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Exam Code: 920-338 Practice test 2023 by team
BCM50 Rls. 3.0, BCM200/400 Rls. 4.0 & BCM450 Rls. 1.0 Installation, Configuration & Maintenance
Nortel Installation, outline
Killexams : Nortel Installation, outline - BingNews Search results Killexams : Nortel Installation, outline - BingNews Killexams : You Should Install These Pull-Down Kitchen Cabinets

Do you have to use a step-stool to reach your taller cabinet shelves? Do you have mobility issues that make it difficult or impossible to reach cabinet shelves? If this sounds like you, or if you’re interested in making your kitchen more universally accessible for visitors, you can swap your conventional shelves with pull-down cabinet inserts.

You can swap out your regular shelves yourself

Pull-down shelves are inserts that are made to fit inside your existing cabinets, so they’re not very difficult to swap out. They are designed to move forward and down to reduce the reach required to get things from hard to reach spots in the back of the cabinet. They’re particularly great for the awkward higher shelves that even people with full mobility have trouble reaching, and they can be added to almost any other cabinet in the kitchen.

Everything you need to install pull-down cabinet inserts yourself:

Measure before you buy

Before you shop for cabinet inserts, you’ll need to measure the depth and width of the cabinets you want to add pull-downs to. You will also need to measure the opening at the front of your cabinets if it’s different from the overall width of the shelves (say, do to the way the doors are hung, for example). When ordering, take into account any appliances or other objects that might interfere with the insert’s operation—you’ll need about 30 inches of clear space the front of the cabinet.

If you have standard sized cabinets, you can likely use a pre-made insert that matches the interior dimensions of the cabinet. For custom cabinets or cabinets in an older home, you might be able to find something close that fits, or you might need to call the manufacturer to see if they can make a custom insert.

Remove your old shelves

Once you have your shelf inserts, begin the installation process by removing the shelves from inside the cabinet that you want to replace. Some shelves will be held on with fasteners attached with screws and others will simply be resting on pegs. Remove all of the existing shelf hardware to make way for the new pull-down shelves.

Test-fit and mark your hardware location

Most pull-down shelves come ready to mount to the bottom of your cabinet with screws or mounting hardware located at the base of the insert, while others are designed to mount to the sides of the cabinet. Whichever type of insert you have, place the insert in the cabinet before attempting to install to make sure it fits correctly. Use a pencil to mark the places where the hardware will go so you can pre-drill the holes to mount it.

Remove the insert and, using a small pilot bit, drill your mounting holes. It’s a good idea to use a drill bit collar or wrap a few layers of tape around the bottom of your bit to keep from accidentally drilling all the way through the wall or floor of the cabinet. Measure the thickness of the cabinet and then limit the depth of your drill bit to about an eighth of an inch shy of that measurement.

Install your pull-down inserts and enjoy easier access to the stuff in your cabinets

Put the pull down shelves back into the cabinet and use the provided hardware from the manufacturer to attach to the bottom of the cabinets. Do a test run of the insert before putting anything on the shelves to make sure they work smoothly. Now you can reorganize your shelves and use the pull-down for easier access to all your kitchen goods.

Sat, 12 Aug 2023 00:59:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : How To Install Vinyl Plank Flooring

1. Assess Subfloor

The subfloor must be structurally sound. It should be level to within a 1/4-inch or less slope or rise per 10 feet (horizontal), with no bumps or dips. With the hammer, pound down protruding nails or remove and replace with screws. With a putty knife, scrape away dried drywall compound, paint or mud. Remove loose debris by sweeping or using a shop vacuum.

2. Plan Layout

Decide which direction you will install the planks. Generally, lay the planks in the direction of the room’s longest side. You may want to change the direction of the boards if there are extenuating circumstances, such as the need to parallel the direction of flooring in an adjacent room. If flooring an entire house, run the planks in the direction of the house’s longest sides.

3. Remove Baseboards

Forbes Home / Deane Biermeier

Baseboards, shoe molding and other types of molding on the room’s perimeter must be removed. Use a pry bar to gently pry back the top of the molding. Set aside the trim for reuse or purchase new baseboards.

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4. Undercut Jambs

Forbes Home / Deane Biermeier

If the door casing is to remain in place, undercut the casing to allow the vinyl flooring to slide underneath. Lay a piece of vinyl flooring against the door casing. Mark with a pencil, then remove the plank. Cut with a multi-tool or door jamb saw and remove the waste.

5. Add Joint Spacers

To create an expansion gap, set joint spacers on the wall, around the perimeter of the room, approximately every 24 inches. Scrap 1/4-inch thick boards can be taped to the walls with painter’s tape. If using plastic manufactured joint spacers, these do not install on the walls but on top of the planks.

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6. Plan First Plank of First Row

Forbes Home / Deane Biermeier

You will either lay a full- or partial-size first plank. The goal is for no plank to be less than 8 inches long. With the tape measure, measure the floor’s length. Divide that measurement by the length of each plank. If the resulting number is greater than 8 inches, install a full-size first plank. If the number is less than 8 inches, subtract enough inches from the first board so that the final board in the row will be longer than 8 inches.

7. Begin First Row

The first row will be against a wall. The planks’ grooves should face the room (tongues facing the wall). Begin by dry-fitting 6 to 12 inches away from the wall. Install the entire row of planks for that row. Attach the short sides of planks by pushing the top plank’s tongue straight down into the receiving groove of the adjacent plank. If the boards do not snap into place by hand, tap with a mallet.

8. Remove Tongues of First Row Planks

As you install the first row, use the utility knife to slice off the tongues from the planks. This helps the first row to fit tighter against the wall, with less chance of visible gaps.

9. Complete First Row

Forbes Home / Deane Biermeier

At the end, cut the last board to fit the remaining space. Cut the plank by scoring two or three times against the straight edge, then snapping the two pieces apart from the back. It’s often helpful to snap the board over your knee, but be cautious of flying fragments.

You can also use a specially designed floor plank cutting tool to make precision cross-cuts in the flooring material.

When the row is finished, slide it into place against the wall’s spacers.

10. Plan First Plank of Second Row

Planks’ short joints should be staggered for better stability and for visual effect. Aim for joints to hit at about the 1/3rd or 2/3rd mark of the plank on the adjacent row. For example, if the first plank of the first row is a full-size 48 inches long, the first plank of the second row should be either 16 or 32 inches long.

11. Begin Second Row

Forbes Home / Deane Biermeier

Attach the vinyl flooring planks by locking them into place from the side. With most floors of this type, the installer holds the plank at about a 15 degree angle to the already installed plank. The tongue of the new plank fits into the groove of the second plank. Then, the new plank is folded down flat.

12. Tap Planks into Place

Forbes Home / Deane Biermeier

It may be necessary to tap the new board on the edge to snug it against the other board. Always use a floor tapping block between the mallet and the board to avoid damaging the board’s edge.

13. Finish Subsequent Rows

Continue laying rows of vinyl flooring planks. Keep staggering the joints as before.

14. Cut Last Row Planks

The final row of vinyl flooring planks usually must be cut lengthwise to fit. The score-and-snap method can be difficult, so cut with a circular saw, jigsaw or handsaw.

15. Install Last Row Planks

Fit the tongues of the last row of planks into the grooves of the already installed row of planks. Fold down the planks. Remember, the entire periphery must have a 1/4-inch expansion gap—even this last row. So, be sure to apply joint spacers to this row or use the spacers taped to the wall.

16. Install Floor Molding

After the flooring is completely installed, install the baseboards or other floor trim. The bottom edge of the floor trim should cover the expansion gap. Sometimes, the last row of planks has a tendency to slightly angle upward, and the floor molding will help to hold it down until it naturally flattens.

Mon, 24 Jul 2023 02:18:00 -0500 Lee Wallender en-US text/html
Killexams : How To Install Solar Panels
  • Working time: 20 hours
  • Total time: Up to 2 months for paperwork and inspections
  • Skill level: Advanced
  • Project cost: $18,000 for materials and labor

Installing the best solar panels can save you money while also protecting the environment. Some systems allow independence from the electrical grid, or the ability to earn profits by selling power back to suppliers. Many people find relief in simply lowering their energy bills.

Power Your Home With Solar

Find a network of trusted installers for your solar system, solar panels and electricity needs. Find a solar panel installer today!

Usually, specialists or general contractors are hired to install solar panels. Once you know how to install a solar panel, you’ll better understand how the process is done, and you may even decide you can do it yourself.

When to Install Solar Panels

Solar panels can be installed during any time of year. If you live in an area that receives regular snowfall, it may be best to wait until the snow has melted for ease and safety, depending on the types of solar panels you choose.

Safety Considerations

The components of a solar panel are bulky and often installed on a roof. Use extreme caution and fall protection when working on a roof. Be particularly cautious while bringing materials to the roof and while working near the edge.

Installation of a solar system involves working with electricity. Follow all safety procedures regarding the installation of electrical components.


  • Tape measure
  • Pencil or marker
  • Drill with bits
  • Chalk line
  • Wrench set
  • Screwdrivers
  • Metal cutting saw
  • Electrical wiring tools


  • Photovoltaic panels
  • Racking system
  • Roof sealant (roofing tar or silicone)
  • Power inverter
  • Batteries
  • Charge controller
  • Energy meter (optional)
  • Heat sink (if needed)
  • Electrical wiring components


A solar panel is really a collection of solar photovoltaic panels (PV panels). Those panels are connected to several components that are used to control sun-generated energy.

There are many things to consider regarding solar power for your home. If you’re thinking about installing your own solar panel, you may want to start by hiring a solar energy consultant. They’ll have all the information you’ll need to help make decisions about your project. A hired contractor, on the other hand, will have their own experts to help you make decisions.

A consultant can also direct you to specific manufacturers that best meet your needs.

1. Check for Compatibility

To get started, make sure your home is ready to accept a solar energy system. Find out if your roof is large enough, or if you have room to place the panels at ground level. You may need to remove trees or trim branches. Your electrical panel might need upgrading. Be sure your roof is in good shape and won’t need to be replaced soon.

2. Select the Size

Once you know that your home is compatible, decide what you would like your system to provide. You can use the energy to simply run lighting or a few appliances, you can create enough energy to sell some back to the power company or anything in between.

3. Get Permits

Apply for a building permit for your locality. Some areas may also require a separate
electrical permit. Oftentimes, waiting for the permits to be approved, and scheduling the subsequent inspections, are the most time-consuming parts of the project.

4. Apply for Incentives

Make the most of your solar investment. Incentive programs vary at the state and local levels. Federal incentives change from time to time, too. You may be able to receive tax credits, rebates or grants from multiple sources to offset costs. Apply for these incentives prior to starting physical work. You may consider applying for a special solar loan to finance the project.

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5. Preparation

Because solar panel requirements vary greatly depending on needs and locations, solar panel components that are unique to your project often need to be ordered from a retailer. Order everything you’ll need at one time, if possible, to ensure all of the
materials are compatible with each other.

6. Install Racking System

Measure and mark a layout for the system on your roof or on the ground. Install the metal racking system, following manufacturer instructions. Seal any holes through roof shingles with roofing tar or silicone caulk.

7. Install Panels

Connect the PV panels to the racking using the supplied clamps to secure them in place. Then, wire each panel to the adjacent panels.

8. Install Heat Sink

A heat sink is a device used to reduce heat generated by the panels. They also increase the efficiency of the array. Heat sinks are often integrated into PV panels. If not, an external heat sink will need to be added.

9. Install Charge Controller

The charge controller sends electricity to where it is needed. It automatically allows electrical current to flow through the system or into the batteries for storage. Install it between the panels and battery bank.

10. Install Battery Bank

Generated energy that is not immediately used in your home will be stored in a battery bank for use when the sun is not shining. Wire the batteries together in series to essentially create one big battery.

11. Install Power Inverter

The power coming directly from your solar panel and batteries will be direct current (DC) electricity. It must be converted to alternating current (AC) for use in household wiring. For this purpose, install a power inverter after the batteries and power controller, and before the connection to the house.

12. Install Energy Meter

Most solar systems include the use of an energy meter. This device allows you to know how much electricity you are generating and using. It can also keep track of the amount of energy needed from, or sent back to, the electrical grid.

13. Check Electrical

Before wiring your new solar panel system to the house, be sure to double-check all wiring. Be certain to ground the system at the PV panels. There will need to be an electrical inspection performed by your municipal inspector at this point.

14. Connect to Electrical Panel

Wire the power inverter directly to the electrical panel following device instructions depending on how the system will be used.

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Things You Need to Know Before Installing Solar Panels

Solar panels are a considerable investment that require a long-term commitment. Therefore, it’s essential to consider several factors to determine if the investment to go solar is worth it.

Your Power Needs

Before installing solar panels, assessing your current and future power needs is crucial. Consider your average electricity consumption over the past year and any changes you expect in the future, such as adding more appliances or electric vehicles. Understanding your power requirements will help you determine the appropriate size and capacity of the solar panel system you need.

Number of Sun Hours

The amount of sunlight your home receives throughout the year is a crucial factor in the efficiency of your solar panels. Regions with more sun hours generally produce more electricity, making solar energy a more viable option. The average number of hours your area receives sun will supply you an idea of how much energy you can expect to generate with solar panels.

Size & Design of Your Home

You’ll want to consider the size and layout of your solar panel system based on your home’s physical characteristics. If you have a lot of roof space, you can install large panels that will allow you to generate more electricity. On the other hand, if you have a smaller roof or a unique layout, you may have to install smaller panels.

Roof Condition

Before installing solar panels, it’s important to make sure your roof is in good condition. If you need repairs or replacement, addressing those issues before installing solar panels is best. Solar panel installation companies often perform a roof assessment before proceeding with the installation.

Roof Strength

When you’re thinking about installing a solar panel system, one of the most important things to consider is how it will affect your roof structurally. In order to ensure that your roof can handle the panels, it is recommended to have an assessment done by a professional. This will help you determine whether or not your roof has enough structural integrity to bear the weight of the solar panel system.

When to Call a Pro

Installing a solar panel is a complex, time-consuming task. Most homeowners opt to have their system installed by  specialized solar companies from start to finish. A solar contractor will also know how to help you receive any incentives you’re entitled to.

For DIY installations, hiring a contractor for certain parts of the job is common. Many people install the entire system and leave the wiring to a licensed electrician. Call in a professional to complete any portion of the job that you’re not comfortable doing yourself.

Looking For Hassle-Free Solar Installation

Find a network of trusted installers for solar system, solar panels and electricity needs. Find a solar panel installer today!

Fri, 28 Jul 2023 08:14:00 -0500 Deane Biermeier en-US text/html
Killexams : How to get and install Terraria mods No result found, try new keyword!We'll show you how to install and run Terraria mods without breaking your game. If you aren't already, we recommend playing Terraria with one of the best Android-compatible controllers so you don ... Sun, 06 Aug 2023 23:00:00 -0500 Killexams : How to Install Vinyl Windows (2023)

Windows last about 20 years, but the best vinyl windows can last about 30. You’ll likely need to replace your windows at some point during homeownership, and you can use this opportunity to Excellerate both your home’s appearance and energy efficiency. Well-installed replacement windows can seal out drafts and prevent heat transfer, lowering your utility bills. We’ll walk you through the process of replacing vinyl windows and explain when it’s best to hire a pro.

Benefits of Vinyl Windows

Vinyl is the most popular window frame material for American homes as it comes with several advantages. First, vinyl windows are usually the most affordable replacement windows available. Aluminum windows are sometimes less expensive, but they’re also far less energy efficient. Vinyl frames, when filled with insulation material, meet ENERGY STAR requirements for efficiency, reducing your carbon footprint and your energy bills. Since they’re so popular, they’re also available in the widest range of design and size options. Particularly compared to wood windows, vinyl windows are very low maintenance.

Signs You Need to Replace Your Windows

Over time and with changing temperatures, frames can warp, seals can loosen, and glass can crack. Here are some signs that it’s time to install vinyl replacement windows:

  • Condensation or fogging between window panes
  • Difficulty opening or closing sashes
  • Excess noise from outside
  • Feeling drafts or cold spots
  • Glass that’s cold to the touch
  • Increased heating or cooling costs
  • Outdated window designs

Preparing for Vinyl Window Replacement

As you get ready to install new windows, here’s what to keep in mind.

Tools and Materials

If you plan to take on the job yourself, here are the tools and materials you’ll need. You can find most of these at The Home Depot or a local hardware store.

Safety Measures and Precautions

If you’re replacing a window on your home’s ground floor, safety risks are minimal. However, any job that involves glass and power tools involves some element of risk. Wear gloves when handling exposed wood, and consider hearing and eye protection when using power tools. When moving windows around, slide sashes to their lowest points to prevent them from falling on you.

We recommend waiting for warm, dry weather to take this project on. If things don’t go as planned, you may end up exposing your home to the elements. You can always put up a tarp or plastic sheeting overnight, but this will be easier to live with in warm weather than cold weather.

Measuring Existing Windows

It’s important to measure windows accurately when picking out replacements. Use a tape measure to measure the distance between the inner jamb surfaces—that is, the frame’s sides—parallel to the window sash. Then, measure the height from the windowsill to the top of the window opening. Finally, open the window and measure the frame’s total depth, excluding exterior trim. These three measurements should supply you the correct window size.

Buying New Windows

Once you know the size, you’ll need to determine the type of window that best suits your needs. The most common residential styles are single-hung windows with one movable sash and double-hung windows with two movable sashes. However, you can also choose awning windows, which open outward on a hinge at the top, or casement windows, which crank open from a hinge at one side. These styles vary in terms of ventilation and energy efficiency as well as function, so consider which will serve as the best replacement windows in this particular application.

Finally, you’ll need to decide on a glass type. Double-pane windows are substantially more efficient and noise-reducing than their single-pane counterparts, so we highly recommend opting for at least two panes of glass. For more extreme climates, triple-pane windows offer even more efficiency, though the improvement over two panes is more modest. Either way, you can also opt for low-emissivity glass, which is treated to reduce the amount of solar heat that passes through. The more efficient your window, the less strenuously your HVAC system will have to work and the more you’ll save on utility bills.

Types of Vinyl Window Replacements

All window styles are available as either new-construction windows or replacements. New-construction windows are surrounded by a nailing fin flange that anchors directly to wall studs and the window header. They’re the most energy-efficient replacements, but they require stripping the window down to the rough opening, so you would typically only use them in large renovation projects, such as new additions. More often, you’ll use replacement windows, which come in two varieties.

Full-Frame Windows

As the name implies, this window type contains a new frame. Full-frame replacement windows are necessary when your existing frames are damaged, rotting, or misaligned. The replacement process is a little more complicated than for other types of retrofit windows, but you won’t need to remove your home’s vinyl siding, stucco, or brickwork to complete it.

Pocket Windows

Alternatively, pocket or insert window replacements have no frame. Instead, you’ll pop the sashes out of your existing window frame. Obviously, this will only be possible if your existing frames are in good condition. The process is quicker and more DIY-friendly than full-frame replacement, but the end result is slightly less durable and energy efficient.

Step-by-Step Guide to Vinyl Window Installation

Whether you want to install windows yourself or just want to learn the process a pro would follow, here are some installation instructions for insert replacements.

Step 1: Remove the Old Window

  • To remove the old window, first use the pry bar to remove the indoor window stops. These are thin wooden strips around the frame’s sides and top. Set them aside to reinstall later.
  • You should be able to pop both sashes out, one at a time, without removing exterior stops or the windowsill.
  • If the interior stops won’t come free, you may need to use an oscillating multitool to cut them out.
  • Remove the sash liners and springs as well as the sash cord pulleys.

Step 2: Prepare the Window Frame

  • Check the frame’s condition before proceeding. If there is damage, rot, or a substantial amount of mold, you may need to put the job on hold and replace the frame as well.
  • Clean the frame to remove any mildew, dirt, or grime.
  • Ensure that the frame is plumb, or level, so that the new window insert will fit in smoothly. To do this, measure both frame diagonals from the top corner to the opposing bottom corner. If these measurements are within 1/4 inch of each other, the frame is plumb.
  • If the frame is not plumb, you may need to remove the trim and adjust the frame’s width with shims, or thin pieces of wood. If the difference is too large, though, the frame itself may need repair or replacement.

Step 3: Install the New Vinyl Window

  • Test the new pocket replacement window’s fit by inserting it into the opening.
  • Once you’ve confirmed the fit, use the caulking gun to run a bead of silicone caulk around the exterior window stops’ inside surfaces.
  • Center the new window in the frame, and press it back against the exterior stops. There will be small gaps around the frame, but they should be even on each side. Use a tape measure to confirm.
  • Fill in the gaps with shims and insulation material. The fit should be snug, but not so snug that the frames bow and impede the function of the window.
  • Open the window and install the mounting screws through the shims and into the frame. Use your power drill to drill a pilot hole through the shims so they don’t split. Don’t overtighten the screws, which could move the frame slightly out of alignment.

Step 4: Finish and Seal the New Window

  • There will likely still be gaps around the shims, so fill them in with insulating material, such as expanding foam or backer rods. Don’t use loose insulation or fiberglass batting, which won’t work properly when squished into small spaces.
  • Reinstall the interior window stops, or add new replacement stops if the old ones were in poor condition.
  • If you intend to paint the frame, apply paintable latex caulk to any seams between the frame and insert replacement. Wipe the lines with a wet fingertip to remove excess and smooth the surface.
  • If desired, paint the interior trim.

Professional vs. DIY Vinyl Window Installation

Under certain circumstances, homeowners can install replacement windows themselves. If you’re replacing only one or two windows on your home’s ground floor, follow the instructions above and take all necessary safety precautions. Make sure to fill all cavities with insulation and seal all gaps to ensure the energy efficiency of new windows. No matter how high-quality the window itself is, your heating and cooling costs may rise if the space around it is leaky or poorly insulated.

Because windows are so important to a home’s energy efficiency, you may want to leave window replacement to the professionals. This is especially true if you’re replacing all your home’s windows at once or if the windows are located above the ground floor. Although you’ll pay a bit more for labor, here are the advantages of hiring a professional window installer:

  • Professionals will be able to finish the job more quickly than you will, leaving your home open to the elements for less time.
  • The warranties on many new windows require them to be installed by a professional, so you may void the warranties if you try to install the windows yourself.
  • Trusted window contractors have the expertise to complete a more durable and energy-efficient installation. They’ll also know how to spot potential problems and make necessary repairs.
  • You’ll save your own time and effort by leaving the work to the pros.

What to Expect When Hiring a Professional Installer

The first stage of hiring a window contractor often involves a consultation and pricing estimate. Some companies offer this for free; others will charge a fee. During this consultation, be sure to ask any questions you have about window manufacturer recommendations. Top window brands include Andersen, Pella, and Jeld-Wen, but the contractor might have a preferred brand. If you’re deciding between window styles, a pro can provide more information.

At this stage, you should also ask whether the installer provides trim or repair work and what the pricing estimate does and doesn’t cover. Inquire about the contractor’s experience and any certifications. You can request references for satisfied customers and ask to see previous work.

Make sure you know who will actually be entering your house to complete the job, whether it’s the contractor you’re speaking to or a colleague or subcontractor. This person should be bonded and insured, with a current contractor’s license. Ask about warranties, both on the windows themselves and on the installation workmanship, as well as timelines for project completion. Make sure you understand the payment process, and don’t pay more than 20% to 30% up-front.

Once you’ve completed the consultation, check the company’s Better Business Bureau (BBB) page for rating and accreditation status. This site will also show you customer complaints and reviews, and you can check out ratings on trusted review sites such as Trustpilot and Google Reviews. We recommend getting quotes from at least three companies before making your choice. This will supply you a better idea of the price range in your geographic area.

Our Recommendation

While vinyl window installation is a project you could take on yourself, generally speaking, you’ll get better results by hiring a professional. Many homeowners upgrade their windows to Excellerate their home’s energy efficiency, and professionals know how to properly seal and insulate windows to get the most out of them. We recommend factoring labor into window replacement expenses, particularly if you’re replacing all your home’s windows.

Tue, 08 Aug 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : How Much Does Ceiling Fan Installation Cost?
Visual 1 - HomeAdvisor - Ceiling Fan Installation Cost - Cost Range + Average - July 2023



  • The typical range for ceiling fan installation costs is $134 to $352, with $247 as the national average.
  • Cost factors associated with installing a ceiling fan include the unit type, labor, and number of fans.
  • Ceiling fans can distribute the air in a room more evenly, are quieter and more energy efficient than an AC unit, and can be a stylish element to add to a space.
  • Installing a ceiling fan may seem like a straightforward DIY project, but given the risks of working with electrical wires and mounting the unit securely, it is generally best to hire a ceiling fan installation service.

Need help installing a ceiling fan?

Maybe it's time to call a pro. Get free, no-commitment project estimates from installation services near you.


Adding a ceiling fan is an easy way to update a room. Not only can it regulate a room’s temperature for year-round comfort, but it can also modernize the room’s style and cut energy costs. According to HomeAdvisor and Angi, a straightforward ceiling fan installation can range from $134 to $352. The national average cost to install a ceiling fan is $247. If the installation is complex or the area is difficult to access, the fan installation cost can jump as high as $600. Typical labor costs run between $50 and $200, although the cost of labor can fluctuate due to geographic location. Ceiling fans for residential use can cost between $50 and $1,400, with commercial models fetching $3,500 or more. A new ceiling fan installation can cost more due to the addition of new wiring switches, circuits, and electrical boxes, which can add $150 to $500 or more, depending on any problems with the installation. All of these factors can affect ceiling fan installation cost, including the type of ceiling fan the homeowner chooses. This guide will break down the different types of fans, additional price factors, benefits of having a ceiling fan, and frequently asked questions regarding ceiling fan units.

Factors in Calculating Ceiling Fan Installation Cost

How much does it cost to hang a ceiling fan? A few factors can influence ceiling fan installation prices, including the price of the fan unit and labor costs in your area. Homeowners will want to keep in mind that labor costs are typically higher in densely populated urban areas and lower in more rural areas of the country.

Unit Type

How much does a ceiling fan cost? The price of the unit depends on the type of fan, what kind of blades it has, and the height of the ceiling. Some fans are made especially for lower ceilings, and there are also models specifically for ceilings higher than the standard 9 feet. The price ranges from $50 for a standard ceiling fan to $1,500 or more for a rotational fan. A ceiling fan with light installation costs an additional $100 to $300.


Some contractors may charge by the hour, while others will charge a flat fee to install a ceiling fan. The average range is between $50 and $200. Homeowners can expect to pay a general repair person $25 to $50 per hour and a licensed electrician between $50 and $100 per hour. The cost of labor and materials is directly related to how complex the installation is, and they don’t account for the real cost of the ceiling fan unit. The cost to replace ceiling fan units runs between $100 and $300. This type of job involves using existing wiring and switches to swap out the old fan for a new one. Since it’s a more straightforward job, the cost will be lower. If the area needs new wiring, boxes, and switches, it can cost between $300 and $600. If the site is difficult to access due to a lack of attic space, this type of installation can take between 2 and 4 hours and may require cutting holes in the walls and ceiling. Homeowners can search for “ceiling fan installation near me” to get a sense of local prices.

Leave ceiling fan installation to the pros

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Number of Fans

Installing several fans may cost more than installing just one, but having them all installed on the same day can bring down the overall cost. This is because if the electrician or handyman has to come to the house more than once to do the same job, travel fees will apply each time. If more than one fan needs to be installed, homeowners will want to try to book them all for the same day.

Additional Costs and Considerations

When budgeting for ceiling fan installation cost, it’s helpful for homeowners to know any additional price factors and considerations. These can include additional wiring, switches, accessories, and the differences between outdoor and indoor ceiling fans.

Additional Wiring

The average cost to install ceiling fan wiring can be as much as $2,000. If the area has no circuits, it can cost an additional $1,000 to $2,000. If the installation area has never had a ceiling fan, a mounting kit and a fixture will need to be installed. An electrician will then run power to the location. Suppose an old model without a light is being replaced with a new version that has lights incorporated. In that case, the wiring will need to accommodate the light fixture and additional electricity that will run to the fan. It’s always helpful to have an electrician examine the circuit panels in the house to determine if the circuit breakers can handle the additional demand of the new ceiling fan.

Switch Installation

Installing a new ceiling fan in an area with existing wiring can run between $100 and $300. A professional will install the fan on the previous light box. If the new fan needs additional support that the previous box can’t provide, a brace is put in the ceiling to take care of the extra weight. With this type of installation, the light and fan will run on the same switch. A new power line needs to be run with a larger box and a switch to have separate controls for each function. Switch installation can cost between $100 and $200. Many homeowners agree that while this adds to the overall cost of the project, the convenience of operating the light and fan separately is worth the extra price.


Ceiling fan accessories can increase functionality and enhance the appearance of the unit. Some additional features are remote control units ($50 to $100) to control fan speed, lighting, on/off options, angled ceiling mounts for sloped ceilings, or wall switches to match a room’s color scheme. Downrods to correctly position the fan in rooms with high vaulted ceilings cost anywhere from $5 to $100 depending on the length. Other accessories can include decorative light shades, fitters, finials, and caps to customize the fan with the home’s style aesthetic.

Outdoor vs. Indoor

Outdoor ceiling fan installation requires a unit that’s made for outdoor use, which can be at least double what an indoor ceiling fan costs. When adding a fan to a covered patio, deck area, or carport, it’s important for a homeowner to find an option that is damp- or wet-rated. Ceiling fans with high airflow efficiency work great in an outdoor setting since they move more air and can help keep away bugs and pests. There are two rating classifications for ceiling fans that will be used in damp or wet areas.

  • Damp-rated. This type of ceiling fan can be used inside in bathrooms or kitchens, and outside in enclosed porches, covered patios, and carports. These units are installed in the ceiling of a covered space and should not have direct contact with rain or snow. Damp-rated ceiling fans can cost between $64 and $4,458.
  • Wet-rated. This type of fan has waterproof wiring and blades to withstand direct contact with rain, snow, and ice. These fan units are used for outdoor kitchens, verandas, exposed decks, and pergolas. Wet-rated fans can be hosed off for cleaning and can cost between $70 and $700.
Fan Type Cost (Materials Only)
Damp-rated $100 to $500
Dry-rated $50 to $500
Wet-rated $150 to $800

Types of Ceiling Fans

How much do ceiling fans cost? That depends on the type of fan a homeowner chooses. There are five different types of ceiling fans—each with varying price points and features. The size and the location of the room will determine the best ceiling fan for the room and the home.

Fan Type Cost (Labor and Materials)
Directional $150 to $800
Hanging propeller $150 to $300
Low-profile $50 to $300
Rotational $200 to $1,500
Standard $50 to $300


Directional ceiling fans are also hung from a downrod. These fans typically look like a table or standing fan enclosed in a cage, although some models just have the fan blades. The upside of these types of ceiling fans is that they can be adjusted to point in any direction. These fan units can run from $150 to $800 or more.

Hanging Propeller

Hanging propeller fans are suitable for ceilings that are 9 feet and higher. The fan hangs from a downrod which is mounted on the ceiling. The optimal height for the blades is 7 feet from the floor. The cost for a hanging propeller ceiling fan can range from $150 to $300.


Low-profile ceiling fans, also called hugger or flush-mount ceiling fans, are suitable for homes with ceilings lower than 8 feet high. The fan blades are closer to the ceiling than those of a standard fan. Low-profile ceiling fans cost between $50 and $300


Rotational fans, also called dual-motor fans, are two-directional fans that can be pointed in any direction. These fans work well for extra-large rooms that have high ceilings. This type of ceiling fan can cost between $200 and $1,500 or more.


The standard ceiling fan is the most common type of unit for residential home use. This type of fan typically has five blades and includes a built-in light fixture. Prices for this type of fan usually run between $50 and $300.

Benefits of Installing a Ceiling Fan

Ceiling fans come in many different styles, colors, shapes, finishes, and on-trend materials to fit the overall aesthetic of a room. Choosing a ceiling fan to match a home’s style is easier than ever. There are many benefits to installing a ceiling fan in a home from energy efficiency to practical function.

Evenly Distributed Air

Ceilings fans can help a room feel cooler when they’re rotating counterclockwise to create a breeze. They can be modified to help the room feel warmer in the winter months by changing the ceiling fan direction. When the fan turns clockwise, the warm air that has risen to the ceiling is pushed down and evenly distributed throughout the room.

Cost and Energy Efficiency

Many modern ceiling fans are energy efficient, especially those that run on a DC motor. DC motors and their built-in magnets are quieter and run on less electricity than AC motor-powered fans. DC fans are more expensive, but many homeowners agree that the up-front cost is worth the electricity savings down the line. Since ceiling fans Excellerate air circulation, homeowners are typically less likely to run an air conditioning unit as often.

Quieter Operation

A ceiling fan with a DC motor is usually quieter than an AC motor fan. DC motors are stronger but generally smaller and more compact, and they use less energy. The way the fan is mounted to the ceiling, its installation, and the type of energy ratings it has also affect the fan’s volume. If the ceiling fan is making excessive noise, it might be necessary for the homeowner to learn how to balance a ceiling fan to get it back to a silent state.

Style and Aesthetics

Since ceiling fans come in a wide variety of styles, finishes, materials, and colors, a ceiling fan can complement any interior. From plain to ornately carved, industrial to modern, brushed metal to wood—there is a ceiling fan style on the market to match any home.

Ceiling Fan Installation: DIY vs. Hiring a Professional

Homeowners may think it seems easy to learn how to install a ceiling fan. But unless a homeowner has experience installing electrical wiring, switches, and circuits, it’s best that they leave this job to the professionals. And if the fan is being installed where there wasn’t previously one, a contractor will be required to make sure the job is done correctly. If a ceiling fan is installed without the proper support, it could fall and result in serious injuries. Incorrectly installed ceiling fans can damage the ceiling and wiring. Extra-tall ceilings require a professional installation since special equipment is needed to mount the downrod and ensure the fan blades are at the correct height. It’s always recommended for a homeowner to hire a local licensed electrician to ensure the unit is safely installed with the correct ceiling fan–rated box and wiring.

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How to Save Money on Ceiling Fan Installation Cost

Staying within a budget for ceiling fan installation costs can be challenging, and the additional fees associated with the project can quickly add up. One way to save money on ceiling fan installation costs is to buy the cheapest ceiling fan unit on the market, but there are other ways to save without compromising on any special features.

  • Get multiple quotes. Get at least three price estimates from reputable professionals in your area.
  • Install more than one fan. If you need more than one ceiling fan installed in your home, have them installed at the same time. Many professionals will supply a discount if they install more than one ceiling fan during the same appointment.
  • Look into repairs. If the overall unit can still work properly with replacement parts, you may save on the cost of a new ceiling fan and the installation fees.
  • Shop around for sales. Keep a lookout for sales and discounts on ceiling fans. Fan units may go on sale during the off-season.

Questions to Ask About Ceiling Fan Installation

Asking the right questions about ceiling fan installation costs can help homeowners minimize miscommunication and save money. Below are some questions for homeowners to ask a ceiling fan installation professional before hiring.

  • Do you have references?
  • How much is a ceiling fan?
  • How do I know what kind of ceiling fan is right for the room?
  • How much does it cost to install ceiling fan wiring?
  • What is the quietest ceiling fan I can buy?
  • What kind of ceiling fan has the most power?
  • Are you a licensed electrician?
  • Do I need an outdoor-rated ceiling fan in my kitchen or bathroom?
  • What direction should the ceiling fan be turning in the summer and winter?
  • Can I get the installation contract in writing?
  • What should I do if the ceiling fan makes noise?
  • Will you repair the installation if the ceiling fan becomes wobbly?
  • What type of light bulbs should I use in the ceiling fan lighting fixture?
  • Can I buy replacement blades?
  • What’s the best way to clean a ceiling fan?


Deciding on the best type of ceiling fan while staying within budget can be a daunting process. Below are some frequently asked questions about ceiling fan installation costs to help guide these decisions for homeowners.

Q. How much does an outdoor ceiling fan cost?

An outdoor ceiling fan for a carport or covered patio typically runs between $100 and $300. If the area is not wired to support a fan unit or a lighting fixture, it can cost between $500 and $1,500 for the wiring, switch, circuits, and electrical boxes. Outdoor ceiling fans are more expensive than their indoor counterparts, since they need to withstand moisture and direct contact with rain, snow, or ice. Damp-rated fans are adequate for covered patios, but you’ll need a wet-rated fan for anywhere uncovered like a pergola. Wet-rated fans are typically more expensive than damp-rated fans.

Q. Do I need an electrician to install a ceiling fan?

It depends, but it’s not always necessary to hire an electrician to install a ceiling fan. If someone has experience with ceiling fan installation, they should be able to handle the job, especially if they’re swapping out an old fan with a new unit. But homeowners will always want to check the local code requirements to see if a licensed electrician is required for this type of installation. And if there wasn’t a ceiling fan present before, or if the unit was particularly old, homeowners will want to reach out to a professional to make sure the job is done safely and correctly.

Q. What style ceiling fan should I get?

Ceiling fan choice can depend on the style of the room and energy-efficiency rating. If you’re interested in an outdoor ceiling fan, look for a fan with a high CFM (cubic feet per minute) rating. They can move more air to keep you feeling cool while keeping away bugs. An Energy Star–rated ceiling fan will be the most energy efficient since they use less energy and can help reduce heating and cooling bills.

Q. How big a fan should I get?

The size of the ceiling fan depends on the square footage of the room. The bigger the room, the bigger the ceiling fan needed. Ceiling fans are measured by their blade spans, which is the distance from one blade tip to the tip of the opposing blade. Bigger fans with larger blade spans will move more air in the room. It’s recommended that ceiling fan blades should be at least 18 inches from the walls for optimal air movement. Expect to pay more for larger ceiling fan units.

Q. How much does a ceiling fan cost to run?

It typically costs between $0.05 and $0.09 per hour to run a ceiling fan. While a ceiling fan doesn’t technically cool a room, it uses the wind-chill effect that can make a room seem cooler. It can also lower humidity levels in a room, which can make it more comfortable. While a ceiling fan isn’t a replacement for air conditioning, it costs considerably less to run a ceiling fan than it does to run an air conditioner.

Sources: Angi, HomeAdvisorHomeGuideThe Home DepotYGrene

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Wed, 09 Mar 2022 05:53:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Scientists outline a new strategy for understanding the origin of life

Despite decades of progress, the origin of life remains one of the great unsolved problems in science. “The most basic features of biology, that organisms are made of cells, that they pass genetic information through DNA, that they use protein enzymes to run their metabolism, all emerged through specific processes in very early evolutionary history,” says Aaron Goldman, Associate Professor of Biology at Oberlin College. “Understanding how these most basic biological systems first took shape will not only supply us greater insight into how life works at the most fundamental level, but what life actually is in the first place and how we might look for it beyond Earth.”

The question of how life first emerged is typically studied through laboratory experiments that simulate early Earth environments and look for chemistries that can create the same kinds of biomolecules and metabolic reactions that we see in organisms today. This is known as a “bottom-up” approach since it works with materials that would have been present on the prebiotic Earth. While these so-called “prebiotic chemistry” experiments have successfully demonstrated how life may have originated, they cannot tell us how life actually did originate. Meanwhile, other research uses techniques from evolutionary biology to reconstruct what early life forms might have looked like based on data from life today. This is known as the “top-down” approach and can tell us about life’s history on Earth. Top-down research, however, can only look as far back as there were genes that are still conserved in organisms today, and therefore not all the way to the origin of life.  Despite their limitations, top-down and bottom-up research are aiming at the common goal of discovering life’s origins, and ideally their answers should converge on a common set of conditions.

A new article published by Goldman, Laurie Barge (Research Scientist in Astrobiology at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)), and colleagues, attempts to bridge this methodological gap. The authors argue that combining bottom-up laboratory research on plausible pathways toward an origin of life with top-down evolutionary reconstructions of early life forms can be used to discover how life truly did originate on the early Earth. In their article, “Electron Transport Chains as a Window into the Earliest Stages of Evolution” the authors describe one phenomenon central to life today that could be studied by combining both bottom-up and top-down research: electron transport chains.

Electron transport chains are a type of metabolic system that is used by organisms across the tree of life, from bacteria to humans, to produce usable forms of chemical energy. The many different types of electron transport chains are specialized to each form of life and the energy metabolism they use: for example, our mitochondria contain an electron transport chain linked to our heterotrophic (food-consuming) energy metabolism; whereas plants have a wholly different electron transport chain linked to photosynthesis (the generation of energy from sunlight). And across the microbial world, organisms use a broad range of electron transport chains linked to a variety of different energy metabolisms. But, despite these differences, the authors describe evidence from top-down research that this kind of metabolic strategy was used by the very earliest life forms and they present several models for ancestral electron transport chains that could date back to very early evolutionary history. They also survey current bottom-up evidence suggesting that even before the emergence of life as we know it, electron transport chain-like chemistry could have been facilitated by minerals and early Earth ocean water. Inspired by these observations, the authors outline future research strategies that synthesize top-down and bottom-up research on the earliest history of electron transport chains in order to gain a better understanding of ancient energy metabolism and the origin of life more broadly.

This study is the culmination of five years of previous work by this multi-institute interdisciplinary team led by Barge at JPL, which was funded by the NASA-NSF Ideas Lab for the Origins of Life to study how metabolic reactions could have emerged in geological settings on the early Earth. Previous work by the team has investigated, for example, specific electron transport chain reactions driven by minerals (led by Jessica Weber, JPL Research Scientist); how ancient enzymes may have incorporated prebiotic chemistry in their active sites (led by Goldman); and microbial metabolism in extremely energy-limited environments (led by Doug LaRowe, at the University of Southern California). “The emergence of metabolism is an interdisciplinary question and so we need an interdisciplinary team to study this,” says Barge. “Our work has utilized techniques from chemistry, geology, biology, and computational modeling, to combine these top-down and bottom-up approaches, and this kind of collaboration will be important for future studies of prebiotic metabolic pathways.”

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

Sun, 13 Aug 2023 11:59:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : How to install Android 14 on your phone right now

On February 8, 2023, Google officially launched the first developer preview of Android 14 (now superseded by beta 5.1). Over the next few months, Google will allow developers and the general public to test this software as it gears up for the formal launch. If you want to supply it a shot, you might be wondering how to install Android 14 on your smartphone. This guide can supply you all the info you need!

WARNING: As it stands today, Android 14 beta 5.1 is pre-release software that might have bugs and other problems. It's possible certain features you rely on might not work correctly or at all. We recommend using this software with caution. Proceed at your own risk.

Should I install Android 14?

At this stage of the game, Android 14 exists in a pre-release state. The beta launches are specifically designed for developers and early adopters. Google pushes these launches to supply devs plenty of time to test the new Android, learn about new features and restrictions, and prepare their apps for the future launch. While the general public can access the software, they should only do so if they know what they’re getting into.

That all being said, there are no restrictions to using this on your phone if that’s what you want to do. You will invariably face bugs, broken/missing features, and could even face bizarre problems like spontaneous shutdowns. If you’re OK with all that, you should feel free to install it on your daily driver. We advise not doing so and instead installing Android 14 on a secondary device. The choice is yours.

What devices can install Android 14 today?

Google Pixel 6a in Sage color, seen from the back, next to a Pixel 5 and Pixel Buds Pro, on a navy background

Rita El Khoury / Android Authority

Currently, only exact Google Pixel devices can use Android 14. Below, you’ll find the list of supported phones:

  • Google Pixel Fold
  • Google Pixel Tablet
  • Google Pixel 7a
  • Google Pixel 7 Pro
  • Google Pixel 7
  • Google Pixel 6a
  • Google Pixel 6 Pro
  • Google Pixel 6
  • Google Pixel 5a
  • Google Pixel 5
  • Google Pixel 4a 5G

Unfortunately, if you have a Pixel phone launched before the Google Pixel 4a 5G — including the earlier, non-5G Google Pixel 4a — you will not be able to install Android 14. This is because all older Pixels will not receive Android 14 when it goes stable, as they have reached or will reach the end of their software support commitment before Android 14 launches.

How do I install Android 14 beta 5.1?

There are three ways to install Android 14: manual, assisted, and opt-in. Manually installing is for advanced users only, while the assisted method is easy enough that pretty much anyone can do it. If you go with the manual or assisted methods, installing Android 14 will require you to unlock the phone’s bootloader, which completely erases the phone. There is no way around this. Keep this in mind if you’re thinking about installing Android 14 on your main device!

The opt-in method, however, does not require you to factory reset your phone. This seamlessly jumps you from stable Android 13 to Android 14. However, going back to Android 13 would require a factory reset. Keep this in mind before you make the jump! If you’re ready to opt in, follow Google’s Android 14 beta instructions.

With all three methods, once you install Android 14 as a beta, you will not need to factory reset to receive future updates. Once you’re in, you’ll get future updates automatically as an over-the-air (OTA) update. In other words, you only need to factory reset once to get in on Android 14.

Prepare to install Android 14

Unless you opt-in to the beta program, you will need the following materials and prerequisites to get started:

  1. A Windows, macOS, Chrome OS, or Linux computer with access to the internet and the latest Chrome browser.
  2. A short, thick USB cable for connecting your phone to the computer. The original USB cable that came with the phone is best for this.

Before you move on to the next steps, double-check that you have everything you need. You don’t want to get into the process of installing Android 14 and discover you aren’t fully prepared! Once you’re ready, continue on by using either the assisted or manual installation methods below.

Install Android 14 using the assisted method

Android Flash Tool website

Hadlee Simons / Android Authority

FINAL WARNING: This process will unlock your bootloader and completely erase all your phone’s data.

  1. Ensure your computer has the proper drivers for your phone, which you can grab from Google’s Pixel drivers page. This is an essential step — if you skip this, flashing will not work!
  2. Plug your phone into your computer using the USB cable.
  3. In your phone’s Settings, go to System > Developer options. If you don’t see Developer options, go to Settings > About phone and scroll all the way down to the Build number. Tap on the Build number seven times until your phone says you are a developer. Developer options should be available now.
  4. In Developer options, enable OEM unlocking and USB debugging.
  5. Visit the Android Flash Tool page for installing Android 14.
  6. Select the version of Android 14 you’d like to install. For some models, there’s a 64-bit-only version and a version that also supports 32-bit software. Either one works. If you don’t know which one to pick, choose the one that just says “(signed),” which supports both 64-bit and 32-bit software.
  7. Follow along as the flashing tool takes care of everything for you. Simply follow the instructions and remember not to touch your phone unless specifically instructed to do so by the flashing tool.

That’s it! You should now have Android 14 installed on your Pixel smartphone.

Install Android 14 using the manual method

Google Pixel family with the Pixel 5, Pixel 6a, Pixel 6 Pro, and Pixel 7 Pro on top of each other

Rita El Khoury / Android Authority

If the simpler assisted method mentioned above does not work for you, you can try the manual methods. Primarily, there are two manual methods:

  1. Sideloading OTA packages through ADB and Recovery: This method is useful for Pixel devices with a locked bootloader, and for users who want to preserve data moving from Android 14 to Android 14. This is not recommended if you are moving from Android 13 to Android 14.
  2. Flashing Factory Images through Fastboot: This requires an unlocked bootloader but is the recommended path for upgrading from Android 13 to Android 14. Unlocking the bootloader will completely wipe your device. The Fastboot installation will wipe your device again, but you can alter this behavior.

Irrespective of the method you choose, there are some common steps that you need to get in place:

  • Install ADB on your computer by following our guide for the same. The process also installs Fastboot on your computer, as Fastboot is part of the Android SDK Platform Tools alongside ADB.
  • Ensure that you have USB Debugging enabled on your smartphone:
    • On your smartphone, go to Settings > About Phone.
    • Locate the Build Number entry. Tap seven times on it. You will see a toast popup saying, “You are now a developer” or “No need, you are already a developer.” This means that Developer Options has been unlocked on your device, and you will see a new entry in your Settings menu.
    • Now navigate to Settings > Developer Options > Enable USB Debugging. Confirm your selection when prompted in the warning.
  • Ensure your computer has the proper drivers for your phone, which you can grab from Google’s Pixel drivers page.
  • Connect your phone to the computer. Presuming this is the first time you are connecting your phone to your computer, you will get a prompt on your phone requesting authorization for the connection. Grant it.

With this, you will have your common steps in place. You can now move forward with the rest of the tutorial, depending on the install path that you choose.

Sideloading OTA packages through ADB

  • Download the official OTA update zip file on your computer for your phone. Ensure that you get the file for your specific phone only, as flashing the file intended for a different phone model may mess with the installation process and render your device useless.
  • Optional but recommended: Once the file has finished downloading, rename it to a simpler name, like for example. This will save you from typing out the long name that the file originally downloaded with.
  • Optional but recommended: Verify the SHA-256 checksum of the file you have downloaded. This reassures you that the file has been downloaded completely and correctly. Google mentions the SHA-256 checksum next to the get link.
  • Place the file in the directory where ADB is located on your computer.
  • Connect your phone to your computer.
  • Open up a command prompt on your computer and run the command adb reboot recovery. This will reboot your phone to recovery mode.
    • In case your phone does not reboot into recovery, you can also manually reboot into recovery by shutting down your device and then pressing and holding the power button and volume up button.
  • Use the volume keys to navigate to the Apply Update from ADB option in the Recovery menu. Press the power button to select it.
  • On the command prompt on your computer, run the command adb devices. This will return a device serial number with “sideload” written next to it. This indicates that your phone is connected in sideload mode and is ready to receive further installation commands.
  • On the command prompt on your computer, run the command adb sideload You will need to replace “” with the filename that you have chosen.
  • ADB will install the update zip file on your phone.
  • Once installation is complete, choose the Reboot system now option on your phone, and your device will reboot into the freshly installed Android 14 build.

Flashing Factory Images through Fastboot

FINAL WARNING: As part of this process, your phone will be completely wiped. Please ensure you have taken adequate backups before proceeding.

  • Download the official Factory Images on your computer for your phone. Ensure that you get the file for your specific phone only, as flashing the file intended for a different phone model may mess with the installation process and render your device useless.
  • Optional but recommended: Verify the SHA-256 checksum of the file you have downloaded. This reassures you that the file has been downloaded completely and correctly. Google mentions the SHA-256 checksum next to the get link.
  • Unzip the file to a convenient location. For ease of installation, you can copy the contents to the directory where ADB and Fastboot are located on your computer.
  • Connect your phone to your computer.
  • Open up a command prompt on your computer and run the command adb reboot bootloader. This will reboot your phone to Fastboot mode.
  • Unlock the bootloader of your phone: You do this by running the Fastboot command fastboot flashing unlock. Note that this will erase all data on the device.
    • If your device reboots into the OS after a data wipe, you will need to skip all the setup steps and enable USB Debugging again. Once you do, reboot back into the Fastboot mode.
  • On Windows PC, double-click on the flash-all.bat file. This will run the batch installation file and execute all the necessary commands by itself. On Mac/Linux PC, you will need to run flash-all.
    • In case you want to preserve your system and app data between installations, you will need to open the flash-all script in a text editor program and delete the “-w” attribute from the command. This attribute denotes a wipe, so remove it if you do not want a wipe.
  • Once the script finishes, your device will reboot into the new OS.
  • Optional but recommended: Relock the bootloader of your phone by rebooting your phone into Fastboot mode and running the command fastboot flashing lock.

That’s it! You should now have Android 14 installed on your Pixel smartphone.

Frequently asked questions

Google is shooting for a stable launch of Android 14 in the late summer of 2023. We expect to see it in August, but that could change.

If you own a Pixel, you should expect a stable release to come to your phone around August 2023, supply or take. If you have a phone from another manufacturer, stable Android 14 will probably come to you in Fall 2023 or early 2024.

Certain manufacturers might roll out their own early Android 14 releases. However, that is up to the manufacturers to decide, so you’ll need to wait until they announce something. To be clear, you cannot install early versions of Android 14 on a non-Pixel phone unless that release comes directly from your phone’s manufacturer.

If you use the manual or assisted methods above, you will need to factory reset (erase) your phone. When you start it up again, it will be like you first took it out of the box. If you want to avoid this, you should opt into the beta program using Google’s Android 14 beta instructions.

Once you are in the beta program, your phone will automatically get new over-the-air (OTA) updates. When Android 14 lands as a stable release, you will also automatically get that update. There is no way to get the Android 14 update before the stable launch without joining the beta program.

Wed, 08 Feb 2023 04:04:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : How Much Does Gutter Installation Cost? (2023 Guide)

The Cost of Gutter Installation

Installing 200 linear feet of gutters costs $800 to $6,000 on average, or $4 to $30 per linear foot. The national average is around $2,300 for a single-story home but differs based on gutter material. 

Vinyl gutters cost $800 to $1,400, while high-end copper gutters range from $3,000 to $6,000. Larger homes cost more because they need more linear feet of gutter. You’ll also need to consider labor costs if you hire a professional installer.

Gutter Installation Cost Factors

Various factors influence your gutter installation cost, from home size to gutter style. Read a detailed breakdown of these factors below.

Home Size

Gutters are measured in linear feet, or the length of the material. Since gutters are installed along your roof, the measurement is significantly less than the square footage of your home. Most one-story homes need 100 to 200 linear feet of gutters. Two-story installations require more gutters and accrue additional labor costs. Homes with steep or complicated roof designs also cost more. 

Gutter Style

There are two types of gutters for residential installations: K-style and half-round (or U-style). Each style provides different benefits. 

K-style gutters are the most common. They’re recognizable for their stylish crown molding-like design. They provide excellent drainage and have half-pipe troughs. Though more expensive than half-round gutters, K-style gutters can catch twice as much water. Half-round gutters are typically easier to clean and often found on older or historic homes. Both styles come in standard 5- to 6-inch widths. 

Gutter Size

The standard gutter size is 5 inches wide, though larger sizes are available. A 5-inch K-style gutter works on most homes and is large enough to handle the annual rainfall in most regions of the United States. You can get custom gutters if you need a much larger or smaller size, but this will cost more.

Climate and Region

Regional climates can affect the type of gutters your home needs. For example, homes in regions with heavy rain benefit from higher-capacity gutters, while vinyl gutters are best for warm climates since cold temperatures can make them crack. 

Downspouts and Accessories

Gutter installation involves more than the gutters themselves. Here’s a breakdown of the additional parts needed to keep your gutters working properly:

  • Downspouts: Downspouts guide water from the gutters down the sides of your home and away from your property. Downspout costs vary based on material but can range between $4 and $25 per linear foot. 
  • Downspout extensions: These attachments add extra length to downspouts and cost $15 to $60. They direct water either above or below ground and prevent landscape erosion.
  • End caps: These attach to the end of each gutter to seal them closed. K-style gutters require separate right and left end caps, while half-round end caps are universal. End cap pricing differs based on gutter material but typically costs $2 to $6 each. 
  • Flashing: These extended strips of plastic or aluminum sit behind your gutter to protect your roofline from water damage. Flashing costs $0.50 to $3.00 per linear foot. 
  • Heat tape: Heat tape prevents ice from forming on gutters in cold climates. It costs around $0.60 per linear foot. 
  • Splash blocks: These carved channels are added at the end of a downspout to help guide water away from your foundation. Splash blocks cost around $10 each. 

Labor Costs

Labor costs are included in any professional installation quote. The size of your home, gutter materials and style of gutters all add to your total gutter installation project cost. Labor costs increase with multi-story homes, roof accessibility and climate-specific add-ons and upgrades. Pricing also varies based on your geographic location and cost of living.

Types of Gutter Material

Gutters come in various materials, from low-budget to high-end. Material costs can significantly increase your total installation price, so select the best gutters for your needs and budget. Below is a breakdown of the gutter materials available. 

Aluminum Gutters

Aluminum gutters are lightweight and rust-resistant, lasting up to 20 years. Their maneuverability makes them great for do-it-yourself (DIY) installations, but they’re more susceptible to cracking and bending. Aluminum gutters typically cost $8 to $15 per linear foot.  

Copper Gutters

Copper is one of the rarest and most expensive gutter materials, costing around $15 to $30 per linear foot. These gutters won’t mold, mildew or rust. However, they can develop a patina, or a thin film that changes the metal’s color to a greenish hue. When properly maintained, copper gutters last up to 50 years. Copper installation requires welding and must be completed by a professional.  

Galvanized Steel Gutters

These gutters are stronger but heavier than aluminum. They work well in heavy rain but are more prone to rust. With proper maintenance, they can last 20 to 30 years. Galvanized steel gutters cost $6 to $12 per linear foot. They require soldering and must be professionally installed.

Vinyl Gutters

Vinyl gutters are the most popular and budget-friendly option, costing $4 to $7 per linear foot. They’re made of plastic or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and are not as durable as other gutters, so they don’t work well in climates with excessive snow, rain or high temperatures. These gutters last between 10 to 20 years, depending on your environment. They also work well for DIY installation.

Zinc Gutters

Pre-weathered zinc is an excellent option for those who want low-maintenance gutters. The material is durable, rust-proof and outlasts aluminum. Zinc gutters form a self-healing patina that conceals surface scratches and cracks. They’re more expensive than other options, costing between $12 and $25 per linear foot, but can last 80 years or longer. They require welding and should be professionally installed.

Sectional vs. Seamless Gutters

Sectional gutters are the traditional style of gutters found on most homes. They’re purchased in lengths of 5, 10 or 15 feet and assembled in sections around your home. Sectional gutters are affordable, costing $4 to $20 per linear foot. The downside is that their attachment points weaken over time, leading to corrosion or leaks. 

Seamless gutters are custom-built to match your home’s dimensions. A professional gutter company makes them on-site with special machinery. Prices range from $6 to $30 per linear foot.

Gutter Replacement Cost

New gutter installations are recommended for new homes or homes with deteriorating gutter systems. If your existing gutters are in fairly good condition but have a few trouble spots, a gutter replacement could be more cost-effective than a repair. DIY gutter replacements cost $700 to $1,500. Professional installations cost around $4 to $10 per linear foot and include labor costs. 

Below is a list of telltale signs you need gutter replacement:

  • Gapping, cracking or sagging gutters: These physical defects can destroy your drainage system’s efficiency.
  • Pooling or overflowing water: Water flow interruption indicates a major debris buildup or misaligned gutters. 
  • Peeling paint or rusted sections: This indicates excess moisture due to heavy rain or seeping water. 
  • Basement mold or foundation cracks: These are indicators that your gutters aren’t moving water away from your house properly. 

If you have one or more of these problems, have a professional inspect your gutters to determine if you need a partial or full system replacement.

Gutter Guard Costs

Gutter guards filter debris from rainwater to keep gutters clear of clogs. They also reduce how often you need to clean your gutters. Many companies can install gutter guards along with your new system. 

The average cost of gutter guards is $950 to $2,100. You can install plastic or PVC guards yourself for about $95 to $200 per linear foot. Higher-quality gutter guards require professional installation, costing between $1,200 and $1,500.

DIY vs. Professional Gutter Installation

Homeowners can use DIY gutter installation for lighter materials such as vinyl or aluminum. However, these gutters have shorter lifespans and must be cleaned and maintained regularly. Gutter installation also requires you to work on a ladder for long periods, which can be dangerous. If you’re uncomfortable taking on such a precarious project, consider hiring a professional.

Professional installers use more durable metal gutters, including galvanized steel, zinc and copper. These installations require advanced skills such as soldering and welding. The gutter company will install all system components, including downspouts, downspout brackets and gutter guards. Material and labor costs are included in the professional cost estimate. Contractors will remove and dispose of your old gutters if you’re replacing an existing gutter system.

The Bottom Line: Is Gutter Installation Worth the Cost?

Investing in a well-made gutter system protects your home from costly water damage. Homeowners should budget for the best system they can afford and find a reliable gutter company to complete the project. You can save money by completing your own installation, but it won’t last as long as a professionally installed gutter system. 

You should also consider investing in gutter guards to keep your system running efficiently. Below are our recommendations for top gutter guard providers. 

Top Providers


  • Our rating: 4.7
  • Material: Stainless steel
  • Style: Micro-mesh
  • Installation: Professional


LeafFilter offers a three-piece stainless steel micro-mesh gutter guard system. The 275-micron filter catches even the smallest debris, including pollen and shingle grit. Each guard is installed at the ideal angle to catch debris. LeafFilter includes a transferable limited lifetime warranty that guarantees your gutters will remain clog-free. 

Read more: LeafFilter review


  • Our rating: 4.2
  • Material: Stainless steel
  • Style: Micro-mesh
  • Installation: Professional


HomeCraft Gutter Protection offers a three-piece micro-mesh gutter guard with a unique raised diamond design. It’s made of 304-micron marine grade stainless steel, making it durable and long-lasting. The HomeCraft system is protected by a transferable lifetime warranty covering gutter defects and manufacturer malfunctions. 

Read more: Homecraft Review

Our team created a comprehensive ratings system to rank gutter guard companies and products. We researched gutter guards’ functionality, specifications, installation process and more, as well as read customer reviews to understand the customer experience and longevity of the products. After researching, we scored gutter guard providers in these categories: gutter guard materials and product options, installation options, payment options, communication, additional benefits and reputation. The BBB ratings included in this guide are accurate as of May 2023.

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