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Exam Code: 920-804 Practice test 2022 by team
Technology Standards and Protocol for Converged Networks
Nortel Technology approach
Killexams : Nortel Technology approach - BingNews Search results Killexams : Nortel Technology approach - BingNews Killexams : Nokia Siemens May Raise Nortel Bid No result found, try new keyword!Nokia Siemens Networks plans to object to Ciena's $769 million bid for Nortel's optical networking and carrier Ethernet business, and is ready to raise its offer to $810 million in cash ... Fri, 25 Nov 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en-us text/html Killexams : Ultrafast networks gear-up for deployment

The commercial 100G transmission system recently announced by Nortel, which has been adopted by the US carrier Verizon. Credit: NORTEL

This year looks set to be the point at which optical networks operating at data rates of 100 Gbit s−1 (100G) per wavelength channel become a commercial reality. Although 40G networks are still just starting to be rolled-out, there has been considerable activity in the 100G market, and analyst company Ovum believes that 2010 will see the first revenue-generating deployments of 100G technology. It estimates that the global demand for transponders (integrated transmitter–receiver units) for 100G dense-wavelength-division multiplexing communication systems will grow rapidly over the next five years, reaching $455 million by 2014. This summer, the IEEE standards for 40G and 100G Ethernet technologies will be ratified, after which the market can start to grow in earnest.

The end of 2009 saw a plethora of announcements regarding 100G trials and deployments from telecommunications operators such as Verizon and Deutsche Telekom, and system vendors such as Huawei, Nortel, Ericsson and Alcatel-Lucent. The US operator Verizon claimed it was the first telecommunications carrier to successfully deploy a commercial 100G ultralong-haul optical system for live traffic between Paris and Frankfurt, based on Nortel technology. At around the same time, Huawei announced the successful completion of a 100G long-haul transmission field trial with Telefónica in Spain, covering a distance of more than 1,000 km without electrical regeneration. Ericsson and Deutsche Telekom announced a joint 100G field trial on an existing optical platform as part of the European 100GET project, and Nortel made several 100G announcements including a successful trial over a 600-km 100G link spanning from New York to Boston.

Developers of 40G and 100G technology are of course acutely aware of the need to keep costs down. For this reason, there is a strong drive to make the technology compatible with existing fibre infrastructure.

“Our coherent frequency-division multiplexing solution includes digital signal processing, enabling us to achieve the full 112 Gbit s−1 capacity using 10G-class components. Rather than using intensity-modulated direct detention, Nortel is using dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying with coherent receivers, together with advanced digital signal processing,” says Helen Xenos, 40G/100G product marketing manager at Nortel.

Dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying is a modulation format that effectively sends four times as much information as traditional optical transmissions of the same speed. When paired with a coherent receiver that can detect this modulation format, the optical transmission rate can be slowed, which reduces the effects of signal distortions such as chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion. Any remaining signal distortion resulting from dispersion is eliminated by integrated electronic dispersion-compensation technology, which adjusts for distortion at the receiver-side of the transmission. By using these advanced signal processing technologies, Nortel's solution can transmit a 100G signal — even over an impaired fibre that cannot be used for traditional 10G transmission — without the need for separate compensators for chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion.

“Regardless of the modulation format used, a critical element for achieving 100G transmission over long- and ultralong-haul distances is to decrease the transmitted baud rate so that optical impairments such as dispersion are controlled, and to have an effective coherent receiver to be able to recover the modulated signal,” says Ron Kline, principal analyst for network infrastructure at Ovum.

For their trial, Ericsson and Deutsche Telekom used an existing link of mixed 10G and 40G traffic with a 50 GHz channel spacing. A line rate of 112 Gbit s−1 was achieved using polarization-multiplexed return-to-zero differential quadrature phase shift keying over 600 km of standard single-mode fibre. The link included multiple reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers and amplifiers. With carefully optimized links, transmission distances of more than 1,200 km are possible and have been demonstrated in the lab.

Huawei's 100G field trial in Spain was based on the company's OSN 6800 wavelength-division multiplexing/optical transport network platform and standard G.652 optical fibre. The link featured ten sets of reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers, 33 optical amplifiers and two sets of multiplexer–demultiplexers. Transmission of a mixture of 10G/40G/100G data with a 50 Hz channel spacing was achieved without interfering with the existing network.

Alcatel-Lucent used proprietary digital signal processing algorithms to optimize coherent detection of data in its 100G tests. The 112 Gbit s−1 field trial spanned 1,088 km between four cities in Spain and took place over an existing heavily loaded fibre link carrying live traffic on the Telefónica network.

“Although it is exciting to see so many successful 100G trials, the technology must be cost-effective before it will take off,” warns Kline. “The aim with 40G was to make it 2.5 times the cost of 10G, while giving four times the bandwidth. We are not yet at that stage with 40G, and prices for 10G are dropping. So many companies are questioning whether or not to invest in 40G, let alone 100G. The 100G solution needs to be more cost-effective than ten separate 10G wavelengths, and we are several years away from achieving this.”

Sat, 25 Jun 2022 03:04:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Nortel Assets on Radware's Radar: Report No result found, try new keyword!Tel Aviv-based Radware is reportedly ready to spend between $30 million and $50 million to acquire all or part of Nortel's metro Ethernet networks business. reports that Tel Aviv-based Radware ... Thu, 01 Dec 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en-us text/html Killexams : Why Taking A Personal Approach To Business Can Yield Big Results

CEO & Founder of National Business Capital, the leading fintech marketplace offering streamlined small business loans.

Almost everyone has heard, “It’s not personal; it’s just business.” While this phrase sounds okay on the surface, adopting this belief is actually more damaging than you’d think for your employees and customers.

Business is inherently personal because companies are made up of people who aren’t interested in one-size-fits-all approaches. No one wants to feel like a cog in a wheel, which is why taking a personal approach in business often leads to better performance and greater satisfaction in your work.

If you want to take a personal approach in your business, this starts with how you treat your employees and customers. If these relationships aren’t as strong as you would like them to be, here are some strategies for improving them.

Taking A Personal Approach To Employees

Salary will always play a role in an employee’s job satisfaction, but now, a higher salary doesn’t have as much negotiation power as before. The “great resignation” has forced many companies to see that their old ways aren’t cutting it in the current environment. It isn’t just recommended to take a more personal approach to your business relationships—it’s a necessity to keep your team from migrating to the competition.

Employees need to feel that their work has meaning and, more importantly, see how it contributes to the greater good. Here are a few ways you can begin taking a personal approach with your employees:

Be transparent: There’s nothing more frustrating than working in a job where it feels like management is constantly withholding information. You’re not protecting your employees from anything—you’re creating unnecessary anxiety in the office. Be honest with your team and let them know what’s happening in the business—they’ll be more committed to the company because of it.

Provide opportunities to advance: It’s hard to experience job satisfaction if you don’t feel like you’re growing and getting better at what you do. Look for ways to provide your employees opportunities to advance, and talk to them about new positions that will be available as the company grows.

Remember birthdays: Don’t let staff birthdays come and go without acknowledging them. Mark the dates of all your employees’ birthdays in your calendar and order them a cake, or something similar, to celebrate. It may seem like a small gesture, but it will go a long way toward showing your employees you care about them.

Taking A Personal Approach To Customers

Your customers drive your business, so you need to consider their interactions with your company from their point of view. Staying connected to your customers and showing them you care about their opinion will build long-term brand loyalty, much like it would if you were in their shoes.

One of the easiest ways to do this is by simply thanking your customers for their business. If you’re a small business, you may be able to call each customer personally and thank them for their support.

Another option is to send cards thanking your customers for their business. You can also send holiday cards to show your appreciation, but you don’t just want to engage your customers when things are going well—it’s just as important to reach out when there’s a problem.

Instead of seeing complaints as a hassle, use them as opportunities to strengthen the relationship with your customers. Mistakes are inevitable, and when you apologize and do what you can to fix the problem, it builds trust with your customers.

Taking A Personal Approach Can Lead To Bigger Business Results

As a business owner, you need to find ways to motivate and inspire your employees. Happy employees will be more productive, more engaged with their work, and more creative, which can also lead to lower employee turnover rates and help your bottom line.

Your goal with each customer is to increase the customer lifetime value (CLV). A high CLV means that customer brings in more revenue for your business. By building credibility and trust with your customers, you’ll lower your customer churn and, of course, make each customer more impactful for your longevity.

As technology becomes more advanced, it’s easy for businesses to lose sight of what really matters. We can automate processes and communicate with our team/customers through apps for convenience, but if we don’t focus on the human component of our relationships, simplicity becomes much less important.

When you take a personal approach in business, you treat your employees and customers as individuals and look for personalized solutions to every problem. You look beyond your CRM and Slack to find ways to build strong relationships—an old approach to a new challenge. Take the time, put yourself in someone else’s shoes, and strategize to implement systems that benefit your team and customers just as much as your profit line.

Forbes Finance Council is an invitation-only organization for executives in successful accounting, financial planning and wealth management firms. Do I qualify?

Sun, 13 Nov 2022 22:30:00 -0600 Joe Camberato en text/html
Killexams : A new approach might help scientists see inside a neutron star

Substituting can be a tricky art, especially when stars are involved.

When massive stars explode, they can collapse into extremely dense — and mysterious — objects known as neutron stars. But neutron stars are too far away and much too small for even the most powerful telescopes to look inside, so scientists want to find a way to figure out what a neutron star is made of. In new research, astrophysicists tested a potential approach to determining the state of the matter inside a neutron star. (More familiar states of matter are solid, liquid and gas.)