Use this graphic organizer to help students compare and contrast information from different sources of their choosing while researching a relevant topic. Guiding questions help students closely examine each source for credibility and reliability, and reflection questions on the second page get students to dig deeper into similarities and differences between types of sources. This worksheet provides essential practice evaluating sources for research, an important part of a middle school literacy curriculum.
For additional value, check out the accompanying Evaluating Sources for Research lesson plan.
Lainie Petersen writes about business, real estate and personal finance, drawing on 25 years experience in publishing and education. Petersen's work appears in Money Crashers, Selling to the Masses, and in Walmart News Now, a blog for Walmart suppliers. She holds a master's degree in library science from Dominican University.
The Figure below shows the main data sources used for injury & ill health statistics, and an indication of the severity range that each source includes. An introduction to these sources is found below the Figure, and a full description of these, plus details of additional data sources (for example economic costs of workplace injuries and ill health, management of health and safety in the workplace and employment) is available via the detailed description of data sources.
Each of the sources has strengths and weaknesses; this is explained in the full description (see the link above). Details about preferred data sources for illness and injury are also available.
The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (as amended), under which fatal and defined non-fatal injuries to workers and members of the public are reported by employers.
Certain types of work-related injury are not reportable under RIDDOR, hence excluded from these figures. Exclusions include most fatalities and injuries to the armed forces, and most injuries from work-related road collisions.
Key changes to the reporting system and legal requirements have occurred in recent years, with some impact on the resulting statistics (further detail on RIDDOR notification is also available):
The LFS is a national survey run by the Office for National Statistics of currently around 36,000 households each quarter. HSE commissions annual questions in the LFS to gain a view of work-related illness and workplace injury based on individuals' perceptions. The analysis and interpretation of these data are the sole responsibility of HSE. The LFS's technical notes provide more details.
People who have conditions which they think have been caused or made worse by their current or past work, as estimated from the LFS. Total cases (prevalence) includes long-standing as well as new (incidence) cases. New cases consist of those who first became aware of their illness in the last 12 months. Estimates are based on the most serious work-related illness, as defined by the individual, if they have more than one. HSE has collected data on ill health through the LFS, periodically since 1990 and annually from 2001/02, with the exception of 2002/03 and 2012/13 when no ill health data was collected.
Workplace injuries sustained as a result of a non-road traffic accident in the last 12 months, as estimated by the LFS. Over-3-day and over-7-day absence injuries include all those with more than three and more than seven consecutive (working and non-working) days away from work (not counting the day on which the accident happened). Estimates are based on the most recent workplace injury, if the individual has more than one. HSE has collected data on injuries through the LFS in 1990 and annually since 1993/94.
Days off work due to workplace injuries and work-related ill health. The figures are expressed as full-day equivalents, to allow for variation in daily hours worked, and are available for 2000/01 (injuries), 2001/02 (ill health), and annually (for both injuries and ill health) from 2003/04, with the exception of 2012/13 for ill health when no ill health data was collected and 2020/21 when the data collection was affected by the coronavirus pandemic.
Reports of work-related ill health are gathered in surveillance schemes run by The Health and Occupation Reporting network (THOR); statistical tables covering patients seen by specialists are available annually from the early 1990s for work-related respiratory disorders and skin disease. In THOR-GP (since 2005), general practitioners are asked to report new cases of work-related ill health.
New cases of specified 'prescribed diseases' (with an established occupational cause) assessed for compensation under the Industrial Injuries Disablement Benefit scheme. IIDB statistics are available annually from 2003, although earlier historical data is available.
Includes deaths from some types of occupational lung disease, including asbestos-related diseases, mesothelioma and asbestosis.
Today’s workforce is highly mobile. Therefore, requirements for business phone systems have changed over the years. Requirements to facilitate mobility include the ability for users to remotely access voicemail when they are out of the office. If your company uses the Nortel Norstar system, you can check your business voicemail when you are away using your number, extension and your voicemail password.
Call the main number for your office’s switchboard from a remote location.
Transfer to your extension. Some companies configure the phone system so an operator connects you to your extension, yet others enable access by providing you with a prompt. At the prompt, enter the number of your extension.
Press the “*” (star or asterisk) button on the phone’s keypad twice while the recorded greeting plays.
Key in the number for your voicemail, your extension and your voicemail password on the phone’s keypad. Enter these numbers one right after the other.
Listen to your voicemail messages.
Some things are difficult to research for yourself but somebody else might know the answer.
You can search online, look in books and watch television to find out the answer. Answers that you might find here, are because it is somebody else's research not your own. (Your own science investigations are called your .)
For many years scientists have used both their own primary research and secondary sources of information as evidence to agree with their ideas or disagree with other people’s.
It is very important that you look at the source of the secondary information. Not everything that is written on the internet or appears on television is scientifically correct. In fact, some people publish their own version of events, or even lies on purpose. This has recently been called ‘fake news’.
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Transparency is critical to our credibility with the public and our subscribers. Whenever possible, we pursue information on the record. When a newsmaker insists on background or off-the-record ground rules, we must adhere to a strict set of guidelines, enforced by AP news managers.
Under AP's rules, material from anonymous sources may be used only if:
1. The material is information and not opinion or speculation, and is vital to the report.
2. The information is not available except under the conditions of anonymity imposed by the source.
3. The source is reliable, and in a position to have direct knowledge of the information.
Reporters who intend to use material from anonymous sources must get approval from their news manager before sending the story to the desk. The manager is responsible for vetting the material and making sure it meets AP guidelines. The manager must know the identity of the source, and is obligated, like the reporter, to keep the source's identity confidential. Only after they are assured that the source material has been vetted by a manager should editors and producers allow it to be used.
Reporters should proceed with interviews on the assumption they are on the record. If the source wants to set conditions, these should be negotiated at the start of the interview. At the end of the interview, the reporter should try once again to move onto the record some or all of the information that was given on a background basis.
The AP routinely seeks and requires more than one source when sourcing is anonymous. Stories should be held while attempts are made to reach additional sources for confirmation or elaboration. In rare cases, one source will be sufficient – when material comes from an authoritative figure who provides information so detailed that there is no question of its accuracy.
We must explain in the story why the source requested anonymity. And, when it’s relevant, we must describe the source's motive for disclosing the information. If the story hinges on documents, as opposed to interviews, the reporter must describe how the documents were obtained, at least to the extent possible.
The story also must provide attribution that establishes the source's credibility; simply quoting "a source" is not allowed. We should be as descriptive as possible: "according to top White House aides" or "a senior official in the British Foreign Office." The description of a source must never be altered without consulting the reporter.
We must not say that a person declined comment when that person the person is already quoted anonymously. And we should not attribute information to anonymous sources when it is obvious or well known. We should just state the information as fact.
Stories that use anonymous sources must carry a reporter's byline. If a reporter other than the bylined staffer contributes anonymous material to a story, that reporter should be given credit as a contributor to the story.
All complaints and questions about the authenticity or veracity of anonymous material – from inside or outside the AP – must be promptly brought to the news manager's attention.
Not everyone understands “off the record” or “on background” to mean the same things. Before any interview in which any degree of anonymity is expected, there should be a discussion in which the ground rules are set explicitly.
These are the AP’s definitions:
On the record. The information can be used with no caveats, quoting the source by name.
Off the record. The information cannot be used for publication. Background. The information can be published but only under conditions negotiated with the source. Generally, the sources do not want their names published but will agree to a description of their position. AP reporters should object vigorously when a source wants to brief a group of reporters on background and try to persuade the source to put the briefing on the record.
Deep background. The information can be used but without attribution. The source does not want to be identified in any way, even on condition of anonymity.
In general, information obtained under any of these circumstances can be pursued with other sources to be placed on the record.
ANONYMOUS SOURCES IN MATERIAL FROM OTHER NEWS SOURCES
Reports from other news organizations based on anonymous sources require the most careful scrutiny when we consider them for our report.
AP's basic rules for anonymous source material apply to material from other news outlets just as they do in our own reporting: The material must be factual and obtainable no other way. The story must be truly significant and newsworthy. Use of anonymous material must be authorized by a manager. The story we produce must be balanced, and comment must be sought.
Further, before picking up such a story we must make a bona fide effort to get it on the record, or, at a minimum, confirm it through our own reporting. We shouldn't hesitate to hold the story if we have any doubts. If another outlet’s anonymous material is ultimately used, it must be attributed to the originating news organization and note its description of the source.
Anything in the AP news report that could reasonably be disputed should be attributed. We should deliver the full name of a source and as much information as needed to identify the source and explain why the person s credible. Where appropriate, include a source's age; title; name of company, organization or government department; and hometown. If we quote someone from a written document – a report, email or news release -- we should say so. Information taken from the internet must be vetted according to our standards of accuracy and attributed to the original source. File, library or archive photos, audio or videos must be identified as such. For lengthy stories, attribution can be contained in an extended editor's note detailing interviews, research and methodology.
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This course will introduce students to official publications of the US federal government and large international organizations, as well as e-government policies and practices that drive their dissemination and availability. The focus will be on statistical legal, executive and international law sources. We will learn how to use these sources in reference and research, emphasizing the use of government information for civic advocacy and participation. The U.S. government is unique in both the volume of information it publishes, the level of openness in availability and dissemination of information, and dissemination of information, and the set of Sunshine Laws that keep Americans informed. Together with publications of large non-governmental organizations such as the United Nations, the European Union and the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), they form the backbone of legal, statistical and data-sets worldwide.
It's normal to turn toin an attempt to supply your body with nutrients you think might be missing from your diet. However, turning to supplements without first considering the quality of your diet may not get you anywhere. , but it's always best to get most of your vitamins and minerals through a nutritious and balanced diet.
Try taking a food-first approach with this guide to the top food sources for every vitamin and mineral. You'll notice that many overlap and -- who'd've known -- vegetables appear as a top source for almost every nutrient.
Vitamin A is a single vitamin, but two types are found in food. Preformed vitamin A, which your body can use immediately, is found in animal foods. Provitamin A is found in plant foods, and it's a precursor to the type of vitamin A your body can use. Beta-carotene is the most common example of provitamin A.
To avoid vitamin A deficiency with your diet, eat these foods high in vitamin A:
The B vitamins are a group of eight essential nutrients humans need to support health. They're all lumped into one class of vitamins because they have similar properties and are found in many of the same foods.
The eight B vitamins include:
The best food sources of B vitamins are:
Best known for supporting immune health, vitamin C also contributes to the growth, development and repair of various tissues in your body.is an important part of the structure of your skin, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels, and it helps to form scar tissue in response to injuries.
To make sure you're getting enough vitamin C in your diet, eat plenty of these vitamin C-rich foods:
The very best source of vitamin D is sunshine, but plenty of foods contain trace amounts of vitamin D to support a well-rounded diet. It's hard to get enoughfrom food alone, so it's a good idea to get outside for a few minutes each day in addition to prioritizing these foods.
Vitamin E is an antioxidant responsible for many bodily functions, including the formation of red blood cells. Deficiency in vitamin E can lead to complications such as nerve damage, muscle weakness, loss of motor control, weakened immune function and vision problems.
The best food sources of vitamin E are:
Vitamin K is primarily a coagulant, which means it helps blood clot. Without vitamin K, you would lose too much blood even from a small cut or scrape. People on blood-thinning medications should talk to their doctor about vitamin K before increasing their consumption. If it's safe for you to eat more vitamin K-containing foods, try adding these sources to your diet:
In addition to vitamins, the human body requires several minerals to function optimally. Mineral deficiencies are often responsible for symptoms like fatigue, poor sleep, low moods and lack of focus.
You need two types of minerals to support your health: macrominerals, which you need in large amounts, and trace minerals, which you need in smaller quantities. The macrominerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur. Trace minerals include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium.
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body -- you need plenty of it to keep your bones and teeth healthy, as well as support muscle and nerve function. The best sources of calcium include:
Second only to calcium in terms of abundance, phosphorus makes up 1% of your body weight and is present in every cell in your body. Phosphorus helps form your bones and teeth, makes protein for tissue growth and repair, and produces the molecules your cells use for energy. These foods contain ample phosphorus:
Many plant foods contain phosphorus, but most plants store the mineral as phytic acid, which humans can't digest or absorb. The best way to get phosphorus is from animal foods.
Like the other macrominerals, magnesium supports nerve and muscle function, as well as bone and heart health. You can find magnesium in:
This electrolyte is essential for maintaining fluid balance in your body and helping your muscles contract, among other things. Many people try to limit their sodium intake (and some people need to), but consuming too little sodium can lead to health problems just like consuming too much can.
The foods highest in sodium generally aren't the healthiest sources of sodium, and sometimes a single savory snack can nearly reach the daily recommended sodium limit. However, some whole foods contain trace amounts of sodium, including:
You likely already eat plenty of foods high in sodium, such as bread, pasta, soup, deli meat, sauces and dressings, broths, stocks, canned foods, frozen foods and snack foods. Most people don't need to increase their sodium intake and should limit sodium-rich foods if they tend to eat more than the recommended daily allowance of 2,300 milligrams.
Another important electrolyte, potassium supports a regular and healthy heartbeat, offsets sodium's effect on blood pressure, supports nerve function and muscle contraction, and moves waste products out of cells. Foods high in potassium include:
Chloride is an electrolyte that works with sodium and potassium to fulfill a variety of roles in the body. Dietary chloride primarily comes from table salt and sea salt, and most people get enough through the foods they eat daily, but you can maximize chloride intake by eating these foods:
Your body uses sulfur to repair DNA, protect your cells against damage, metabolize food and provide structure to your skin and other connective tissues. It's an important trace mineral you can get from a variety of foods, including:
Most people know iron for its role in blood production. Most of the iron in your body is found in hemoglobin and myoglobin, two substances essential to the transport and transferring of oxygen throughout your body. The top food sources of iron include:
This trace mineral is a cofactor for many enzymes, which means it plays a role in lots of chemical reactions that occur in your body, including the metabolism of carbs and protein. The best food sources of manganese are:
Like manganese, copper is a cofactor for several enzymes. It's also important for proper brain development and connective tissue integrity. Here's where to find copper in food:
Your body needs iodine for proper thyroid function: Without it, your body can't make enough thyroid hormones. Iodine is especially important for babies and pregnant women, because this mineral is crucial to bone and brain formation.
The primary source of iodine in the American diet is iodized salt. If you consume a lot of salt, you probably get enough iodine. But in case you don't, you can find iodine in these other foods:
Zinc, the mineral popularized for its, has long been an ingredient in cold medications and throat lozenges. In addition to its well-known role in immune function, zinc also contributes to wound healing and protein synthesis. The best food sources of zinc include:
Cobalt is found in the body as part of vitamin B-12 and helps your body process and absorb the vitamin. Most foods contain trace amounts of cobalt, but foods high in vitamin B-12 are particularly high in cobalt.
Fluoride keeps your teeth healthy and strong. It also spurs new bone formation, so it's especially important for infants and children. Most drinking water contains fluoride, although if you have well water, it may not be fluoridated. In addition to water, you can get fluoride from:
Selenium protects cells from damage, promotes reproductive health and thyroid function and supports DNA production. The most potent food source of selenium is Brazil nuts, and these can actually cause selenium toxicity if consumed too often. Other sources of food high in selenium include:
Read more: Best Multivitamins for 2022
The information contained in this article is for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as health or medical advice. Always consult a physician or other qualified health provider regarding any questions you may have about a medical condition or health objectives.
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