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920-220 Nortel Converged Campus ERS Solution health | http://babelouedstory.com/

920-220 health - Nortel Converged Campus ERS Solution Updated: 2024

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Exam Code: 920-220 Nortel Converged Campus ERS Solution health January 2024 by Killexams.com team
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920-197 BCM50 Rls.2.0 & BCM200/400 Rls.4.0 Configuration & Maintenance
920-220 Nortel Converged Campus ERS Solution
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920-260 Nortel Secure Router Rls. 10.1 Configuration & Management
920-270 Nortel WLAN 2300 Rls. 7.0 Planning & Engineering
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920-338 BCM50 Rls. 3.0, BCM200/400 Rls. 4.0 & BCM450 Rls. 1.0 Installation, Configuration & Maintenance
920-552 GSM BSS Operations and Maintenance
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922-080 CallPilot Rls.5.0 Upgrades and System Troubleshooting
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B. Assured Forwarding
C. Expedited Forwarding
D. Enhanced Forwarding
Answer: C
Question: 61
A customer needs a network that can enable many users to request the same time-sensitive
information simultaneously. Which technology would meet this need?
A. Unicast
B. Multicast
C. Broadcast
D. Webcast
Answer: B
Question: 62
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is used by IP Multicast routers to learn about the
existence of host group members on their directly attached subnets. Which statement about
IGMP is true?
A. The IP Multicast routers get this information by listening for IP hosts broadcasting IGMP
queries and reporting their host group memberships.
B. The IP Multicast routers get this information by recognizing the modified MAC address of
a Multicast packet and adding that MAC address to the Multicast tree.
C. The IP Multicast routers get this information by listening for Multicast Servers
broadcasting IGMP queries and listening for IP hosts reporting their host group memberships.
D. The IP Multicast routers get this information by broadcasting IGMP queries and listening
for IP hosts reporting their host group memberships.
Answer: D
Question: 63
A customer has an Ethernet Routing Switch (ERS) 8600 deployed as the core switch to
provide connections to file servers. They have a file server that uses dual MAC addresses on
two Network Interface Cards (NICs) and need to provide as much bandwidth to the server as
possible. Which statement describes the process that will meet these requirements?
22
A. Configure a DMLT between both NICs and the ERS 8600.
B. Configure a MLT between both NICs and the ERS 8600.
C. Configure static ARP entries on the ERS 8600 to contain both MAC addresses.
D. Configure each port on the ERS 8600 as a separate link to each NIC.
Answer: D
Question: 64
Multicast transmission can result in dropped packets or duplicate packets, and changes in
network topology can generate out-of-sequence packets. What protocol can minimize these
potential problems?
A. UDP
B. PGM
C. IGMP
D. QoS
Answer: B
23
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Fri, 29 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.npr.org/sections/your-health/
Nortel CEO: Prepare For Hyperconnectivity

One trillion devices are expected to be networked throughout the world within 15 years, up from 5 billion to 6 billion devices today, Zafirovski said during a keynote address at the event, held by CMP Technology, CRN's parent company.

"For enterprises, this is going to add even more complexity," Zafirovski said, noting that the trend -- which Nortel has dubbed "hyperconnectivity" -- is being driven in part by increases in the number of mobile devices and machine-to-machine communications.

Zafirovski acknowledged that Nortel lost its footing over the past few years as it struggled with financial woes and accounting scandals. The blows of that struggle are still being felt as the Ontario Securities Commission on Tuesday approved a settlement that will see the Toronto-based company pay nearly $1 million (U.S.) toward the regulator's costs to investigate Nortel's accounting practices from few years ago.

But those problems are in the past, Zafirovski said, painting Nortel as a reinvigorated company that's as committed to the enterprise and can help customers meet the growing hyperconnectivity challenge.

As evidence, he pointed to Nortel's spending on enterprise research and development, which grew by 33 percent last year, and to the company's increased investment in sales, marketing and channel initiatives. He also highlighted a slew of new enterprise data products launched at Interop.

Under its new Business Optimized Networking strategy, Nortel is rolling out new networking, wireless and WAN optimization technology for enterprise customers.

The new wares include Nortel's Secure Router 4134, which integrates routing, switching, security and VoIP functionality into a single branch-office device. The product takes advantage of the 10-month-old Innovative Communications Alliance between Nortel and Microsoft, rolling in integrated support for Microsoft Mediation technology required for Microsoft converged communications solutions.

That combination of capabilities will enable customers to drop the number of boxes at branch locations from seven down to one, Zafirovski said.

Nortel also unveiled its entrance into the WAN optimization market with its new Nortel Application Accelerator, which promises to boost Web application performance and cut bandwidth consumption.

Nortel, too, was one of many vendors to roll out new WLAN technology at Interop. The company introduced a new architecture and new products, including its WLAN Security Switch 2382 and WLAN Access Point 2332.

Under the new architecture, access points can forward traffic between themselves, eliminating the need to constantly send data back to the network core.

Wed, 23 May 2007 07:59:00 -0500 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/networking/199701410/nortel-ceo-prepare-for-hyperconnectivity Best Health Insurance Companies Of 2024

Most pre-retirement Americans get health insurance through an employer. If you’re under age 26, you could get health insurance through an employer, a spouse’s plan or a parent’s health plan.

From an Employer

Group health insurance through an employer is how most pre-retirement age Americans get health insurance. Employers often offer health insurance as part of their benefits.

Group coverage is usually more affordable than buying health insurance in other ways since employers typically pay more than half of costs.

Affordable Care Act Health Insurance Marketplace

The ACA health insurance marketplace at Healthcare.gov offers health insurance to people who don’t qualify for an employer-sponsored health plan. Some states have chosen to operate their own exchanges at different websites, but you can find the right exchange for your state through Healthcare.gov.

The federal marketplace and state exchanges allow you to compare plans available in your area. You can enter your income and family information. The marketplace website uses your income to supply you cost estimates for each plan that considers subsidies and premium tax credits that reduce ACA plan costs.

Directly from a Health Insurance Company

You can buy an individual health insurance plan directly from an insurer without going through the federal marketplace website. These plans could be the same as those offered on the ACA exchange. If you go this route, you won’t benefit from subsidies found with ACA plans.

Health insurance companies could also sell plans not offered on the ACA exchange and that don’t comply with federal rules. You might be able to find a cheaper plan directly through an insurer, but it might not be as comprehensive as the plans you will find on the federal health insurance marketplace.

Medicare

Medicare is a federal health insurance program for senior citizens, some people with disabilities and those with end-stage renal disease.

Medicare has multiple parts including Original Medicare (Parts A and B), Medicare Advantage (Part C) and Medicare Part D.

  • Part A covers hospitalizations, skilled nursing facilities and hospice care.
  • Part B covers doctor services, outpatient care, preventive services and medical supplies.

Members with Parts A and B can also buy a Part D plan, which provides prescription drug benefits.

Medigap plans will cover some of the gaps in Medicare.

Another alternative is Medicare Advantage, which is offered by private health insurance companies. Medicare Advantage members get the benefits found in Parts A and B and usually prescription drug benefits, too. Medicare Advantage plans often offer expanded benefits like dental care, vision care and assistance paying for meals and transportation.

Medicaid

Medicaid is a federal/state low-income health insurance program for people who are eligible. Eligibility varies by state. Medicaid bases costs on a person’s income, but those eligible pay little to nothing for comprehensive health insurance coverage.

The Children’s Health Insurance Plan (CHIP) is a similar federal/state program for pregnant women and children. Some states combine Medicaid with CHIP, while others keep them as separate programs.

Short-Term Health Insurance

Short-term health insurance offers limited coverage at low costs in most states. Some states don’t allow short-term health insurance and critics say these plans don’t provide enough coverage.

Short-term health insurance plans are meant as a stop-gap to bridge other health insurance plans. For instance, a short-term plan may be a low-cost solution if you’re between jobs.

Most states let insurance companies offer short-term health plans for a year and members have the chance to renew a policy twice. But some states limit short-term health insurance plans to shorter periods.

One drawback to short-term health insurance is that it doesn’t offer the same level of coverage as standard health insurance. You may have trouble finding a short-term plan that covers maternity care, prescription drugs and mental health.

Catastrophic Health Insurance

Catastrophic health insurance is available only to people under age 30 or those going through severe financial problems, such as homelessness.

Catastrophic health plans, offered through the ACA marketplace, have low premiums and high out-of-pocket costs when you need care. Unlike short-term health plans, which have limited benefits, catastrophic health insurance has the same level of care found in an ACA plan.

Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:38:00 -0600 Les Masterson en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/advisor/health-insurance/best-health-insurance-companies/
Buying Private Health Insurance

If your employer doesn’t offer you health insurance as part of an employee benefits program, you may be looking at purchasing your own health insurance through a private health insurance company. It is common to be concerned about how much it will cost to purchase health insurance for yourself. However, there are various options and prices available to you based on the level of coverage that you need.

Key Takeaways

  • You may need to purchase individual healthcare coverage if you just turned 26 years old, are unemployed or self-employed, work part time, are starting a business that will have employees, or have recently retired.
  • If you do not have the option of enrolling in an employer-sponsored health insurance plan, a good source for gaining insurance coverage is through the Health Insurance Marketplace that was created in 2014 by the Affordable Care Act (ACA).
  • If you are at least age 65 or disabled, you can enroll in Medicare, with the option to add additional coverage through a private Medigap or Medicare Advantage plan.

How Buying Private Health Insurance Works

A premium is the amount of money that an individual or business pays to an insurance company for coverage. Health insurance premiums are typically paid monthly. Employers that offer an employer-sponsored health insurance plan typically cover part of the insurance premiums. If you need to insure yourself, you’ll be paying the full cost of the premiums.

When purchasing your own insurance, the process is more complicated than simply selecting a company plan and having the premium payments come straight out of your paycheck every month. Here are some tips to help guide you through the process of purchasing your own health insurance.

Some Americans get insurance by enrolling in a group health insurance plan through their employers. Medicare also provides healthcare coverage to people 65 years or older and the disabled, and Medicaid has coverage for low-income Americans.

Medicare is a federal health insurance program for people who are age 65 or older. Certain young people with disabilities and people with end-stage renal disease may also qualify for Medicare. Medicaid is a public assistance healthcare program for low-income Americans regardless of their age.

If your company does not offer an employer-sponsored plan, and if you are not eligible for Medicare or Medicaid, individuals and families have the option of purchasing insurance policies directly from private insurance companies or through the Health Insurance Marketplace.

Scenarios When You Might Need Private Health Insurance

There are certain circumstances that make it more likely that you will need to purchase your own health insurance plan, including:

A Young Adult 26 Years of Age or Older

Under provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010, young people can be covered as dependents by their parents’ health insurance policy until they turn 26 years old. After that, they must seek out their own insurance policy.

Unemployed

If you lose your job, you may be eligible to maintain coverage through your employer’s health insurance plan for a period of time through a program called the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA). COBRA allows eligible employees and their dependents the option to continue health insurance coverage at their own expense. 

While coverage through COBRA can be maintained for up to 36 months (under certain circumstances), the cost of enrolling in COBRA is very high. This is because the formerly employed person pays the entire cost of the insurance. Typically, employers pay a portion of healthcare premiums on behalf of their employees.

A Part-Time Employee

Part-time jobs rarely offer health benefits. A part-time job is any position that requires employees to work a lower number of hours than would be considered full time by their employer, or 40 hours per week. If you work part time, you usually must enroll in your own health insurance.

Self-Employed

A self-employed person may work as a freelancer or own a business. Some self-employed people can get health insurance through a spouse’s plan. If not, they must provide their own health insurance.

A Business Owner Who Has Employees

If you start a business and you have employees, you might be required to offer them health insurance. Even if it’s not required, you might decide to offer health insurance to be a competitive employer that can attract qualified job candidates. In this situation, you will be required to purchase a business health insurance plan, also known as a group plan.

If You Retire (or Your Spouse/Parent Retires)

When you retire, you will likely no longer be eligible for employer-sponsored health insurance. If you are under age 65 and not disabled, you will need to purchase individual private health insurance until you turn 65 and can apply for Medicare. Many retirees choose to purchase private Medigap or Medicare Advantage plans in addition to Medicare as a way of guaranteeing more comprehensive coverage. Some retired people may also decide to completely replace Medicare coverage with a private Medicare Advantage plan.

It is important to note that Medicare, Medigap, and Medicare Advantage plans are only for the individual—your spouse, partner, and any dependents cannot be insured through your Medicare plan. This means that if your family was previously insured through your employer’s plan, and you retire, your family members may need to enroll in individual insurance plans.

Dropped by Your Existing Insurer

Although the ACA prevents insurers from canceling your coverage—or denying you coverage due to a preexisting condition or because you made a mistake on your application—there are other circumstances when your coverage may be canceled. It’s also possible that your insurance may become so expensive that you can’t afford it.

Why You Should Purchase Health Insurance

If you find yourself in one of the above situations and lack health insurance coverage, it’s important to enroll in an individual plan as soon as possible. (The fine for failing to obtain coverage was canceled in 2019.)

Even though you’re not required to have insurance, you cannot predict when an accident will occur that will require medical attention. Even a minor broken bone can have major financial consequences if you’re uninsured.

If you purchase insurance through the Health Insurance Marketplace, you may be eligible for income-based premium tax credits or cost-sharing reductions. The marketplace is a platform that offers insurance plans to individuals, families, and small businesses.

The ACA established the marketplace as a means to achieve maximum compliance with the mandate that all Americans be enrolled in health insurance. Many states offer their own marketplaces, while the federal government manages an exchange open to residents of other states.

While you may not be able to afford the same kind of plan that an employer would offer you, any amount of coverage is more advantageous than none. In the event of a major accident or a long-term illness, you will be prepared.

Choosing the Best Insurance Plan for You

There are several different kinds of health insurance plans, and each of these plans has a number of unique features.

Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)

A health maintenance organization (HMO) is a company with an organizational structure that allows them to provide insurance coverage for their subscribers through a specific network of healthcare providers.

Typical HMO features include paying for insurance coverage for a monthly or annual fee. Premiums tend to be lower for HMOs because health providers have patients directed at them, but the disadvantage is that subscribers are limited to accessing a network of doctors and other healthcare providers who are contracted with the HMO.

Preferred Provider Organization (PPO)

A preferred provider organization (PPO) is a type of insurance plan in which medical professionals and facilities provide services to subscribed clients at reduced rates. Healthcare providers that are part of this network are called preferred providers or in-network providers. 

Subscribers of a PPO plan have the option of seeing healthcare providers outside of this network of providers (out-of-network providers), but the rates for seeing these providers are more expensive.

Exclusive Provider Organization (EPO)

An exclusive provider organization (EPO) is a hybrid of HMO and PPO plans. With an EPO plan, you can only receive services from providers within a certain network. However, exceptions can be made for emergency care.

Another characteristic of an EPO plan is that you may be required to choose a primary care physician (PCP). This is a general practitioner who will provide preventive care and treat you for minor illnesses. In addition, with an EMO plan, you usually do not need to get a referral from your PCP to see a specialist physician.

High-Deductible Health Plan (HDHP)

A high-deductible health plan (HDHP) has a couple of key characteristics. As its name implies, it has a higher annual deductible than other insurance plans. A deductible is the portion of an insurance claim that the subscriber covers themselves. HDHPs typically have lower monthly premiums.

This type of plan is ideal for young or generally healthy people who don’t expect to demand healthcare services unless they experience a medical emergency or an unexpected accident.

The last defining feature of a high-deductible health plan is that it offers access to a tax-advantaged Health Savings Account (HSA).

HSA subscribers can contribute funds that can later be used for medical costs that their HDHP doesn’t cover. The advantage of these accounts is that the funds are not subject to federal income taxes at the time of the deposit.

Consumer-Driven Health Plan (CHDP)

Consumer-driven health plans (CDHPs) are a type of HDHP. A portion of services that subscribers receive is paid for with pretax dollars. Like other HDHPs, CDHPs have higher annual deductibles than other health insurance plans, but the subscriber pays lower premiums each month.

Point-of-Service (POS) Plan

A point-of-service (POS) plan provides different benefits to subscribers based on whether or not they use preferred providers (in-network providers) or providers outside of the preferred network (out-of-network providers). A POS plan includes features of both HMO and PPO plans.

Short-Term Insurance Policy

A short-term insurance policy covers any gap that you might experience in coverage if, for example, you change jobs and your new company plan doesn’t kick in immediately.

It typically lasts for three months. Term lengths vary by state, and in some U.S. states, you may be eligible for a short-term plan for up to 12 months.

Short-term health insurance is also called temporary health insurance or term health insurance. It can be useful if you’re changing jobs, waiting to become eligible for Medicare coverage, or waiting out the designated open enrollment period for a plan.

Under a short-term insurance plan, your spouse and other eligible dependents may also be covered. However, one important caveat of a short-term insurance plan is that in some cases, preexisting conditions can disqualify you from coverage. The definition of a preexisting condition varies depending on the state where you live, but it is usually defined as something you have been diagnosed with or received treatment for within the last two to five years.

Catastrophic Coverage

Catastrophic health insurance is a type of insurance plan that is typically only available to adults ages 30 or younger. To qualify, you must receive a hardship exemption from the government. Catastrophic health insurance typically has lower premiums than other health insurance plans.

These types of plans are intended for people who cannot afford to spend much money every month on insurance premiums but don’t want to be without insurance in the event of a serious accident or illness.

While catastrophic health insurance plans may have low monthly premiums, they typically have the highest possible deductibles.

Choosing a Deductible

Once you’ve decided on the type of plan that is best for you, you’ll need to determine how much you can afford to pay as a deductible. This is the predetermined amount that you pay for covered healthcare services before your insurance plan starts to pay.

What can you afford to pay in out-of-pocket medical expenses each year? With most health insurance plans, the higher your deductible is, the lower your monthly premium will be. If your monthly cash flow is low, you might have to opt for a higher deductible.

Another key consideration when selecting an insurance plan is the plan’s out-of-pocket maximum. After you’ve spent this amount on deductibles and medical services through co-payments and co-insurance, your health plan will pay the entire cost of covered benefits.

How Much Does Private Health Insurance Cost?

While many people are scared by the prospect of purchasing their own insurance versus enrolling in an employer-sponsored plan, some studies have shown that it can end up being more affordable than employer-sponsored plans.

A study from the Kaiser Family Foundation found that the average annual premium for an employer-sponsored insurance plan for individual coverage in 2023 was $8,435 per year. This total increases to $23,968 per year for family coverage.

In addition, if you end up purchasing coverage through the Health Insurance Marketplace, you may qualify for a Cost-Sharing Reduction subsidy and Advanced Premium Tax Credits. These can lower your premium payment amounts, your deductible, and any co-payments and co-insurance for which you are responsible.

Where to Go to Buy Private Health Insurance

You have several options when it comes to buying private health insurance.

Medicare.gov

If you are (or are soon to be) retired, you can begin on the Medicare website. It is recommended that you see what the standard Medicare plan covers and then look at options for ways to supplement Medicare through Medigap and Medicare Advantage policies.

When considering Medigap or Medicare Advantage coverage, it’s important to understand how both work types of coverage work in conjunction with standard Medicare coverage.

HealthCare.gov

As a result of the ACA, the Health Insurance Marketplace was created in 2014. You can visit the Health Insurance Marketplace website to find out more about the options for health insurance coverage that are available where you live. You can also determine if you qualify for any subsidy and apply for it.

The marketplace has a specific open enrollment period. Typically, it is from Nov. 1 to Dec. 15 every year, although various events may lead to the open enrollment period being extended or reopened.

The website includes information about private plans that are available for purchase outside of the marketplace. However, if you purchase a plan outside of the marketplace, whether during open enrollment or not, then you will not be eligible for any subsidies available under the ACA.

Under certain circumstances, an individual may be eligible to purchase a healthcare plan through the exchange even if it is outside of the specified open enrollment period. This is called a Special Enrollment Period. You may be eligible for a Special Enrollment Period if you experience a household change, including getting married or divorced, having or adopting a child, a death in your family, moving, losing your health insurance, being in a national catastrophe, or experiencing a disability.

The American Rescue Plan of 2021 increased subsidies for ACA plans for lower-income Americans and broadened subsidies to include some subsidies at higher income levels.

Private Health Insurance Companies

You can visit the websites of major health insurance companies in your geographic region and browse available options based on the type of coverage that you prefer and the deductible that you can afford to pay.

The types of plans available and the premiums will vary based on the region where you live and your age. It’s important to note that the plan price quoted on the website is the lowest available price for that plan and assumes that you are in excellent health. You won’t know what you’ll really pay per month until you apply and provide the insurance company with your medical history.

Pricing and the type of coverage can vary significantly based on the health insurance company. Because of this, it can be difficult to truly compare the plans to determine which company has the best combination of rates and coverage. It can be a good idea to identify which plans offer the most of the features that you require and are within your price range, then to read consumer reviews of those plans.

If you are choosing a family plan or are an employer who is choosing a plan that you’ll provide to your employees, then you’ll also want to consider the needs of others who will be covered under the plan.

Key Factors for Choosing a Plan

Health insurance plans offer a variety of different features. While it may be hard to find a plan that offers everything you desire, consider which of the following features are the most medically and financially necessary. Here are some questions to consider when you are researching plans:

  • Does the plan offer prescription drug coverage? Does it only cover generic versions of prescription drugs? What is the co-payment (also referred to as the co-pay) on generics and name-brand drugs? Check the medicines you’re already taking, if any.
  • What is the office visit co-payment, and does the plan have instituted a maximum number of office visits that it will cover per year?
  • What is the co-payment for specialized services, such as X-rays, lab tests, and surgery? How about for an emergency room visit?
  • Do you want a plan that allows you to add vision and dental coverage?
  • Do you need pregnancy benefits?
  • Do you already have a doctor who you like? If so, you might want to find a plan that includes your doctor in its insurance company’s provider network.
  • Do lifetime and annual maximum benefits apply? The ACA effectively eliminated lifetime and annual maximums for essential medical services, but this does not include dental and vision coverage, for example.
  • Does the plan offer free or discounted services for preventive care, such as an annual checkup? Most plans under the ACA provide free coverage for most preventive care services. Short-term insurance plans and catastrophic coverage may not.
  • Does the plan cover specialty services such as physical therapy, chiropractic, and acupuncture visits?
  • What hospitals are included in the network?
  • For PPOs, what is the cost for out-of-network services, should you want or need them? Can you afford this?

When Can I Buy Private Health Insurance?

Most types of health insurance have an open enrollment period during which you can sign up for private health insurance. This is true whether you buy insurance via the Affordable Care Act (ACA) health insurance exchange in your state, sign up directly through the insurer, enroll in the plan that your employer offers, or sign up for Medicare.

Certain life events can trigger a special enrollment period, which will allow you to change your health insurance coverage outside of the normal enrollment period. These events include getting married or divorced, having a baby, losing your job-based health insurance, or moving out of your health plan’s service area.

What Does Private Health Insurance Cost?

In 2023, the average national cost for health insurance per year was $8,435 for single coverage and $23,968 for family coverage. However, this cost can vary considerably depending on your healthcare needs, the state where you live, and what level of coverage you require.

Where Can I Buy Private Health Insurance?

A good place to start looking for coverage is the Health Insurance Marketplace created in 2014 by the ACA. On the marketplace for your state, you can look through the details of private health insurance plans and compare the cost and benefits of each. If your state does not have its own marketplace, use HealthCare.gov.

The Bottom Line

Getting your own health insurance policy is not as easy as signing up for an employer’s plan, but at least you have control over the plan that you get. Once you figure out what you need and become familiar with the terminology used to describe health insurance plans, your research will become easier. With the number of options available, you can probably find a plan that meets both your needs and your budget.

Mon, 21 Sep 2015 10:04:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.investopedia.com/articles/pf/08/private-health-insurance.asp
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Lesbian Health

A: Lesbians face unique challenges within the health care system that can cause poorer mental and physical health. Many doctors, nurses, and other health care providers have not had sufficient training to understand the specific health experiences of lesbians, or that women who are lesbians, like heterosexual women, can be healthy normal females. There can be barriers to optimal health for lesbians, such as:

  • Fear of negative reactions from their doctors if they disclose their sexual orientation.
  • Doctors’ lack of understanding of lesbians’ disease risks, and issues that may be important to lesbians.
  • Lack of health insurance because of no domestic partner benefits.
  • Low perceived risk of getting sexually transmitted diseases and some types of cancer.

For the above reasons, lesbians often avoid routine health exams and even delay seeking medical care when health problems occur.

  • Heart disease. Heart disease is the #1 killer of all women. Factors that raise women’s risk for heart disease — such as obesity, smoking, and stress — are high among lesbians. The more risk factors (or things that increase risk) a woman has, the greater the chance that she will develop heart disease. There are some factors that you can't control such as getting older, family health history, and race. But you can do something about some of the biggest risk factors for heart and cardiovascular disease — smoking, high blood pressure, lack of exercise, diabetes, and high blood cholesterol.
  • Exercise. Studies have shown that physical inactivity adds to a person's risk for getting heart and cardiovascular disease, as well as some cancers. People who are not active are twice as likely to develop heart and cardiovascular disease compared to those who are more active. The more overweight you are, the higher your risk for heart disease. More research with lesbians in this area is needed.
  • Obesity. Being obese can make you more likely to get heart disease, and cancers of the uterus, ovary, breast, and colon. Many studies have found that lesbians have a higher body mass than heterosexual women. Studies suggest that lesbians may store fat more in the abdomen and have a greater waist circumference, which places them at higher risk for heart disease and other obesity-related issues such as premature death. Additionally, some suggest that lesbians are less concerned about weight issues than heterosexual women.

    At this time, more research is needed in these areas: physical activity in lesbians; possible dietary differences between lesbians and heterosexual women; if a higher BMI is a reflection of lean tissue and not excess fat; and if there’s a different cultural norm among lesbians about thinness. In addition, other important factors for researchers to consider are race/ethnic background, age, health status, education, cohabitation with a female relationship partner, and having a disability. Studies have reported that among lesbian and bisexual women, African American or Latina ethnicity, older age, poorer health status, lower educational attainment, lower exercise frequency, and cohabiting with a female relationship partner increases a lesbian woman’s likelihood of having a higher BMI.

  • Nutrition. Research supports that lesbian and bisexual women are less likely to eat fruits and vegetables every day. More research on food consumption and dietary differences in relation to health and lesbians and bisexuals is needed.
  • Smoking.Smoking can lead to heart disease and multiple cancers, including cancers of the lung, throat, stomach, colon, and cervix. Lesbians are more likely to smoke, compared to heterosexual women. Researchers think that high rates of smoking in this population are a consequence several things, like social factors, such as low self-esteem, stress resulting from discrimination, concealing one’s sexual orientation, and tobacco advertising targeted towards gays and lesbians. Studies have also found that smoking rates are higher among gay and lesbian adolescents compared to the general population. Smoking as a teen increases the risk of becoming an adult smoker. We know that about 90 percent of adult smokers started smoking as teens.
  • Depression and Anxiety. Many factors cause depression and anxiety among all women. Studies show that lesbian and bisexual women report higher rates of depression and anxiety than heterosexual women do. This may result from the fact that lesbian women may also face:
  • Social stigma
  • Rejection by family members
  • Abuse and violence
  • Being treated unfairly in the legal system
  • Hiding some or all aspects of one’s life
  • Lacking health insurance

Lesbians often feel they have to conceal their lesbian status to family, friends, and employers. Lesbians can also be recipients of hate crimes and violence. Despite strides in our larger society, discrimination against lesbians does exist, and discrimination for any reason may lead to

depression and anxiety.
  • Alcohol and drug abuse.Substance abuse is as serious a public health problem for the lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and transgendered people (LGBT) as it is for the general U.S. population. Overall, exact data suggest that substance use among lesbians — particularly alcohol use — has declined over the past two decades. Reasons for this decline may include greater awareness and concern about health; more moderate drinking among women in the general population; some lessening of the social stigma and oppression of lesbians; and changing norms associated with drinking in some lesbian communities. However, both heavy drinking and use of drugs other than alcohol appear to be prevalent among young lesbians and among some older groups of lesbians.
  • Cancers. Lesbian women may be at a higher risk for uterine, breast, cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers because of the health profiles listed above. However, more research is needed. In addition, these reasons may contribute to this risk:
  • Lesbians have traditionally been less likely to bear children. Hormones released during pregnancy and breastfeeding are believed to protect women against breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers.
  • Lesbians have higher rates of alcohol use, poor nutrition, and obesity. These factors may increase the risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers, and other cancers.
  • Lesbians are less likely to visit a doctor or nurse for routine screenings, such as a Pap, which can prevent or detect cervical cancer. The viruses that cause most cervical cancer can be sexually transmitted between women. Lesbians have similar rates of mammography testing (for breast cancer) as heterosexual women.
  • Domestic Violence. Also called intimate partner violence, this is when one person purposely causes either physical or mental harm to another. Domestic violence can occur in lesbian relationships as it does in heterosexual relationships, though there is some evidence that it occurs less often. But for many reasons, lesbian victims are more likely to stay silent about the violence. Some reasons include fewer services available to help them; fear of discrimination; threats from the batterer to “out” the victim; or fear of losing custody of children.
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. PCOS is the most common hormonal reproductive problem in women of childbearing age. PCOS is a health problem that can affect a woman’s menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance. Women with PCOS have these characteristics:
  • high levels of male hormones, also called androgens
  • an irregular or no menstrual cycle
  • may or may not have many small cysts in their ovaries. Cysts are fluid- filled sacs.

An estimated five to 10 percent of women of childbearing age have PCOS (ages 20-40). There is evidence that lesbians may have a higher rate of PCOS than heterosexual women.

  • Osteoporosis. Millions of women already have or are at risk for osteoporosis. Osteoporosis means that your bones get weak, and you’re more likely to break a bone. Osteoporosis in lesbian women has not yet been well studied.
  • Sexual Health. Lesbian women are at risk for many of the same STDs as heterosexual women. Lesbian women can transmit STDs to each other through skin-to-skin contact, mucosa contact, vaginal fluids, and menstrual blood. Sharing sex toys is another method of transmitting STDs. These are common STDs that can be passed between women:
  • Bacterial vaginosis (BV). Although we don’t know for sure that BV is caused by a sexually transmitted agent, BV occurs more commonly among women who have recently acquired other STD’s, or who have recently had unprotected sex. For reasons that are unclear, BV is more common in lesbian and bisexual women than heterosexual women, and frequently occurs in both members of lesbian couples. BV happens when the normal bacteria in the vagina get out of balance. Sometimes, BV causes no symptoms, but over half of affected women have a vaginal discharge with a fishy odor or vaginal itching. If left untreated, BV can increase a woman’s chances of getting other STDs such as HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV can cause genital warts and abnormal changes on the cervix that can lead to cancer, if it is not treated. Most people with HPV or genital warts don’t know they are infected until they have had a Pap test because they may not have symptoms, but the virus can still be spread by contact. Lesbians can transmit HPV through direct genital skin-to-skin contact or by the virus traveling on hands or sex toys. Some women and their doctors wrongly assume that lesbian women do not need a regular Pap test. However, the virus can be spread by lesbian sexual activity, and many lesbians have been sexual with men so it is recommended that lesbian women have a Pap test. This simple test is an effective method of detecting abnormal cells on the cervix that can lead to cancer. Begin getting Pap tests no later than age 21 or sooner if you’re sexually active. These recommendations apply equally to lesbians who’ve never had sex with men, as cervical cancer caused by HPV has been seen in this group of women.
  • Trichomoniasis “Trich”. It is caused by a parasite that can be passed from one person to another during sexual contact. It can also be picked up from contact with damp, moist objects such as towels or wet clothing. Trich is spread through sexual contact with an infected person. Signs include yellow, green, or gray vaginal discharge (often foamy) with a strong odor; discomfort during sex and when urinating; irritation and itching of the genital area; and lower abdominal pain in rare cases. To tell if you have trich, your doctor or nurse will do a pelvic exam and lab test. A pelvic exam can show small red sores, or ulcerations, on the wall of the vagina or on the cervix. Trich is treated with antibiotics.
  • Herpes. Herpes is a virus that can produce sores (also called lesions) in and around the vaginal area, on the penis, around the anal opening, and on the buttocks or thighs. Occasionally, sores also appear on other parts of the body where the virus has entered through broken skin. Most people get genital herpes by having sex with someone who is shedding the herpes virus during periods when an outbreak is not visible. The most common cause of recurrent genital herpes is HSV-2, which is transmitted through direct genital contact. HSV-1 is another herpes virus that usually infects the mouth and causes oral cold sores, but can also be transmitted to the genital area through oral sex. Lesbians can transmit this virus to each other if they have intimate contact with someone with a lesion or touching infected skin even when an outbreak is not visible.
  • Syphilis. Syphilis is an STD caused by bacteria. Syphilis is passed through direct contact with a syphilis sore during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. If untreated, syphilis can infect other parts of the body. Syphilis remains uncommon in the general population, but has been increasing in men who have sex with men. It is extremely rare among lesbians. However, lesbians should talk to their doctor if they have any non-healing ulcers.
Sun, 31 Dec 2023 15:20:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.webmd.com/women/lesbian-health
10 Best CBD Oils Of 2024

Experts advise newcomers to start with a low dose of CBD oil, such as 25 milligrams a day, and gradually increase their dose to a level that provides the desired effects. It’s best to navigate this process under the guidance of a qualified health care provider, as reactions to CBD can vary per person.

For CBD oil to take effect, it must first be digested in a process called first-pass digestion. Preliminary research suggests consuming CBD oil with high-fat foods may increase CBD’s bioavailability, but further human trials are needed. CBD tinctures are taken under the tongue and are absorbed by the mucous membranes, which may mean they take effect more quickly, though more scientific evidence is necessary to support this theory.

What Strength CBD Oil is Right for Me?

There’s no standard dose or potency when it comes to taking CBD oil. Effects vary from person to person and depend on the type of CBD used, as well as other factors, such as height, weight and metabolic function. Furthermore, the effective dose of CBD oil may change based on the intended use—for example, whether it’s being used to support sleep, Improve pain levels or reduce anxiety. More research is needed to determine standard effective doses and potencies of CBD oil.

“CBD oil is used—without much supportive evidence—for the self-medication of various conditions, including pain and anxiety,” says Dr. Piomelli. “If someone decides to try it, I would recommend to start with a low daily dose (50 milligrams maximum) and make sure to monitor themselves for side effects like somnolence (drowsiness), fatigue and diarrhea. I wouldn’t exceed a daily dose of 250 milligrams, nor would I take it for more than two to three weeks.”

How Much CBD Oil Should I Take?

The amount of CBD oil an individual should take varies based on the potency of the oil, the type of CBD it uses and desired effects. What’s more, CBD oil effects and absorption rates depend on additional factors, such as a person’s body weight, height and individual metabolism.

Experts generally recommend starting with a low dose and potency and building from there to find the ideal CBD oil dose for you.

How Long Does CBD Oil Take to Work?

Some research suggests holding CBD oil underneath the tongue may lead to absorption through the bloodstream, meaning the effects may be felt sooner than other delivery methods, but additional studies are needed to support these claims.

Meanwhile, CBD oil that is swallowed may take as long as 30 minutes to four hours to take effect, according to Dr. Piomelli. Additionally, research indicates that CBD bioavailability increases when consumed with a high-fat or high-calorie meal rather than consuming CBD alone or on an empty stomach.

“A full stomach speeds up absorption, but it could still take hours for CBD to be fully absorbed,” adds Dr. Piomelli.

Mon, 01 Jan 2024 14:45:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/health/cbd/best-cbd-oil/
Health News No result found, try new keyword!Health official says more supply is coming, but doctors worry it's not enough. U.S. health inspectors found a host of sanitation and manufacturing problems at an Indian plant that recently ... Sat, 30 Dec 2023 10:01:00 -0600 en text/html https://abcnews.go.com/health Mental Health No result found, try new keyword!Hilarie Burton Says She Was 'Ashamed' to Hire a Baby Nurse to Help amid Postpartum Depression: 'Humiliating' Amy Robach Recalls Racing to T.J. Holmes' Side After She Feared He Had Harmed Himself ... Wed, 06 Jun 2018 12:20:00 -0500 en text/html https://people.com/tag/mental-health/ Nortel Pushes Partners Toward VoIP

"They're saying to partners, 'Here's where we're going, we want you to be a part of this and we're giving you incentives to do so,' " said Stuart Chandler, president and CEO of Optivor Technologies, a $6 million solution provider in Jessup, Md. About 90 percent of Optivor's revenue is Nortel-related, he said.

The bevy of new rewards and incentives should bolster margins and help solution providers compete more effectively with carrier-class partners such as SBC or Verizon, which sometimes win deals at the 11th hour with unbeatable pricing, particularly on Nortel data deals, Chandler said.

The new incentives are the latest step in Nortel's migration from a volume-focused channel strategy to one that rewards partners for the value they bring to and investment they make in their Nortel partnerships, a shift that began two years ago, said Perry McDonald, director of channel marketing at Nortel, Brampton, Ontario.

"We're starting to see the positive effect that's having on our customer service," McDonald said. For example, the level of certified Nortel technicians increased 300 percent in 2004 compared with 2003, he said. "That's directly attributable to Partner Advantage," he said.

The new incentives aim to help spur adoption of VoIP and boost profitability among Nortel channel partners, McDonald said.

Available to the vendor's 130 North American Partner Advantage partners, Velocity Incentives includes changes to the vendor's Marketing Allowance Fund program that are weighted toward sales of converged voice, data and applications while decreasing benefits tied to sales of traditional phone equipment.

Under the new program, partners are eligible to accrue marketing development funds at a rate of 2 percent on IP telephony products, 1.5 percent on data (including WLAN and security) and applications (including IP contact center, unified messaging, and interactive voice response), and 0.75 percent on legacy phone equipment. Previously, partners earned 1.5 percent on all product categories, McDonald said.

Partners also can earn extra rebates for meeting overall year-over-year growth goals and achieving growth in voice, data or applications.

Partner Advantage program members get a 9 percent rebate as a reward for meeting year-over-year growth goals, which range from 10 percent to 20 percent growth, depending on solution providers' level within the program. Velocity Incentives now offers an extra 6-percent rebate to partners that meet the same growth goals for products in converged VoIP, data or applications.

In addition, the vendor's new Data Select program gives partners with Nortel sales of more than half of their overall networking business an additional five-point, upfront discount on networking products.

"Select" programs around VoIP and convergence applications are expected later in the year.

"This is the first time in exact memory Nortel has done anything to reward loyalty," Optivor's Chandler said.

Mon, 27 Jun 2005 02:00:00 -0500 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/security/164902643/nortel-pushes-partners-toward-voip




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