer (A) is a device used
to measure lung capacity by tracking the volume and flow of exhaled air. The specific gravity of urine (B) is part of
the physical examination of urine. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, or ESR (C), measures the time it takes for red
blood cells to settle in a specimen and is expressed in millimeters per hour (mm/hr); elevated times are associated
with inflammatory processes. Hematocrit (D) is measured aer centrifuging a specimen and is expressed as a
percentage of red blood cells in a specimen; normal adult hematocrit values are 3655 percent.
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Medical Certified test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/AAMA-CMA Search results Medical Certified test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/AAMA-CMA https://killexams.com/exam_list/Medical Menopause Home Tests Are Hitting the Market - Here's How They Work & If They're Right for You No result found, try new keyword!As women continue demanding better medical information about what happens to their bodies in the years leading up to menopause, the market is responding with products that allow them greater control ... Thu, 16 Nov 2023 11:56:44 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ FDA grants approval for first time to a home test for chlamydia and gonorrhea

The Food and Drug Administration granted marketing approval to a home test for chlamydia and gonorrhea on Wednesday, the first such authorization of a home test to detect the two most common sexually transmitted infections in this country.

The marketing approval was granted to LetsGetChecked’s Simple 2 Test, which allows individuals to collect a sample at home that is then submitted to a laboratory for processing. Prior to this, the only approved tests for these two STIs required samples to be collected at medical facilities such as doctors’ offices.

“This authorization marks an important public health milestone, giving patients more information about their health from the privacy of their own home,” said Jeff Shuren, director of the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health. “We are eager to continue supporting greater consumer access to diagnostic tests, which helps further our goal of bringing more health care into the home.”

The Simple 2 Test will be available over the counter and is intended for use by people aged 18 and older. The only other STI test that allows for home sample collection is for HIV.

Jodie Dionne, an STI expert at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, welcomed the news, saying experts in the field have been advocating for this approach for some time.

“It is exciting to see the FDA recognize the value of this type of testing by granting marketing authorization through the premarket review pathway,” Dionne, an associate professor of infectious diseases, said in an email.

“There are many people who would like to be tested for STIs who may not know where to go or who have barriers to accessing medical care. If we are going to do a better job of reaching more sexually active people for STI testing as recommended … we need to be creative about how to get them tested and treated in a way that is highly effective and works for them.”

Alan Katz, an STI expert at the University of Hawaii, said the test deploys the same assay clinicians use to diagnose chlamydia and gonorrhea, an assay that has an excellent accuracy record. And Katz, who is a medical consultant at the Hawaii State Department of Health’s Diamond Head STI/HIV Clinic, said this approach also has other advantages.

“This option is exceptionally useful for individuals who live in rural areas or are geographically distanced from a clinic where STI testing can be done and there is no telehealth option available,” he said via email. “If a person screens positive, they can then contact a healthcare provider for further evaluation and treatment.”

Rates of new infections of chlamydia and gonorrhea have been soaring in the U.S. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates there were more than 1.6 million cases of chlamydia in 2021, and over 710,000 cases of gonorrhea the same year. Both infections are curable, but if left untreated can trigger serious long-term effects, including infertility.

Home samples are taken either using vaginal swabs or urine samples, which are then submitted to a designated laboratory. Results are delivered online, with follow-up care provided when a diagnosis is positive or ambiguous.

Unapproved home tests for chlamydia and gonorrhea have existed for some time, but until now none has gone through the FDA’s approval process. This approval may make it easier for future such tests to clear the FDA’s regulatory pathway.

Wed, 15 Nov 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.statnews.com/2023/11/15/chlamydia-and-gonorrhea-home-test-fda-approval/
5 Best At-Home Nutrient and Vitamin Deficiency Tests in 2023

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At-home vitamin deficiency tests are available from online retailers, including LetsGetChecked, Everlywell, MyLab Box, and more. Popular test kits can measure a person’s vitamin D, B12, or iron levels.

The specific symptoms of a vitamin deficiency will depend on which vitamin deficiency a person has.

For example, a vitamin C deficiency can cause:

An iron deficiency can cause fatigue, while a lack of vitamin D can be responsible for:

A person should speak with a doctor about their symptoms before getting a vitamin deficiency test.

All reputable at-home tests will have instructions and a customer care line for any further questions.

Most vitamin deficiency tests require a blood sample. The company should send all necessary equipment, including a lancet, in the original package.

People will likely need to fill in a form detailing personal information. Then, they should use the lancet to collect a sample of blood.

The company should provide a return envelope with pre-paid shipping. When a person takes their sample, they should send the envelope off.

People will receive their results soon after, typically within one week of the lab receiving the samples. Depending on the company a person uses, they may need to log in or use an app to view their results.

Some companies may offer follow-up advice. Others may suggest contacting a healthcare professional for help interpreting the results.

Please note that the writer of this article has not tried these products. All information presented is purely research-based and correct at the time of publication.

A Medical News Today Editor, Lois Zoppi, provided the quotes in this article. They received a free Essential Vitamins test from LetsGetChecked to review.

The table below compares each vitamin deficiency test in this article for collection method, price, result turnaround time, and more.

People may wish to consider these factors before buying a test online:

  • The nutrients tested: Many companies offer comprehensive panels testing several vitamins and minerals. However, some tests only check the levels of certain vitamins. A person should pick the test that best suits their needs.
  • The collection method: Anyone uncomfortable drawing a finger-prick blood sample may prefer a test that relies on a saliva sample instead. However, many vitamin and mineral tests require a blood test.
  • Fasting: Some tests require a person to fast before taking a sample. A person should check the fasting period before taking the test. They may also require people to stop taking certain supplements for a few days before collecting a sample.
  • The timing of results: Some tests have shorter turnaround times, but these may be more expensive.
  • Price: Different at-home vitamin deficiency tests fit different budgets. Those that test for a wider range of vitamins may cost more.

The FDA states that at-home tests can effectively detect health conditions and monitor existing ones. However, it warns people should not replace doctor’s appointments with at-home tests.

The most reputable companies selling at-home tests send customers’ samples to CLIA-certified labs. These are the labs that hospitals and doctor’s offices use, which may suggest the sample analysis will be as accurate as it is for tests people will get from a doctor.

However, people risk making mistakes or contaminating their samples when they collect them at home. Those uncomfortable collecting their sample may wish to visit an in-person testing center.

When a person develops a nutritional deficiency, the body may produce symptoms, some of which can go unnoticed. Though an at-home test should not substitute for a doctor’s or registered dietitian’s advice, it may indicate missing nutrients in a person’s diet.

Although the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020–2025 indicate that a person must aim to meet their vitamin and mineral needs through their diet, sometimes they may need a multivitamin to supplement their intake.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists several of the most common deficiencies in the United States. These include:

Learn more about vitamins and how they work.

High-risk groups

A 2019 research review showed specific groups of people with a higher risk of developing vitamin or mineral deficiencies. The groups included:

  • undernourished people
  • older adults
  • pregnant people
  • adolescents
  • young children

The researchers write that addressing these deficiencies should include improved, more diverse diets, and supplementation.

If a test shows that a person has a vitamin deficiency, they must contact a doctor. A person may also wish to inform a doctor if their test does not show a particular deficiency.

If a person receives treatment from a doctor, they may wish to conduct the test again after their treatment ends to see how their vitamin levels change.

A person should consult a doctor before making health decisions based on the results of an at-home test.

Below, we answer some of the most frequently asked vitamin deficiency test questions.

How do you test for vitamin deficiencies?

People can test for vitamin deficiencies with at-home tests like those from Everlywell and LetsGetChecked. People can also get a vitamin deficiency test from a doctor. The tests will usually involve taking a blood sample.

How can I get my vitamin levels checked?

A person can speak to a doctor or order an at-home vitamin deficiency test from companies such as LetsGetChecked, Everlywell, or MyLabBox to get their vitamin levels checked.

What are the first signs of vitamin deficiency?

The first signs of vitamin deficiency are likely to differ depending on which vitamin a person is deficient in.

However, some common signs include fatigue, dry skin and hair, and muscle cramps.

If someone believes they have a deficiency, they should contact a healthcare professional to discuss testing.

Should I get tested for vitamin deficiencies?

If a person shows any signs of a vitamin deficiency, such as fatigue, depression, or dry, brittle hair, they may wish to undergo testing.

At-home testing may be more convenient and less expensive than visiting a clinic.

At-home vitamin deficiency tests check levels of vitamins and minerals in a blood or saliva sample. They are generally convenient, but they can be expensive.

Anyone concerned about a deficiency should consider consulting a doctor, especially if a test returns a positive result. The doctor can check for underlying health conditions, perform further tests, and offer treatment if needed.

Thu, 09 Nov 2023 10:01:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/vitamin-deficiency-test
The best at-home STD tests of 2023

Quick Overview

  • Everlywell STD Test

    Best Overall At-Home STD Test

  • STDCheck Full Panel STD Test

    Best Overall In-lab STD Test

  • CVS Health Common STI Test Kit

    Best Budget-Friendly At-Home STI Test

  • Quest STD Screening Panel

    Best In-Lab and At-Home Testing Options

  • MyLab Box Love Box At-Home STD Test For Couples

    Best At-Home STD Test for Couples

  • Nurx Full Control Home STI Test Kit

    Best At-Home STD and STI Tests Covered by Insurance

  • LetsGetChecked Standard 5

    Best Easy-to-Use At-Home STI/STD Test

See 2 more

At-home tests for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or sexually transmitted infections (STI) let you know the status of your sexual health without stepping foot in your doctor's office or local clinic. An at-home STD test can also help you minimize the angst of prolonged concerns about your status due to possibly waiting days or weeks for an appointment with a healthcare provider. If you're concerned about exposure to an STD or STI, you're not alone: The US is currently facing record-high numbers of STDs and STIs, with gonorrhea and syphilis especially on the rise, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. What's even more alarming is the recent study showing there were more than 3,700 babies born with syphilis in 2022, which was over 10 times the number reported in 2012. Furthermore, in 2022, there were 231 stillbirths and 51 infant deaths due to syphilis infection during pregnancy.

Dr Alyssa Dweck, Chief Medical Officer at Bonafide Health, tells us that while the younger generation is disproportionately affected by STD and STI infections, she's noted a rise in sexually transmitted infections in perimenopausal adults and seniors engaging with new partners due to divorce or being widowed. "Many in this demographic don’t necessarily think to use condoms, since contraception may no longer be needed, thus the STI rate increases," she explains. Regardless of age, If you're sexually active it's important to proactively test for common STDs and STIs at least once a year, especially if you have multiple partners.

If you're uncomfortable discussing your sexual health with your doctor or a stranger at a health clinic, fully at-home or hybrid at-home tests that screen for various STDs and STIs are a reliable and fast alternative, "access and affordability are benefits of at-home testing," says Dweck.

What's the difference between an at-home test and a hybrid at-home test?

At-home tests are conducted in the privacy of your home, with all specimens for the test collected by you, and then mailed to an affiliated lab in a prepaid envelope or box included with the test. "I'm an advocate of home tests, and I'm a big advocate of home collection," adds John A. Nelson, director of the AIDS Education & Training Center National Coordinating Resource Center at the Rutgers School of Nursing. Home collection test kits are easy to use, allow for a level of discretion and privacy you can't get in a medical setting, offer the ability to avoid awkward conversations with your doctor or a stranger at a clinic and provide results relatively quickly, he explains.

Conversely, if you need an STD or STI panel and prefer to skip a trip to your doctor or health clinic but are uncomfortable drawing your blood or taking the samples needed for the test on your own, you may prefer the hybrid at-home test approach which, just like an at-home test, allows you to purchase the test online and get your results electronically, but when it comes to collecting the specimens, you'll go directly to the lab to have your samples taken — usually about a 5-10 minute process. Dr Kevin Huffman, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, tells us a benefit to taking the hybrid at-home test approach is that "proficient experts conduct in-lab testing, which provides a more extensive and precise evaluation."

If you're unsure which route you want to take (at-home or hybrid), below we outline the best at-home STD tests for various needs and conditions that offer the option to either test yourself or go to the lab to have the samples drawn for you. Above all, the following STD tests do not require a visit to your doctor, insurance or a long waiting period.

What's the difference between an STI and an STD?

It's important to point out that even though the terms STI and STD are often used interchangeably, there is a difference: STIs are infections that have not yet developed into diseases, such as bacterial infections, viruses and parasites. Fun fact (or not): There are more than 30 different bacteria, viruses and parasites that can be transmitted sexually, yet no single test screens for all of them.

Also, different STIs are detected in different ways, regardless of the test you choose: Some diseases or infections are detected through urine, while others are best detected via blood or cavity swabs. Whichever test you choose will guide you on the best collection method — and state upfront what you can expect.

What are the best at-home tests for STDs and STIs in 2023?

There's a surprisingly large range of in-lab and at-home tests available that can be purchased both in-store and online. To find the best STD tests and STI tests available for over-the-counter purchase, our team consulted with multiple doctors and testing experts about what to look for in a good test and rated each based on elements such as if the lab used to process the test is ISO/IEC/CLIA-accredited, test accuracy, ease of use, if medical providers were available for consultation, user experience and cost. Every person has different needs, so we made sure to include a range of tests to cover various diseases, infections, needs and budgets.


Test collection method: Blood, swab (women-only), urine (men-only) | Time until results: 2-5 days | Free shipping: Yes

Everlywell, a trusted name in home testing offering a multitude of tests and prescription services, tops our list of at-home STD tests due to offering male- and female-specific tests that you conduct entirely from the privacy of your home, no trip to the doctor or lab needed. This STD test kit checks for the six top sexually transmitted diseases and infections, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis C (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis and trichomoniasis. The testing process is simple: Take a finger prick and vaginal swab (for women) or finger prick and urine sample (for men). Once the samples are ready, drop your specimens in the mail using the included prepaid shipping box. Within a few days, you'll get results via an app or the website. What especially stands out is that if you test positive for an STD or STI, an Everlywell healthcare provider will reach out to go over what everything means, as well as treatment options and prescribe medication if necessary. If you need your test results ASAP, you can opt for express shipping for an extra charge ($30). 

While this test is pricy (which is standard for a test that offers a complete STD and STI panel), you can save 15% by signing up for a semi-annual subscription. All packaging involved is plain and discreet, so you don't have to stress about nosy neighbors or roommates. Insurance coverage depends on your plan, but the tests are FSA- and HSA-approved. 

  • Medical provider guidance included
  • Screens for six top STD
  • Fast results
  • Expensive
  • May not be covered by your insurance plan
$169 at Everlywell


Test collection method: Blood, urine | Time until results: 1-2 days | Free shipping: N/A

STDCheck's test detects a whopping 10 STDs and STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV, early HIV, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and herpes I and II. The only caveat to this test (but also why it screens for so many STDs and STIs and the results are returned so quickly) is that a trip to an affiliated local lab is necessary to provide your test samples. 

When you purchase the test online, you'll immediately get an access code to schedule an appointment at one of its 4,800 affiliated nationwide labs of your choosing - you may even find you can schedule your appointment with the lab the same day and have your results back within 12 to 48 hours. 

Another major stand-out feature of STDCheck is that you can add the HIV RNA Early Detection test to your order, which is an FDA-approved test that detects early HIV infection within 9 to 11 days after potential HIV exposure. STDCheck.com also offers a range of tests for individual STIs, should you prefer to test for only one or two conditions.

  • Tests for 10 STIs and STDs
  • Rapid results within 24-48 hours
  • Care advisors available at any time after purchase
  • Must visit an affiliated local lab to provide specimen samples
$139 at STDCheck


Test collection method: Urine | Time until results: 1-3 days from the date the lab receives the sample | Free shipping: Yes

CVS brand STI test kit tops our list for best budget-friendly at-home test because it covers the top three common STIs for under $100: chlamydia, gonorrhea and trichomoniasis. The test is conducted fully at home and requires a simple urine sample you drop in the mail and ship to the lab (prepaid postage included). A high-complexity CLIA-certified laboratory will process the specimen and then send the report to an independent physician licensed to practice in your state who will review and approve the findings. The final report will be sent to you via a secure online portal in about 1-3 days after lab receipt of your test. Unlike the aforementioned test kits that have a provider available for consultation, you will need to visit your medical provider should you test positive to discuss the best treatment plan.

One reviewer said, "I found this test kit to be extremely user-friendly. The step-by-step instructions were easy to follow, and the entire testing process was efficient." 

  • Checks for the top three STIs
  • CAP-accredited and high complexity CLIA-certified laboratory
  • reviewed and approved by an independent board-certified physician
  • Urine sample may get messy
  • No medical care support included
$90 at CVS


Test collection method: Blood, urine | Time until results: 3-5 business days | Free shipping: Yes

If the name or logo for Quest is familiar, then it's likely because you have a Quest lab close to you, after all, there are thousands of Quest labs located throughout the US due to many major hospitals and physician offices that use its services. While the major STD and STI panels offered through the Quest website are hybrid tests that require you to buy online and then visit a lab in-person to provide a specimen, there are plenty of at-home tests available that are conducted fully in the privacy of your home.

Quest offers two in-lab STD panel options: A basic STD screening panel ($139) that covers four conditions: Chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV 1 and 2. There's also the Expanded Screening Panel test ($269) that covers 7 of the most common STDs and STIs: Chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, trichomoniasis, syphilis, HIV-1 and HIV-2. Once you choose a test, you'll make the purchase online, schedule with the lab and then head over to provide your blood and urine samples. The test kit's purchase also includes the option to consult a physician if you happen to test positive, although it will cost you an additional $6. 

In addition to the STD panel tests mentioned above, there are a total of nine STD and STI testing kit options available through the Quest Laboratories website, should you want to zero in on a specific disease or infection or a combination of conditions. At-home and in-lab tests offered by Quest range in condition and price from $45 for the fully at-home HIV 1 and 2 test kit to 19 tests for women's health including a urinary tract infection test (UTI) ($39) and 15 men's health tests, including a test to show health risks based on your genetics.

  • 45+ at-home and hybrid tests available
  • Relatively fast results
  • FSA and HSA eligible
  • Physician consultation costs extra
  • Many test do require a trip to the lab
$139 at Quest

MyLab Box

Test collection method: Blood, urine | Time until results: 2-5 days | Free shipping: Yes

The MyLab Box Love Box is a fully at-home STD test kit specially designed to be inclusive for all couple combinations: male and female, male and male or female and female. In addition to being for couples, the kit costs $378 (with 15% off your first purchase if you join the mailing list ), making it about two-thirds the cost of purchasing two separate complete panel tests at a competitor. Each test screens for the top eight sexually transmitted diseases and infections: chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis C, HIV (I and II), herpes simplex 2, syphilis and trichomoniasis. 

To take the test, you and your partner will first do a finger-prick blood test, then a cavity swab (female) and/or urine sample (male), then drop the samples in the pre-paid box and ship to the lab. A certified CAP and CLIA high-complexity testing lab will then process the specimens. Within 3-5 days after lab receipt, you'll receive your results electronically, and you can rest assured HIPAA web security protocols are enacted to protect your data. If one or both of you test positive, you can consult with a doctor in your state via phone consultation about the next steps and be prescribed treatments if needed. If the tests are negative, you still have the option to consult with a certified STI counselor. The tests are FSA and HSA eligible.

  • Inclusive couples testing options (Male + Female; Male + Male; Female + Female)
  • Screens for 8 major STIs and STD
  • Specimens collected in the privacy of your home
  • No hybrid lab option
  • Expensive
$378 at MyLab Box


Test collection method: Blood, swab, urine | Time until results: Within days | Free shipping: Yes

Nurx has a range of STI kits that are covered by most insurance carriers, including the Full Control Kit which checks for five STIs: HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and hepatitis C. There's also a Basics Covered at-home STI Home Test Kit that screens for the four top STIs: HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis. The Healthy V STI Home Test Kit screens for HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and trichomoniasis. While there is an easy-to-use app, you can still order via the Nurx website, regardless of method, you'll start by answering a few questions about your personal and sexual health to find the best test for your needs; All at-home tests are conducted fully at home then shipped to Nurx affiliated lab. 

Nurx is also a great option for those wanting to move to telehealth for sexual and overall wellness needs, including having the option to get prescriptions for birth control, acne control, emergency contraception and even hair loss products, with all medications delivered straight to your home. There's a $15 sign-up fee, but the fee includes access to a year of unlimited messaging with a provider.

One reviewer raved that the process was "EASY AND CONFIDENTIAL," adding that they "Loved this experience. I hate going to doctors, especially around sexual health. The fact that everything can be done without having an in person or video/phone call is AWESOME!"

  • Covered by insurance
  • Offers multiple health and wellness Telehealth solutions
  • Prescribing medical support
  • Patients using insurance may receive an additional bill from the lab for copays or any additional costs
  • $15 sign-up fee
$45 at Nurx


Test collection method: Blood, urine | Time until results: 2-5 days | Free shipping: Yes

LetsGetChecked is all about making you feel informed from beginning to end. There's a detailed video walk-through on what's in your test kit, how to collect your samples, mistakes to avoid during sample collection, how to ship your samples, and what to expect after the lab receives your samples; there's even a walk-through on how to use the company's super easy-to-use app. 

The test screens for five major STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, HIV, syphilis and trichomoniasis. If you test positive, a nurse will reach out with information on what to do next, including helping you set up a virtual consultation (for an additional $39) that will include a consultation with a doctor and a prescription for medication if needed. 

"If you have anxiety about going to the doctor and requesting an STD screening, this is a really good alternative," said a user. "Also, I was able to use my HSA to pay."

  • Helpful video tutorial walks you through the test
  • Unlimited messaging with provider after sign-up
  • Prescribing providers available
  • Video consultations cost and extra $39
$149 at LetsGetChecked

What to consider when buying an at-home STI/STD test

What you're testing for

If you are being proactive about testing after being with a new partner, it may be best to choose a test kit that screens for a wide range of conditions. If you've had a known exposure to a particular STD or STI, you could choose a test that screens for that particular condition or a combination of conditions.

Testing methods

Methods for at-home testing generally include instructions for self-collection at home via a blood sample, urine or internal swab, which is then shipped to a lab to be tested. If home collection is not something you're comfortable with, then choosing a hybrid test that allows you to visit a lab to have your specimen collected may be the better option.


As you can see from our list, there is a wide range of pricing options for test kits ranging from $45 for screens for one or two conditions to upwards of $300 for panels for 10+ conditions. In some cases, your insurance may cover the test, if not, HSA and FSA are generally accepted with most all at-home and in-lab tests. Figuring out in advance how much you want to spend can help you choose the right test, whether that be a full panel or a screen for the condition you suspect you may have.

Follow-up care

Some tests include counseling from a healthcare provider, while others do not — and Leslie says that's definitely worth considering. "There are issues of follow-up and high anxiety when a test is positive and no healthcare professional is available," he says. You know yourself better than anyone: If you feel like you would be OK waiting to connect with your doctor or someone at your local health care department if you test positive, there's no need to look for a test with a provider connection. But if you know you'd want to talk to a professional immediately about a positive result, a test kit that includes a health care provider consultation may be the best option.

How we chose the best at-home STI/STD tests

To find the best at-home tests, we spoke to multiple doctors for their input on what to look for in an at-home or in-lab STD and STI kits, as well as different types to consider. From there, we researched more than 25 at-home test kits and rated each on elements including sensitivity, ease of use, whether follow-up care is included and good and bad user reviews.


How do at-home STI tests work?

There's variety with these tests and the way they work ultimately depends on the individual test. "Some require an oral or genital swab; others require urine or blood samples, which will then go to a lab," women's health expert Jennifer Wider, MD, co-host of the Open Wider podcast, tells Yahoo Life. It's important to read the manufacturer's information carefully in advance to make sure you're comfortable with the testing procedure.

How do I know whether I have an STI?

The only way to know for sure if you have an STI is to get tested. Some sexually transmitted infections don't have symptoms, so you can be positive without knowing, Wider points out. That puts you at risk for health complications such as fertility issues and also increases the likelihood you'll spread the infection.

Are at-home STI and STD tests reliable?

Every test kit has its own sensitivity — meaning, how likely it is to detect an infection. "Many are quite reliable, especially if collected properly and then brought to a lab as quickly as possible," Wider says. Dr Leslie agrees, adding, "The test kits work when done correctly and reach populations that are at risk and might not seek traditional medical help for suspected STDs."

Where can I get a free STI and STD test?

Local health departments and sexual health clinics such as Planned Parenthood usually offer free or very low-cost sexual health tests. If you prefer to try a local clinic, visit your local health department's website to see what's offered; you may even be able to schedule an appointment for testing on the site.

Our experts

Dr Alyssa Dweck, Chief Medical Officer at Bonafide Health

Dr Kevin Huffman, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine

Dr Stephen W. Leslie, associate professor, Creighton University School of Medicine

Dr Jennifer Wider, women's health expert and co-host of the Open Wider podcast

John A. Nelson, STI screening researcher and director of the AIDS Education and Training Center at the Rutgers School of Nursing

The reviews quoted above reflect the most latest versions at the time of publication.

Fri, 03 Nov 2023 10:22:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/at-home-std-tests-222039699.html
Community Healthcare System hospitals National Safe Sleep certification

Community Hospital in Munster, St. Catherine Hospital in East Chicago and St. Mary Medical Center in Hobart all earned National Safe Sleep Gold certifications.

The Community Healthcare System hospitals received the national recognition for educating patients about best practices with infant safe sleep.

“We want to do everything we can to protect the lives of our youngest and most vulnerable patients,” said Community Hospital Clinician and Neonatal Nurse Educator Mary Puntillo. “We are honored to receive another five-year certification for our three hospitals. It reinforces the importance of educating families on safe infant sleep. Our goal is to safeguard the future for all of the babies who have started their lives at our hospitals.”

Cribs for Kids launched the National Safe Sleep Hospital Certification Program as a way to prevent infant sleep-related deaths caused by accidental suffocation and sudden unexpected infant death.

People are also reading…

Community Hospital, St. Catherine Hospital and St. Mary Medical Center follow safe sleep guidelines recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics, training parents and its staff.

The three hospitals most recently earned Gold level certification in 2018.

“We are united in safe sleep practices and work together to provide the same education and message to Boost the overall maternal and infant health in Northwest Indiana,” St. Mary Medical Center Quality/Risk Management Director Lisa Leckrone said.

The certification is good for five years.

“One of the most important things we do is provide information on preventing sudden unexpected infant deaths,” St. Catherine Hospital Nurse Manager LaTina Ashana said. “We include this crucial information in our discharge process, via printed materials and through the use of HALO SleepSacks.”

It's estimated that 3,500 infants die every year of sleep-related deaths, said Michael H. Goodstein, neonatologist and medical director of research at Cribs for Kids.

“We know that modeling safe infant sleep in the hospital and providing education to families has a significant effect on infant mortality,” Goodstein said. “Cribs for Kids Hospital Certification Program is designed to recognize those hospitals that are taking an active role in reducing these preventable deaths.”

Thu, 16 Nov 2023 09:45:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.nwitimes.com/news/local/community-healthcare-system-hospitals-national-safe-sleep-certification/article_60938c0e-8443-11ee-b3b7-b7d3fa70f53f.html
Test System Engineering for Medical Devices: A Guide

Originally Published MDDI January 2002


Test System Engineering for Medical Devices: A Guide

Developing test systems for R&D through production requires a combination of preparedness and ongoing evaluation.

Tore Johnsen

A large number of medical device manufacturers use automated test and measurement systems during each stage of the product cycle, from R&D to production testing. These systems play an important role in improving the quality of products and helping speed them to market. Purchasing the test equipment is often less expensive than putting it into use; it can cost more to develop the software to run a system than to purchase the instrumentation. Many companies choose to outsource all or a portion of their test system development. Whether it's done internally or by an outside vendor, the critical factors for success remain the same: maintaining good communication between developer and client, following an efficient development process, selecting appropriate development tools, and recruiting people with the skills to do the job correctly.

This article provides a broad overview of test and measurement system development for the medical device industry. Included is a discussion of commonly used instrumentation and tools and an overview of the skills and practices necessary for successful test system development.


In the medical device manufacturing industry, test and measurement systems are used for a wide range of purposes. Some examples include those developed to:

  • Demonstrate proof-of-concept prototypes for new equipment used to cauterize heart tissue.
  • Research the shrinkage of new dental filling materials as they cure.
  • Verify that such implantable devices as pacemakers and neurostimulators function according to specifications.
  • Condition and test batteries for implantable devices.
  • Simulate the pressing of buttons, turning of knobs, collecting of patient data, and other functions while monitoring and recording a blood-treatment machine's operation.

In order to carry out these tasks, the required systems must be capable of performing such functions as automatically controlling switches and relays, setting and memorizing temperatures, measuring or generating pulse widths and frequencies, setting and measuring voltages and currents, moving objects with motion control systems, using vision systems to detect misshaped or missing parts, and others. The medical device industry's need for test equipment and related sensors and technologies is as varied as the industry itself. No matter what the specific need, however, compliance with the quality system regulation is mandatory.


Some trends have emerged as the popularity of automating test systems has grown. For instance, integrating test systems with a corporate database is becoming more common. A number of test stations can be networked, and data can be stored in the corporate database. From that database, important statistical process data can be gathered and analyzed.

Additionally, manufacturers are growing more interested in using standard Web browsers to view data and in remotely controlling their test systems. Data are routinely passed between test applications and standard office applications such as Microsoft Excel and Word. Both the complexity and number of technologies being incorporated into the systems are growing, and, consequently, so are the demands on systems developers and project managers. Test system developers are using more-efficient software development and project management methodologies to meet these increased demands.

Standardizing specific test system development tools and instrumentation is another increasingly popular way to keep costs relatively low. Using the same development tools from R&D to production has obvious benefits: it reduces training costs, allows for technology reuse, and makes it easier to shift employees from one area to another, depending on demand. If executed with diligence, maintaining consistency also facilitates the creation of a library of reusable code. Standardizing makes compliance with quality systems requirements easier, too.


Figure 1. Test instrumentation is typically built around a PC or a chassis.
(click to enlarge)

A typical test system is created in one of two ways. It can be built around a PC using a plug-in data acquisition board (DAQ), serial port instruments, or general-purpose interface bus (GPIB). Alternatively, it may be built around a chassis with an embedded computer and various plug-in modules such as switches, multimeters, and oscilloscopes (see Figure 1).

The existing member of the latter family of instrumentation systems is the PXI chassis, which uses the standard PCI-bus to pass data between the plug-in modules and the embedded computer. This technology offers high data acquisition speeds at a relatively low cost. Originally invented by National Instruments (Austin, TX), it is now an open standard supported by a large number of instrument vendors. (For additonal information on this system, visit http://www.pxisa.org).

Manufacturers should keep in mind the several variations that exist on these schemes. To select the optimal instrumentation for any given project, a company must consider both the cost and performance requirements of the project, and the need for compliance with internal and external standards.

An important system-selection criterion is the availability of standardized ready-made software modules (i.e., instrument drivers) that can communicate with the instruments. Because the major instrument vendors are currently involved in a significant instrument-driver standardization effort, it makes sense for companies to check the availability of compliant instrument drivers before purchasing an instrument. The Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation (http://www.ivifoundation.org) works on defining software standards for instrument interchangeability. The foundation's goal is to facilitate swapping of instruments with similar capabilities without requiring software changes. Creating a custom instrument driver can take from days to weeks depending on the complexity of the instrument; if it's not done correctly, future maintenance and replacement of instruments might be more difficult than need be.


Development tools designed specifically for PC-based test system development have been in existence for more than a decade. Specialized graphical languages for drawing, rather than writing, programs are useful. One such product from a major instrumentation vendor is LabVIEW (National Instruments). Developing everything from scratch in C is probably not a good idea—unless there is plenty of time and money to spare.

As alternatives to specialized graphical languages, several add-on packages exist that can make a text-based programming language more productive for test system development. For example, one can buy add-ons for both Visual Basics and Microsoft Visual C++. If one's preference is C, for instance, but the benefits of a large library of ready-made code for instrumentation, analysis, and presentation are desired, LabWindows/CVI from National Instruments is a tool to consider.

Figure 2. Test-executive architecture.
(click to enlarge)

If what's needed is development of an advanced system to make automated logical decisions about what test to run next and to perform loops and iterations of tests—and store the results in a database—a test executive that can work with the test code is a wise option. Figure 2 shows an example of test-executive architecture. The test system developer writes the test modules and then uses the test executive's built-in functionality to sequence the tests, pass data in and out of databases, generate reports, and make sure all test code and related documentation is placed under revision control (i.e., configuration management).

Although this option still requires significant effort to develop the test modules and define the test sequences, using a standard test executive is, in many cases, far more cost-effective than making one from scratch. This is especially true for such large, ongoing projects as design verification testing and production testing, which require regular modifications of tests and test sequences.


A test system development project requires a multitude of skills to achieve success, including project management skills and good communication to keep the project on track and to ensure that all stakeholders' needs and expectations are addressed. Understanding and practicing good software development methodologies are also needed to ensure that the software that is built will actually meet the user's requirements. Test system development also requires that engineers have a thorough understanding of software design techniques to ensure that the software is both functional and maintainable, and an understanding of hardware and electronics to design the instrumentation and data acquisition portions of the system.

Before a test system can be put into production, it needs to be tested and validated. This means that the development team also needs the expertise to put together a test plan and to execute and document the results in a report. The engineers who built the system are not necessarily the best people to test it, so additional human resources are often needed for testing. Finally, because documents are created during the development process, documentation skills are also necessary.

When one considers that the typical project team for a midsize test system consists of two to four developers, one realizes there are more major skills required than there are team members; therefore, one of the challenges is to locate individuals with sufficiently broad skills and abilities to supply both technical and managerial leadership. To ease this burden, make the tasks less daunting, and increase the chances of project success, defining a development process is key. If the test system is used for regulated activities, such as production testing of medical devices, then the test system itself is subject to the quality system regulation and a defined development process is not only desirable, it's mandatory.


Outsourced projects are most successful when the developers and the clients collaborate. Keeping the client involved is the most efficient way of making sure that the system meets the client's needs. It also helps avert surprises—at either end—down the road. Collaboration requires honest and direct communication of issues, successes, and problems as they occur.

Miscommunication sometimes happens even with good collaboration. While it is important to keep the communication channels open so the developers and their clients can discuss issues without too much bureaucracy, it can be hard to keep track of who said what if too many parallel communication channels exist. And when engineers on both sides have ideas of features they would like to add to a particular system, controlling feature creep can become difficult.

Designating a single point of contact for discussing both a project's scope and its content is recommended, and making sure new solutions are reviewed before being accepted can also prevent problems. Instituting a change-control procedure is yet another important step to minimizing unnecessary changes.


The goal for any project is to add only as much process overhead as is absolutely necessary to satisfy the objectives. When a process must be added because regulations mandate it, the involved parties should keep in mind that the process isn't being instituted merely to satisfy FDA or other agencies; it's being done to build better and safer products. Structure and process improvements can have a significant positive impact on the quality of the finished test system.

The Software Engineering Institute has defined the following key process areas for level 2 ("Repeatable") of the capability maturity model: requirements management, project planning, project tracking and oversight, configuration management, quality assurance, and subcontractor management.1 The foundations for a project's success are good requirements development and good project planning; if the requirements aren't right, or if a company can't determine how to get the project done, then the project is essentially doomed. What follows is a description of the progression of a few types of test system development projects as well as a discussion of requirements development.

Figure 3. The traditional waterfall life-cycle model.
(click to enlarge)

Phases of Test System Development. Whether a formal documented development process is followed or not, there are a few major tasks (i.e., project phases) that must be addressed: requirements development, project planning, design, construction, testing, and release. Should this particular order of tasks always be followed? Probably not. During the 1980s the software industry saw a number of large projects go significantly over budget, become significantly delayed, or be cancelled because they were inherently flawed. One cause of these problems was companies' strict adherence to the waterfall life-cycle model (see Figure 3). In this type of life cycle, the project goes through each phase in sequence, and the phases are completed one at a time. The waterfall model presumes that the requirements development phase results in nearly perfect requirements, the design phase results in a nearly perfect design, and so forth.

Unfortunately, projects are normally less predictable and run less smoothly than the waterfall model assumes. For example, a company doesn't always know enough at the beginning of a project to write a complete software requirements document. The sequence of actions necessary for project success depends to a large extent on the nature of the project. Because every project is unique, those involved must analyze the project throughout its phases and adapt the process accordingly.

Keeping that in mind, software companies have done much to Boost software development methods since the 1980s. Today, one can find descriptions of a number of life-cycle models useful for different project characteristics. Choosing the appropriate life-cycle model depends on the nature of the project, how much is known at the start of the project, and whether the project will be developed and installed in stages or all at once. Of course, mixing and matching ideas from different life-cycle models can be an effective strategy as well. Even if a company has decided upon and made standard a particular life-cycle model, small modifications should be made to that model when a particular project necessitates it. The trick is to identify high-risk items and perform risk-reducing activities at the start of the project.

Test System Characteristics. The test systems used in the three device development stages—R&D, design verification, and production—each have their own characteristics.

R&D Systems. R&D test systems range in development time from a few days to many months. Scientists use the systems to explore new ideas; R&D test systems are also used to perform measurements and analyses not possible with off-the-shelf equipment and to build proof-of-concept medical equipment. Others are used by physicians for medical research. Vastly varied in both scope and technologies, most R&D test systems have one thing in common: the need for continuous modification and development. As the research progresses, the scientist learns more, generates more ideas, and might decide to incorporate a new functionality or new algorithms, or even try a different approach. Clearly the waterfall life-cycle model doesn't fit such developments. With R&D test systems, one doesn't know what the final product will look like at the start of the project. In fact, there might not be a final product at all, just a series of development cycles that terminate when that particular research project is over and the system is no longer needed.

Figure 4. The evolutionary-delivery life-cycle model.
(click to enlarge)

Assuming that a reasonable idea of the scope of the R&D project is known at the start, one possible life-cycle model to follow is the evolutionary-delivery model (see Figure 4). This model includes the following steps: defining the overall concept, performing a preliminary requirements analysis, designing the architecture and system core, and developing the system core. Then the project progresses through a series of iterations during which a preliminary version is developed and delivered, the client (i.e., the researcher) requests modifications, a new version is developed and delivered, et cetera, until revisions are no longer needed.

Of course, it's wise to try to pinpoint potential changes at the beginning of the test system development project so that the software architecture can be designed to handle the changes that might come later on.

Design Verification Test Systems. There often is a blurry line between R&D and design verification test (DVT) systems. In the final stage of DVT system usage, the output is verification and a report stating that the medical device performs according to its specifications. Before that stage is reached, however, it is not uncommon to encounter several DVT cycles, each delivering valuable performance data back to the device's designers, and each resulting in modifications either to the device's design or to its manufacturing process.

Figure 5. The staged-delivery life-cycle model.
(click to enlarge)

It may be desirable to use the DVT system to test parts of the device or portions of its functionality as soon as preliminary prototypes are available, but it may not always be possible to have the complete test system ready for such applications. In these cases, the staged-delivery life-cycle model (see Figure 5) may be the best choice. According to this model, test system development progresses through requirements analysis and architectural design, and then is followed by several stages. These subsequent stages include detailed design, construction, debugging, testing, and release. The test system can be delivered in stages, with critical tests made available early.

Production Test Systems. A production test system needs to be validated according to an established protocol.2 Such a test system is therefore developed and validated using a well-defined process, and the system can normally be well-defined in a requirements specification early on. There is still, however, a long list of possible risk factors that, if realized, can have a serious negative impact on the project if a strict waterfall development life cycle is followed. Research has shown that it costs much more to correct a faulty or missing requirement after the system is complete than it does to correct a problem during the requirements development stage.

A risk-reduced waterfall life cycle might be an appropriate model to follow when developing a production test system. In this life-cycle model, main system development is preceded by an analysis of risks and a performance of risk-reducing activities, such as prototyping user interfaces, verifying that unfamiliar test instruments perform correctly, prototyping a tricky software architecture, and so forth. Iterations are then performed on these activities until risk is reduced to an acceptable level. Thereafter, the standard waterfall life cycle is followed for the rest of the project—unless it is discovered that some new risks need attention.

Requirements Development. As the aforementioned life-cycle models show, requirements development directly influences all subsequent activities. It's important to remember that the requirements document also directly influences the testing effort. Writing and executing a good test plan are only possible when a requirements document exists that clearly explains what the system is supposed to do.

Developing a software or system requirements document is important, but there is no one perfect way to do it. Depending on the nature of the project, the life-cycle model selected, and how well the project is defined at its early stages, the requirements document might use a standardized template and be fairly complete, it might be a preliminary requirements document, or it might simply take the form of an e-mail sent to the client for review. No matter how it's done, putting the requirements in writing improves the probability that both parties have the same understanding of the project.

Test system developers also are well advised to create a user-interface prototype and prototypes of tangible outputs (e.g., printed reports, files, Web pages) from the system. These might take the form of simple sketches on paper or genuine software prototypes. The purpose of the user-interface prototype is to make sure the software maintains the correct functionality. Often, the first time clients see a user interface, they remember features they forgot to tell the developer were needed, and they realize that the system would be far more valuable if greater functionality were added. Creating a user-interface prototype is perhaps the most efficient method for discovering flawed or missing functional requirements. Both parties will want this discovery made during the requirements development phase, not upon demonstration of the final product.

To the greatest extent possible, developers should identify any items that are potential showstoppers, such as requirements that push technology limits or the limits of the team's abilities. Identifying such problems might require some preliminary hardware design to ensure the system actually can be built as specified. High-risk items should be prototyped and developers should try to identify ways to eliminate the need for requirements that push the limits. Waiting until the final testing stage to find out that some requirements cannot be met is not a good idea. Even waiting until after the requirements are signed off to find that some cannot be met is unpleasant—especially if all it would have taken to prevent the problem was a few hours' research.

For outsourced development projects it is essential that the test system developer get feedback from the client and iterate as needed until an agreement is reached and, in some cases, the requirements are signed off. While performing the activities described above, the developer also should review any solutions suggested or mandated by the client. For instance, if the client says it already has the hardware and only wants the test developer to provide the software, the first thing the developer should do is request a complete circuit diagram of that client's hardware solution and carefully explain why it's necessary to fully understand the client's hardware in order to build a good software system. Flaws in the test instrumentation design are very costly to fix after the test system is built, yet it costs comparably very little to review the design ahead of time. Of course, an in-house test system developer also should evaluate the hardware design carefully before starting the software design.

Project Review Timing. It's likely that outside developers who get this far have dealt solely with the client's project team. If the project is large, however, it is not uncommon for the client to bring more people into the picture and conduct a project review after the system is complete. Some of the newcomers will have insights and desires that would result in changes—sometimes expensive ones.

If possible, this type of situation should be avoided. The system developer should insist on a project review by all affected parties before the requirements stage is concluded. It is not enough to just send around the software requirements specifications; people are often too busy with other projects to really go through them as meticulously as they should. A better strategy is to bring everybody together and show them the user-interface prototypes, the report prototypes, and any other important components of the project. Representatives of the end-users should be present as well. Although they should have been consulted during the requirements development process, the end-users are still likely to contribute valuable insights during the review.

By now it should be evident that there is more to requirements gathering than just writing a requirements document and getting it signed off. If the system doesn't work to the client's satisfaction at delivery, then it doesn't matter who is to blame. The project will be remembered by both parties as a painful experience with no winners.


Every project needs a plan. The first step in project planning is to define the deliverables, then to create a work breakdown structure (WBS) hierarchy of all the project's required tasks. The WBS is then used to develop a timeline, assign resources, and develop a task list with milestones. A good project plan will also clearly define roles, responsibilities, communication channels, and progress-report mechanisms. It certainly helps to have some background or training in project management in order to plan and control the execution of the project. Some basic project management training is recommended for anyone in charge of a test system development effort. Seminars and classes in project management based on the Project Management Institute's standards are offered worldwide.


Successful test system development requires attention to both process and technology. Both clients and developers need to understand and appreciate good software engineering practices. Collaboration and communication are critical for success. Clearly defining roles and responsibilities, using efficient development processes and tools, and handling project risks early on permits problems to be handled at a stage when their effect on cost and schedule will be minimal.


1. Capability Maturity Model for Software, Version 1.1, Technical Report CMU/SEI-93-TR-024-ESC-TR-93-177 (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburg, PA: The Software Engineering Institute/February 1993).

2. Medical Device Quality Systems Manual: A Small Entity Compliance Guide, (Rockville, MD: FDA, 1997).


A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. Newton Square, PA: Project Management Institute Standards Committee, 2000.

McConnell, Steve. Rapid Development. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1996.

McConnell, Steve. Software Project Survival Guide. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1998.

Wiegers, Karl E. Software Requirements. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1999.

Tore Johnsen is technical director and en-gineering manager at Computer Solutions Integrators & Products in Woodbury, MN.

Figures 3 and 4 adapted from Rapid Development, with permission of the author, Steven C. McConnell.
Figure 5 adapted from Rapid Development, with permission of the author.

Copyright ©2002 Medical Device & Diagnostic Industry

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Changing Lives: Academically Helping Professionals Establish Foreign Medical Practice No result found, try new keyword!Academically, an innovative EdTech startup, has rapidly evolved into a pioneering force in the field of healthcare education. Thu, 16 Nov 2023 16:01:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.outlookindia.com/business-spotlight/changing-lives-academically-helping-professionals-establish-foreign-medical-practice-news-331148 New Menands lab tests cannabis products in NYS No result found, try new keyword!Making sure your cannabis products are safe to use, that’s the goal of a recently opened laboratory in Menands.  Aaron Riley is the CEO of Certified Testing & ... Fri, 03 Nov 2023 05:37:23 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ GPT-4 can ace the bar, but it only has a decent chance of passing the CFA exams. Here's a list of difficult exams the ChatGPT and GPT-4 have passed.

GPT-4 has a shot at passing the CFA exam — but ChatGPT? Not a chance.

A Gen Z TikToker who made 6 figures from teaching people how to write essays was found to have plagiarized one of her own essays
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GPT-4 has a "decent chance" of passing the CFA level I and level II exams with appropriate prompting, while ChatGPT would not pass under all settings that were tested in a study from a team of researchers from Queens University, Virginia Tech, and J.P. Morgan's AI research division. The model struggled more with level II than level I, the researchers said, noting that there's "no consensus" on which level is more difficult for exam takers.

GPT-4 performed better than ChatGPT in almost every topic, the researchers found. 

The series of three exams it takes to obtains your CFA is notoriously difficult for humans, too. Pass rates for Level I, II, and III fell between 37% to 47% in August 2023, according to the CFA Institute.  

GPT-4 scored in the 90th percentile of the bar exam with a score of 298 out of 400.

thianchai sitthikongsak/Getty Images

While GPT-3.5, which powers the free version of ChatGPT, only scored in the 10th percentile of the bar exam, according to OpenAI. 

The threshold for passing the bar varies from state to state. In New York though, exam takers need a score of 266, around the 50th percentile, to pass, according to The New York State Board of Law Examiners.

GPT-4 aced the SAT memorizing & Writing section with a score of 710 out of 800, which puts it in the 93rd percentile of test-takers.


Meanwhile, GPT-3.5, scored in the 87th percentile with a score of 670 out of 800, according to OpenAI.

For the math section, GPT-4 earned a 700 out of 800, ranking among the 89th percentile of test-takers, according to OpenAI. While GPT-3.5 scored in the 70th percentile, OpenAI noted.

In total, GPT-4 scored 1410 out of 1600 points. The average score on the SAT in 2021 was 1060, according to a report from the College Board.

GPT-4's scores on the Graduate Record Examinations, or GRE, varied widely according to the sections.

Pencil held over a multiple choice exam
bluestocking / Getty Images

While it scored in the 99th percentile on the verbal section of the exam and in the 80th percentile of the quantitative section of the exam, GPT-4 only scored in the 54th percentile of the writing test, according to OpenAI. 

GPT-3.5 also scored in the 54th percentile of the writing test, and earned marks within the 25th percentile and 63rd percentiles for the quantitative and verbal sections respectively, according to OpenAI.

GPT-4 scored in the 99th to 100th percentile on the 2020 USA Biology Olympiad Semifinal Exam, according to OpenAI.

Ariel Skelley/Getty Images

The USA Biology Olympiad is a prestigious national science competition that regularly draws some of the brightest biology students in the country The first round features a 50-minute open online exam that draws thousands of students across the country, according to USABO's site.

The second round — the Semifinal exam — is a 120-minute exam with three parts featuring multiple choice, true/false, and short answer questions, USABO notes on its site. Students with the top 20 scores on the Semifinal exam will advance to the National Finals, according to USABO.

GPT-4 has passed a host of Advanced Placement examinations, exams for college-level courses taken by high school students that are administered by the College Board.

Leren Lu / Getty Images

Scores range from 1 to 5, with scores of 3 and above generally considered passing grades, according to the College Board. 

GPT-4 received a 5 on AP Art History, AP Biology, AP Environmental Science, AP Macroeconomics, AP Microeconomics, AP Psychology, AP Statistics, AP US Government and AP US History, according to OpenAI.

On AP Physics 2, AP Calculus BC, AP Chemistry, and AP World History, GPT-4 received a 4, OpenAI said.

GPT-4 still struggles with high school math exams.


The AMC 10 and 12 are 25-question, 75-minute exams administered to high school students that cover mathematical Topics including algebra, geometry, trigonometry, according to the Mathematical Association of America's site

In the fall of 2022, the average score out of 150 total points on the AMC 10 was 58.33 and 59.9 on the AMC 12, according to the MAA's site. GPT-4 scored a 30 and 60, respectively, putting it between the 6th to 12th percentile of the AMC 10 and the 45th to 66th percentile of the AMC 12, according to OpenAI. 

While it's notoriously difficult to earn your credentials as a wine steward, GPT-4 does pass examinations to become a sommelier.


GPT-4 has passed the Introductory Sommelier, Certified Sommelier, and Advanced Sommelier exams at respective rates of 92%, 86%, and 77%, according to OpenAI. 

GPT-3.5 came in at 80%, 58%, and 46% for those same exams, OpenAI said.

ChatGPT fares reasonably well on some sections of a Wharton MBA exam but struggles with others.

The Wharton School.
David Tran Photo/Shutterstock

Wharton professor Christian Terwiesch recently tested the technology with questions from his final exam in operations management— which was once a required class for all MBA students — and published his findings

Terwiesch concluded that the bot did an "amazing job" answering basic operations questions based on case studies, which are focused examinations of a person, group, or company, and a common way business schools teach students.  

In other instances though, ChatGPT made simple mistakes in calculations that Terwiesch thought only required 6th-grade-level math. Terwiesch also noted that the bot had issues with more complex questions that required an understanding of how multiple inputs and outputs worked together. 

Ultimately, Terwiesch said the bot would receive an B or B- on the exam. 

ChatGPT passed all three parts of the United States medical licensing examination within a comfortable range.

Doctor uses computer an smartphone simultaneously.
Getty Images

Researchers put ChatGPT through the United States Medical Licensing exam — a three part exam that aspiring doctors take between medical school and residency — and reported their findings in a paper published in December 2022. 

The paper's abstract noted that ChatGPT "performed at or near the passing threshold for all three exams without any specialized training or reinforcement. Additionally, ChatGPT demonstrated a high level of concordance and insight in its explanations."

Ultimately, the results show that large language models — which ChatGPT has been trained on— may have "the potential" to assist with medical education and even clinical decision making, the abstract noted

The research is still under peer review, Insider noted based on a report from Axios. 

While ChatGPT has generated convincing essays on occasion, it's also raised eyebrows for spewing out well-written misinformation.

Tech Insider

It didn't take long after ChatGPT was released for students to start using it for essays and educators to start worrying about plagiarism. 

In December, Bloomberg podcaster Matthew S. Schwartz tweeted that the "take home essay is dead." He noted that he had fed a law school essay prompt into ChatGPT and it had "responded *instantly* with a solid response." 

In another instance, a philosophy professor at Furman University caught a student turning in an AI-generated essay upon noticing it had "well-written misinformation," Insider reported

"Word by word it was a well-written essay," the professor told Insider. As he took a more careful look however, he noticed that the student made a claim about the philosopher David Hume that "made no sense" and was "just flatly wrong" Insider reported

In an interview in January, Sam Altman— CEO of OpenAI which makes ChatGPT — said that while the company will devise ways to help schools detect plagiarism, he can't guarantee full detection. 

ChatGPT aced a college-level microbiology quiz.

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Science journalist and executive editor of Big Think, Alex Berezow, tested ChatGPT with a 10-question microbiology quiz that he devised

Berezow, who also holds a Ph.D in microbiology, noted that the questions would be appropriate for a final exam for college level students. ChatGPT "blew it away," Berezow wrote. 

In one example, Berezow asked: 

"An emergency room patient presents with a terrible headache and stiff neck. The doctor orders a spinal tap to collect cerebrospinal fluid. A Gram stain of the CSF reveals the presence of Gram negative diplococci. What is the diagnosis?"

To which ChatGPT correctly responded:

Based on the information you provided, the Gram stain of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shows the presence of Gram-negative diplococci, which are bacteria that are typically oval-shaped and occur in pairs. This finding is consistent with the diagnosis of meningitis.

In another instance he asked:

"In five words or less, what is the point of Koch's postulates?"

To which ChatGPT said: 

Establish causality between microbe and disease.

Taking out the word "and" Berezow said ChatGPT "Nailed it."

ChatGPT barely passed Law School Exams, earning something close to a C+.

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ChatGPT recently passed exams in four law school courses at the University of Minnesota, based on a recently published paper written by four law school professors at the school. 

In total, the bot answered over 95 multiple choice questions and 12 essay questions that were blindly graded by the professors. Ultimately, the professors gave ChatGPT a "low but passing grade in all four courses" approximately equivalent to a C+. 

Still the authors pointed out several implications for what this might mean for lawyers and law education. In one section they wrote:

"Although ChatGPT would have been a mediocre law student, its performance was sufficient to successfully earn a JD degree from a highly selective law school, assuming its work remained constant throughout law school (and ignoring other graduation requirements that involve different skills). In an era where remote exam administration has become the norm, this could hypothetically result in a struggling law student using ChatGPT to earn a JD that does not reflect her abilities or readiness to practice law."

But the bot did pass a Stanford Medical School clinical reasoning final.

(Photo by David Madison/Getty Images)

ChatGPT passed a Stanford Medical School final in clinical reasoning. According to a YouTube video uploaded by Eric Strong — a clinical associate professor at Stanford — ChatGPT passed a clinical reasoning exam with an overall score of 72%. 

In the video, Strong described clinical reasoning in five parts. It includes analyzing a patient's symptoms and physical findings, hypothesizing possible diagnoses, selecting appropriate tests, interpreting test results, and recommending treatment options. 

He said, "it's a complex, multi-faceted science of its own, one that is very patient-focused, and something that everything every practicing doctor does on a routine basis."

Strong noted in the video that the clinical reasoning exam is normally given to first-year medical students who need a score of 70% to pass.

Sat, 04 Nov 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.businessinsider.com/list-here-are-the-exams-chatgpt-has-passed-so-far-2023-1
Medical Monday : National Diabetes Awareness Month


Diabetes is described as a condition where your pancreas does not make enough insulin, or the insulin is not used properly to get the sugar from your bloodstream to your cells. There are two main types of diabetes, but Jennifer Smith, a certified diabetes care and education specialist for Northern Light AR Gould says there is a difference between the two.

Jennifer Smith: " Type one diabetes is usually diagnosed in children or adolescents and their pancreas does not make any insulin at all. Type two diabetes is usually brought on in older individuals. It can be heredity, it can have a lot to do with lifestyle”.

Pregnant women can also experience what is known as gestational diabetes which she says typically goes away after they give birth. Smith says managing your diabetes is very important and most practices are done daily.

Smith: " Exercise is a big part of managing your diabetes because when you exercise it helps the muscles utilize the sugar so that it goes into your muscle cells and comes out your bloodstream”.

She also says it’s important to make sure you take your medications as directed. What you eat can be equally important for maintaining your diabetes.

Smith: " Have a diet that is high in fiber, low fat, lots of fruits and vegetables. You still need to eat carbohydrates or starchy foods. But it’s important to just have the correct portion of those items and making sure they’re spread out throughout the day”.

There are some services that the hospital can provide for a patient, but Smith says you must be referred to it through your primary care provider and there are certain guidelines that have to be met.

Smith: “We do offer a diabetes self-management education and support program here. And certain blood fasting glucose tests have to be met. And if their fasting glucose levels are equal to or greater than 126, then they would qualify. Or if they have random sugars of above 200 with symptoms of diabetes”.

Smith also encourages patients to bring a family member or loved one with them to the visit because the amount of information that will be provided.

Tue, 07 Nov 2023 04:20:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.wagmtv.com/2023/11/07/medical-monday-national-diabetes-awareness-month/

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