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Exam Code: 600-660 Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure - Advanced approach January 2024 by Killexams.com team

600-660 Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure - Advanced

Exam Detail:
The 600-660 Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure - Advanced (DCACIA) test is part of the Cisco Certified Specialist - Data Center ACI Implementation certification track. This test focuses on validating the knowledge and skills of candidates in implementing advanced features and functionalities of Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI). Here are the test details for the DCACIA certification:

- Number of Questions: The exact number of questions may vary, but the test typically consists of multiple-choice and simulation-based questions.

- Time Limit: The time allotted to complete the test is 90 minutes.

Course Outline:
The course outline for the Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure - Advanced (DCACIA) certification covers various advanced subjects related to Cisco ACI implementation. The subjects typically included in the course outline are as follows:

1. Cisco ACI Concepts and Architecture:
- Understanding the fundamental concepts of Cisco ACI.
- Exploring the ACI fabric architecture and components.
- ACI packet forwarding and policy enforcement.

2. ACI Policy Model:
- Advanced policy constructs and contracts in ACI.
- Implementing policy enforcement using filters and contracts.
- Quality of Service (QoS) in ACI.

3. ACI Fabric Operations and Troubleshooting:
- Fabric discovery and inventory management.
- Monitoring and troubleshooting ACI fabric components.
- Diagnosing and resolving common ACI fabric issues.

4. ACI Programmability and Automation:
- ACI REST API fundamentals and programmability.
- Leveraging Python and Ansible for ACI automation.
- Integrating ACI with orchestration platforms.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure - Advanced (DCACIA) test are as follows:

- Assessing candidates' understanding of Cisco ACI concepts, architecture, and packet forwarding.
- Evaluating candidates' proficiency in implementing advanced policy constructs and contracts in ACI.
- Testing candidates' knowledge of fabric operations, troubleshooting, and resolution of ACI fabric issues.
- Assessing candidates' ability to leverage programmability and automation for ACI using REST API, Python, and Ansible.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific test syllabus for the Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure - Advanced (DCACIA) certification may cover the following topics:

1. Cisco ACI Concepts and Architecture:
- ACI fundamentals and fabric architecture.
- ACI packet forwarding and policy enforcement.

2. ACI Policy Model:
- Advanced policy constructs and contracts.
- Implementation of filters and contracts.
- Quality of Service (QoS) in ACI.

3. ACI Fabric Operations and Troubleshooting:
- Fabric discovery and inventory management.
- Monitoring and troubleshooting ACI fabric components.
- Diagnosing and resolving common ACI fabric issues.

4. ACI Programmability and Automation:
- ACI REST API fundamentals and programmability.
- Automation using Python and Ansible.
- Integration of ACI with orchestration platforms.

Please note that the specific test content and syllabus may be updated over time. It's recommended to refer to the official Cisco Certification website for the most accurate and up-to-date information regarding the Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure - Advanced (DCACIA) exam, including the number of questions, time limit, and detailed test objectives and syllabus.
Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure - Advanced
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Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure
QUESTION 53 What are two characteristics of Cisco ACI and Spanning Tree Protocol interaction?
(Choose two.)
A. When a TCN BPDU is received in a VLAN, Cisco ACI flushes the endpoints for the associated encapsulation.
B. STP BPDUs are dropped due to MCP.
C. MST BPDUs are flooded correctly in Cisco ACI fabric without additional configuration.
D. BPDU filter and BPDU guard can be configured on Cisco ACI leaf edge ports.
E. Cisco ACI must be configured as the STP root for all VLANs.
Correct Answer: DE
Section: Traditional network with ACI
Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/datacenter/aci/aci_virtual_edge/configuration/1-x/b_Virtual_Edge_Config_Guide_1_2_2/b_Virtual_Edge_Config_Guide_1_2_2_chapter_0101.html
QUESTION 54 Where are STP BPDUs flooded in
Cisco ACI fabric?
A. in the bridge domain VLAN
B. in the native VLAN ID
C. in the access encapsulation VLAN part of different VLAN pools
D. in the VNID that is assigned to the FD VLAN
Correct Answer: A
Section: Traditional network with ACI
Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/data-center-virtualization/application-centric-infrastructure/white-paper-c11-737909.html
Refer to the exhibit. How are the STP BPDUs forwarded over Cisco ACI fabric?
A. STP BPDUs that are generated by Switch2 are received by Switch1 and Switch3.
B. Cisco ACI fabric drops all STP BPDUs that are generated by the external switches.
C. Cisco ACI acts as the STP root for all three external switches.
D. STP BPDUs that are generated by Switch1 are received only by Switch3.
Correct Answer: A
Section: Traditional network with ACI
Reference: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/cisco-aci-network-behaviour-stptcn-how-identify-loop-ankit-kulshresta
QUESTION 56 What are two characteristics of Cisco ACI interaction with MSTP?
(Choose two.)
A. A Cisco ACI leaf flushes all local endpoints in the received EPG when an MSTP TCN frame is received.
B. A static path binding is required for native VLAN to carry the MST BPDUs in existing EPGs.
C. Mis-cabling protocol is used to snoop the MSTP TCN packets.
D. A dedicated EPG must be created for the native VLAN ID with static bindings toward the MSTP-enabled switches.
E. The PVST simulation must be configured on external network switches to support MSTP.
Correct Answer: CD
Section: Traditional network with ACI
Cisco ACI fabric is migrated from network-centric mode to application-centric mode. What is possible in an application-centric design?
A. remapping of VLAN pools
B. migration of bare metal servers to virtual machines
C. creation of additional EPGs under one bridge domain
D. Cisco ACI VMM integration with hypervisors
Correct Answer: C
Section: Traditional network with ACI
/Refer ence:
QUESTION 58 What is a design implication for Cisco ACI using an application-
centric approach?
A. Multiple VLANs and/or multiple EPGs are under one bridge domain
B. VLAN numbers are in the names of the bridge domain and EPG objects
C. One EPG is mapped to multiple bridge domains
D. One VLAN equals one EPG equals one bridge domain
Correct Answer: C
Section: Traditional network with ACI
QUESTION 59 What are two characteristics of network-centric design in Cisco ACI?
(Choose two.)
A. There is open communication between EPGs
B. EPGs are used for microsegmentation
C. EPGs are different security zones
D. Applications define the network requirements
E. A bridge domain has one subnet and one EPG
Correct Answer: BE
Section: Traditional network with ACI
An engineer must migrate servers from a legacy data center infrastructure to a Cisco ACI fabric. Drag and drop the steps from the left into the order that they must be completed on the right to ensure the least amount of downtime.
Select and Place:
Correct Answer:
Section: Traditional network with ACI
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Cisco Infrastructure approach - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/600-660 Search results Cisco Infrastructure approach - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/600-660 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Cisco Why increasing IT complexity requires a new approach

"We went from being a reactive type of organisation to a proactive, preventive organisation," says McElroy. "We used to work off spreadsheets… each team would say by their gut how they felt the system was doing. Now, we not only know the health of our systems, but we also have visibility into business transactions, enabling us to build trend analysis on retention rates and the booking funnel. With Cisco solutions, we're data-driven."

Another Cisco customer is Carhartt, an American clothing brand that produces and sells millions of garments and accessories every year. With customers worldwide, and peak periods such as Black Friday and Cyber Monday, a single hour of downtime can mean millions of dollars in lost revenue. But the company was struggling with identifying and resolving issues due to a lack of visibility, says Bryan Laszlo, manager of application performance at Carhartt.

"Before implementing Cisco Full-Stack Observability, we had a very siloed approach to solving problems," he says. "We had to bring in a lot of IT people to figure out what was happening. Now our mean time to resolution has reduced dramatically."

As a result, Carhartt is building a dedicated team to leverage Cisco's FSO solutions, allowing them to identify potential issues early and prevent them from affecting the user experience. Carhartt can now also see orders going through the system, their monetary value, and other key data points to ensure smooth operations.

"It's about getting the right information to the right people at the right time," says Laszlo. "You can only do that with end-to-end visibility and Cisco Full-Stack Observability is the way to get there."

Going beyond monitoring

FSO provides a holistic view of the entire IT environment, which transforms the way technology and innovation is handled. According to a global survey by Cisco titled The Age of Observability, 88% of technologists believe that the shift to observability will enable them to operate more strategically and focus more time on innovation. With unified visibility across their hybrid application landscapes, IT leaders can break down silos between people, processes and data, and unite and engage all technologists around a shared vision. It means that teams can be brought together around a shared vision and organisational goals.

"Organisations are full of incredibly talented people, but they are working in silos," says Borgeest. "With FSO, companies have the opportunity to democratise their teams' view of the challenges and the opportunities. This acts as a competitive tool, helping indicate where to invest next and how to de-risk innovation, helping take the timidity out of your next step."

"Observability is critical to any business where applications are at the core of the way they interface and serve customers and employees alike. I predict we'll start seeing more technologists with observability somewhere in their title in the coming months and years, and I'm excited to see how businesses will leverage this."


Sun, 31 Dec 2023 01:14:00 -0600 text/html https://www.bbc.com/storyworks/reimagining-applications/why-increasing-it-complexity-requires-a-new-approach
Cisco: The Power of Purpose

Published 12-28-23

Submitted by Cisco Systems, Inc.

child and adult with technology between them

We released our annual Purpose Report, which reflects and celebrates the past year’s work towards Powering an Inclusive Future for All—the progress we’ve made against our goals, and the people and lives we’ve touched. The report explores the theme, The Power of Purpose, because we recognize that when we intersect our business, technology, and a network of partners together with our purpose, we create a powerful force for lasting change. And we have some incredible examples from this year, including the announcement that we achieved our goal of positively impacting 1 billion lives, and did so over a year early!

For many years, the purpose of our Purpose Report has been to look back. But we must also look ahead.

Any company looking to successfully execute their business strategy must consider the changing terrain, identify upcoming challenges and trends, and anticipate how to best meet evolving requirements. The same is true for purpose. This year’s Purpose Report begins to explore the landscape, and where we see opportunities for Purpose to grow.

Our biggest challenges are interconnected and interdependent

The past several years brought us all unprecedented challenges, and a world more prone to polarization than before. But instead of binary questions and issues, a more multipolar world has emerged, requiring us to operate with more nuance and greater context than ever. In this context one thing is clear—we are more interconnected and interdependent than ever.

Our lives and futures are linked by our shared dependence on our planet and its environments. We have a global responsibility to solve the climate crisis together. We see the growth of an increasingly digital and global economy, keeping us connected through ecosystems of financial interdependence. And as we learned in the accurate pandemic, our collective health is also inextricably linked.

Global crises also continue to grow increasingly interconnected­­––and the consequences disproportionately fall on vulnerable communities. Developing nations who often contribute the least to climate change bear the brunt of its impact. And due to a lack of infrastructure and technological advancement, they are often the least equipped to respond to natural disasters. While the digital economy continues to grow, 2.6 billion people remain unconnected, denying them access to the opportunities and resources available. The consequences of each crisis exacerbate others­­—access to education is disrupted, progress for women and girls is set back, and extreme poverty rates rise.

Pursuing our Purpose can and must be the glue that brings us together to meet this moment and address these complex, interconnected issues. The question we must continue to ask as we look ahead is, how?

This year’s report reflects on howhow we achieved our goal of positively impacting 1 billion lives, how the private sector can work in new ways to address critical issues facing our societies, and how we can apply lessons from the past to build resilience in our communities for the future.

Where do we go from here?

There is no doubt that the path forward for business in a multipolar world isn’t entirely clear. There is significant work ahead to address risks in supply chains and manufacturing, and complex questions on how to best navigate a shifting geopolitical terrain. But should these challenges and uncertainties also apply to Purpose?

I don’t think so. In fact, in this moment when many are shying away from a global mindset and approach, our Purpose work proceeds by pursuing what is most meaningful, regardless if that is at the local or global level. Purpose can flex. It operates in a lane that is valued around the world, giving all of us who do this work the space to create and iterate, to sway and pivot, and find our rhythm. And when we do, pursuing our Purpose holds the door open for economic initiatives.

As we close the year in which we reached a goal of positively impacting one billion people, I’m looking ahead and considering the next goal we’ll set for ourselves. We are stronger with our partners by our side—an ecosystem focused on driving impact. We’ll continue to do this if we integrate the lessons of the past and take a new approach in the days and years ahead. I hope you’ll join us on this journey and read about our impact this year, and my reflections on what’s next, in our FY23 Purpose Report. Together, we can do good for our communities, good for our businesses, and good for all.

Read the full Cisco FY23 Purpose Report

View original content here.

Thu, 28 Dec 2023 01:11:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.csrwire.com/press_releases/791941-cisco-power-purpose
Cisco Partner Summit: IT Platform Approach Will Make IT ‘Faster’ And ‘Smarter’

‘The focus for Cisco overall is to build these agile platforms for IT to work faster and smarter, and we are building this across every aspect of the infrastructure, including users and applications,’ Cisco’s Prashanth Shenoy tells CRN.

With simplicity and agility top of mind for Cisco Systems, the tech giant unveiled its new IT platform strategy for moving and automating workloads and applications on Wednesday during Cisco Partner Summit Digital 2020.

The new approach will help customers work faster and smarter, especially at a time when resources are scarce and IT requirements have changed overnight, said Prashanth Shenoy, vice president of marketing, Enterprise, Data Center and Cloud Networking, IoT, and Developer Platform for Cisco.

Specifically, when it comes to the hybrid cloud approach. “We’re living in challenging environments, especially IT, which is being tasked with driving new projects in a very rapid manner that no one expected three quarters ago,” Shenoy said. “IT projects are being approved and implemented in weeks, rather than a year and the amount of work that IT has to do to drive that is immense.”

[Related: Cisco DevNet Specialization Fast-Tracked To Help Partners In A Post-COVID World]​

Cisco revealed three new and updated solutions as part of its platform approach, including new features for systems management platform Cisco Intersight, A Cisco Nexus Dashboard, and an updated Cisco Identity Services Engine (ISE). The updates will help businesses that are re-thinking their tooling and IT operations, Shenoy said.

The Cisco Intersight hybrid cloud platform that connects private data centers to private clouds has been extended to offer an Intersight Kubernetes Service, which will let infrastructure teams automate the lifecycle management of Kubernetes and containerized applications across any environment. It’s not just developers that need to understand Kubernetes and containers anymore, said Todd Brannon, senior director, data center marketing for Cisco. “We’re seeing Kubernetes and containers go mainstream. It’s not just the DevOps teams that need to be adept -- we’re seeing the core IT teams being tasked with operationalizing these environments and for many, these are relatively new stacks of software,” he said. The new offering will let businesses handle containers as a service in a predictable and consistent way, Brannon said.

Intersight Workload Optimizer, a new service available now, simplifies application resources management and telemetry data into a single tool that lets customers balance application performance and cost. Additionally, Cisco unveiled Intersight integration with AppDynamics, an integrated service with Workload Optimizer, which gives IT teams visibility into cloud-native applications to Boost management across their infrastructure and stay ahead of issues, Brannon said.

“We’ve set a very ambitious goal for ourselves to build out Intersight as an all-in platform for hybrid IT, because hybrid cloud can be hard, but it doesn’t have to be,” he said.

Over in the data center, the new Cisco Nexus Dashboard provides insights and automation to operate multi-cloud data center networks, including on-premise, virtual edge and cloud sites. The new dashboard consolidates Cisco’s portfolio of operational services and critical third-party services to deliver customers one place to manage application lifecycles, according to the San Jose, Calif.-based company.

The updated Cisco ISE now simplifies secure network access across all domains, extending the zero-trust workplace to anywhere and on anything. Businesses can now use ISE to identify a variety of IoT endpoints to enforce consistent policies from the cloud to deliver teams the agility and flexibility they need to secure their organizations, Cisco said.

“The focus for Cisco overall is to build these agile platforms for IT to work faster and smarter, and we are building this across every aspect of the infrastructure, including users and applications,” Shenoy said.

The new open platform approach will deliver Cisco partners the opportunity to layer their own services on top and integrate with third-party technology, Shenoy added. “Since all of these are software platform, it will help [partners] drive that recurring revenue stream and profitably software businesses,” he said.

The new Cisco Intersight features and the Cisco Nexus Dashboard will be available by the end of the calendar year, with the Cisco Intersight Kubernetes Service becoming available in the first half of 2021. The updated Cisco ISE is available now, according to Cisco.

Fri, 08 Dec 2023 16:16:00 -0600 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/networking/cisco-partner-summit-it-platform-approach-will-make-it-faster-and-smarter
Cisco goes Christmas shopping, buys Cilium project originator Isovalent No result found, try new keyword!Cisco has bought itself a Christmas present: Isovalent, the startup that originated Cilium, an open source networking, observability, and security tool recently graduated to full project status by the ... Thu, 21 Dec 2023 15:27:05 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ Cisco, Pure Storage Expand FlashStack Converged Infrastructure Partnership With New CVDs

Cisco and Pure Storage Thursday unveiled an expansion of their FlashStack converged infrastructure offerings to included the first Cisco Validated Designs featuring the two technologies.

The new Cisco Validated Designs, or CVDs in Cisco parlance, target virtual desktop infrastructure and Oracle Real Application Cluster (RAC) environments, said Satinder Sethi, vice president of data center and cloud solutions at Cisco, San Jose, Calif.

The new CVDs represent the latest in the Cisco and Pure Storage FlashStack converged infrastructure partnership, which was first unveiled in 2014.

[Related: Q&A: Pure Storage CEO Dietzen Talks About NetApp/SolidFire, Flash Storage Future]

The first new CVD is the Cisco Validated Design for FlashStack with VMware Horizon that certifies specific FlashStack configurations for enterprise virtual desktop infrastructure deployments of up to 5,000 seats, Sethi told CRN.

The second is the Cisco Validated Design on FlashStack Data Center for Oracle 12c and RAC, which Sethi said were tested in four-node and eight-node versions.

Cisco also has seen FlashStack deployments with SAP HANA, and will eventually have a Cisco Validated Design for that solution, he said.

FlashStack is already generating interest from various customers, said Kevin Prahm, vice president of sales and operations at ACS, a Huntington Beach, Calif.-based solution provider and channel partner of both Cisco and Pure Storage.

"The unique aspect of FlashStack is that it unites a dominant company like Cisco and a strong storage innovator like Pure Storage and creates a solution that customers are looking for," Prahm told CRN.

The market is looking for Google-like performance, and Pure Storage offers it with FlashStack, Prahm said.

"Customers want something efficient, is simple to operate, and offers high performance," he said. "They see it in the FlashStack approach."

Putting the Cisco Validated Design label on a solution is always a good thing, ACS' Prahm said.

"CVDs are important," he said. "They bring multiple vendors together and demonstrate the unification of a solution. CVDs validate the overall offering for the marketplace."

Cisco also works with other storage vendors on converged infrastructure offerings, including with NetApp on FlexPod, Nimble Storage on SmartStack, IBM on VersaStack, and Dell EMC with VCE, Sethi said. The company used to work closely on VSPEX converged infrastructure solutions with EMC, but those offerings are no longer available, he said.

Michael Sotnick, vice president of channels and alliances at Pure Storage, said the Mountain View, Calif.-based company has participated in thousands of joint deployments of FlashStack, and has taken Pure Storage to more than 2,300 customers as of the end of the last fiscal quarter. However, it has not participated in any other converged infrastructure offerings, he told CRN.

"Across the board, we're seeing wide adoption of Pure Storage for customers who have adopted Cisco UCS," he said. "Cisco's easy, elegant UCS solution works well with Pure Storage."

Tue, 12 Dec 2023 16:12:00 -0600 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/storage/300082413/cisco-pure-storage-expand-flashstack-converged-infrastructure-partnership-with-new-cvds
Cisco: Losing Ground On Both The Networking And Security Fronts
CISCO headquarters in Silicon Valley

Sundry Photography

Cisco (CSCO) has exhibited a modest 3.1% average revenue growth and 4.8% average adjusted operating profit growth over the past five years. The company is experiencing a decline in market share within both the networking and security end markets. Consequently, I

Tue, 26 Dec 2023 03:18:00 -0600 en text/html https://seekingalpha.com/article/4659734-cisco-stock-losing-ground-both-networking-and-security-fronts-sell
Best IT Certifications for 2024

Earning specialized certifications is a surefire way to advance your career in the IT field, regardless of industry or current career level. The right certification validates your skills and knowledge, which makes you more desirable to future employers who want to attract and retain the best employees. Below, we’ll explore the top IT certifications and share how to examine your goals to choose the right path forward. 

We’ve narrowed IT certifications into specific categories to help IT professionals assess what’s available and pursue the best certifications to show their willingness to learn and develop the in-demand career skills employers want.

Best database certifications 

Database platforms have changed greatly over the years, but database technology remains important for various applications and computing tasks. Available certifications for IT professionals include those for database administrators (DBAs), database developers, data analysts and architects, business intelligence, and data warehousing specialists, and other data professionals.

Obtaining database certifications demonstrates an understanding of database concepts, design, implementation, administration and security. This can boost your credibility in the job market and show potential employers that you have the skills needed to work with databases. The best database certifications include the following:

Best SAS certifications 

SAS is one of the world’s leading firms for business analytics, data warehousing and data mining. Today, the SAS Global Certification Program offers 23 credentials across categories including foundation tools, advanced analytics, business intelligence, data management and administration.

SAS programmers remain in high demand, with a quick search of job boards showing thousands of open positions. Obtaining SAS certification shows employers that you are proficient in the company’s popular suite of tools. Some of SAS’s certification programs include the following: 

Many professionals earn certifications to help navigate their career paths. According to the IT Salary Report, 92 percent of information technology professionals have at least one certification.

Best Cisco certifications 

Cisco Systems is a market leader not only in networking and communications products, but also storage networking and solutions for data centers. Cisco offers a variety of certifications for IT professionals, ranging from entry level credentials to expert-level exams. 

These certifications prepare professionals for Cisco-related careers. A search of job boards reveals thousands of open positions for Cisco experts, underscoring the continued relevance of these skills. Some of Cisco’s certifications include the following:

Best Dell certifications 

Dell Technologies remains one of the world’s leading computing companies. In addition to its well-known hardware lineup, Dell also offers solutions for networks, storage, servers, gateways and embedded computing, as well as a broad range of IT and business services.

Becoming certified in Dell products can help make IT professionals competitive in engineering roles for server, virtualization, networking, systems, integration and data security. Additional roles include consultants, account executives, system administrators, IT managers and deployment managers.

Best mobility certifications 

In the mobile era, it has become increasingly important for network engineers to support local, remote and mobile users, as well as provide proper infrastructure. The focus on application and app development now leans more toward mobile environments, requiring security professionals to thoroughly address mobility from all perspectives.

Due to the fast-changing nature of mobile technology, not many mobility certifications have become widely adopted. However, a few of the top mobility certifications can help IT professionals stand out in this rapidly evolving field. 

If part of your job includes selling and implementing an IT solution, you may want to pursue the best sales certifications. You’ll show your organization that you’re willing to go above and beyond to reach sales targets.

Best computer hardware certifications 

As remote and computer-based work has become more common, it’s more important than ever that businesses and individuals be able to maintain their hardware. While discussions about potential computer-related jobs often revolve around software work and coding, jumping into the IT field by becoming a computer technician is an excellent starting point.

Today, thousands of hardware technician jobs are available across the country. Entering this industry becomes more accessible for those who acquire computer hardware certifications. These certifications can showcase your expertise and proficiency in the upkeep of computers, mobile devices, printers and other hardware components.

Best Google Cloud certifications 

IT pros with solid cloud computing skills continue to be in high demand as more companies adopt cloud technologies. Today, Google Cloud is one of the market leaders in the cloud computing space. 

Regardless of where you are in your IT career, engaging with certification programs can demonstrate your willingness to keep on top of rapidly evolving cloud technologies. To that end, Google has introduced a host of certifications for its cloud platform, including the following: 

Best evergreen IT certifications

In the fast-changing world of technology, it can help to focus on certifications that have stood the test of time. “Evergreen” refers to certifications that remain popular year after year. 

The top evergreen certifications are based on accurate pay surveys in IT, reports from IT professionals about certifications they want or pursue the most, and those that appear most frequently in online job postings. Obtaining these credentials is one step toward ensuring that your skills remain relevant for a long time: 

Best IT governance certifications 

IT governance provides structure for aligning a company’s IT with its business strategies. Organizations faced with compliance rigors always need experienced IT pros who can see the big picture and understand technology risks. This means certified IT governance professionals are likely to remain in high demand.

Earning one of the following certifications proves a commitment to understanding the role of IT governance and its position in a company’s current and future success. Getting certified can validate your expert knowledge and lead to advanced career opportunities.

Best system administrator certifications 

An IT system administrator is responsible for managing and maintaining the information technology infrastructure within an organization. The position demands sought-after career skills, ranging from configuring and maintaining servers and clients to managing access controls, network services, and addressing application resource requirements.

If you’re in charge of managing modern servers, there’s a long list of tools and technologies that system administrators must master. Obtaining some of the most prominent system administrator certifications can demonstrate your mastery to potential employers. 

Best ITIL certifications 

ITIL, or Information Technology Infrastructure Library, was developed to establish standardized best practices for IT services within government agencies. Over the ensuing four decades, businesses of all types embraced, modified, and extended ITIL, shaping it into a comprehensive framework for managing IT service delivery. 

The ITIL framework remains the benchmark for best practices in IT service and delivery management, offering certification programs that cater to IT professionals at all levels. These training and certification courses ensure that IT professionals stay well-prepared for the ongoing evolution in IT service delivery management. There are four certifications in the ITIL certification program:

Best enterprise architect certifications 

An IT enterprise architect is responsible for designing and managing the overall structure and framework of an organization’s information technology system. Enterprise architect certifications are among the highest that an IT professional can achieve; fewer than 1 percent ultimately reach this level. 

Enterprise architects are among the highest-paid employees and consultants in the tech industry. These certifications can put IT professionals on a path to many lucrative positions. The average worker earns over six figures annually. Some top enterprise architect certifications are listed below:

To become an enterprise IT architect, you’ll need knowledge of systems deployment, design and architecture, as well as a strong business foundation.

Best CompTIA certifications

CompTIA is a nonprofit trade association made up of more than 2,000 member organizations and 3,000 business partners. The organization’s vendor-neutral certification program is one of the best recognized in the IT industry. Since CompTIA developed its A+ credential in 1993, it has issued more than two million certifications.

CompTIA certifications are grouped by skill set and focus on the real-world skills IT professionals need. Armed with these credentials, you can demonstrate that you know how to manage and support IT infrastructure. 

Best Oracle certifications 

A longtime leader in database software, Oracle also offers cloud solutions, servers, engineered systems, storage, and more. The company has more than 430,000 customers in 175 countries. 

Today, Oracle’s training program offers six certification levels that span 16 product categories with more than 200 individual credentials. Considering the depth and breadth of this program — and the number of Oracle customers — it’s no surprise that Oracle certifications are highly sought after. 

Vendor-specific certifications address a particular vendor’s hardware and software. For example, you can pursue Oracle certifications and Dell certifications to become an expert in those companies’ environments.

Best business continuity and disaster recovery certifications

Business continuity and disaster recovery keep systems running and data available in the event of interruptions or faults. These programs bring systems back to normal operation after a disaster has occurred.

Business continuity and disaster recovery certifications are seeing a healthy uptrend as new cloud-based tools grow in popularity. While business continuity planning and disaster recovery planning have always been essential, they’re becoming more critical than ever — and IT certifications are following suit.

Tue, 02 Jan 2024 09:59:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10953-best-it-certifications.html
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Cisco Talos Report: New Trends in Ransomware, Network Infrastructure Attacks, Commodity Loader Malware

The Cisco Talos Year in Review report released Tuesday highlights new trends in the cybersecurity threat landscape. We’ll focus on three subjects covered: the ransomware cybercriminal ecosystem, network infrastructure attacks and commodity loader malware.

More ransomware actors switched to extortion rather than encryption, while commodity loaders evolved to be stealthier and highly effective, although new major security improvements have seen the day in 2023, such as Microsoft Office disabling macros by default. Network devices are increasingly impacted by cybercriminals and state-sponsored threat actors.

Jump to:

The ransomware cybercriminal ecosystem changed

Most targeted vertical

In terms of ransomware, the most targeted vertical, as observed by Cisco Talos in 2023, was the healthcare and public health sector, which is not surprising since the organizations in that sector often suffer from underfunded budgets for cybersecurity and low downtime tolerance (Figure A). In addition, those organizations are interesting targets because they possess protected health information.

Figure A

Chart showing ransomware/pre-ransomware incidents per sector, as observed by Cisco Talos.
Ransomware/pre-ransomware incidents per sector, as observed by Cisco Talos. Image: Cisco Talos

Some ransomware groups have been changing

The most active ransomware group for the second year in a row was LockBit (25.3% of the total number of posts made to data leak sites), followed by ALPHV (10.7%) and Clop (8.2%).

Yet some ransomware groups kept changing in 2023; those structures often merged or rebranded in an attempt to confuse law enforcement and researchers tracking them. The cybercriminals active in the field often work for several ransomware-as-a-service services at the same time.

Multiple leaks of ransomware source code and builders also affected the ransomware threat landscape because these allowed more people (even those with little technical knowledge) to start their own operations.

Zero-days exploited at an unprecedented pace

Highly technical actors have been exploiting zero-day vulnerabilities at an unprecedented pace. The Clop ransomware group in particular has been able to exploit multiple zero-day vulnerabilities, including vulnerabilities in the GoAnywhere MFT platform, MOVEit and PaperCut.

Cisco Talos states that “Clop’s repeated efforts to exploit zero-day vulnerabilities is highly unusual for a ransomware group given the resources required to develop such capabilities,” yet it is still unsure that they do develop exploits on their own. When questioned about it in an email interview, a Cisco spokesperson told TechRepublic, “Because of the murkiness in the relationships that constitute the ransomware ecosystem, it can be difficult to accurately parse out which personnel/organizations are responsible for which actions. Because of this, we do not have direct insight into how Cl0p obtained the 0days and have not observed any indications that they purchased them. Regardless of whether they developed them themselves or purchased them, the usage suggests Cl0p is well-resourced, either in engineering talent or in finances and connections that would allow them to obtain from a third party.”

More affiliates are using a data theft extortion model

Another remarkable shift in the ransomware threat landscape is that more affiliates are now switching to a data theft extortion model rather than the usual encryption model. In these attacks, cybercriminals do not deploy ransomware; instead, they steal organizations’ sensitive information before asking for a ransom.

The improvements in ransomware detection capabilities from Endpoint Detection and Response and Extended Detection and Response software might be one reason for switching tactics and stopping deploying ransomware on the targeted systems. Cisco Talos also suspects the aggressive pursuits from U.S. and international law enforcement against ransomware actors might be another reason for that change.

Network infrastructure attacks increased

Cisco Talos observed an increase in attacks on networking devices in 2023, particularly attacks operated by China- and Russia-based groups looking to advance espionage objectives and facilitate stealthy operations against secondary targets. The researchers observed such activity from other cybercriminals, including initial access brokers and ransomware threat actors.

Weak security on network devices

Networking devices, although being key components to any organization’s IT infrastructure, are not often examined from a security point of view and are often poorly patched, making them an interesting target for cybercriminals. Yet those devices often run on non-standard operating systems, rendering their exploitation harder by cybercriminals but also unmonitored by standard security solutions.

The typical compromise of those devices starts with threat actors exploiting unpatched vulnerabilities, weak or default credentials, or insecure device configuration.

A Cisco spokesman told TechRepublic that “the continued prevalence of default credentials may be partly explained by the sheer number of vendors and products combined with the lack of uniform standards/best practices. The move away from default credentials should certainly help Boost the situation. It is important to note that weak credentials can also be exploited if the actor is able to brute-force or password-spray, and that access brokers still achieve success in obtaining credentials and selling them on the dark web. This means that even if organizations are not using default credentials, it’s essential they create unique and complex passwords, employ MFA where possible, and emphasize additional security measures such as segmentation and IR planning as well.”

Targeted devices had a high severity score

Vulnerabilities affecting network devices in 2023 all had a high severity score, meaning those devices were easily exploitable and had the potential to cause significant operational impact, according to Cisco Talos.

Once compromised, those devices allow attackers to capture sensitive network information, facilitating further access to the target’s networks. Attackers also might plant malware on the devices to establish an initial foothold in the target’s infrastructure without the need for any authentication, or to redirect network traffic to actor-controlled servers. Finally, the devices are also often used by attackers as anonymization proxies for conducting attacks on other targets.

Commodity loader malware evolved

Commodity loader malware such as Qakbot, Ursnif, Emotet, Trickbot and IcedID have been around for years. They were initially banking trojans, looking for credit card information theft on infected computers.

In late 2023, new variants of IcedID and Ursnif appeared with a striking difference as compared to their older versions: Their banking trojan capabilities had been removed, and their dropper functionalities had been improved. The IcedID new samples have been used by initial access brokers known for commonly selling network accesses to ransomware groups. The latest Ursnif variants were used by the Royal ransomware group.

Qakbot also evolved, deploying new features ideally suited to help ransomware groups.

This evolution from banking trojan to loader is attractive for cybercriminals who want to be stealthier; the banking trojan function removal renders those malware less detectable.

The infecting vector for Qakbot, IcedID and Ursnif evolved, as Microsoft’s new security measures on Office products affected the malware threat landscape, forcing cybercriminals to find new ways to use macros undetected or avoid using them completely (Figure B).

Figure B

Timeline showing changes in commodity loader tactics, techniques and procedures in response to changing security features.
Changes in commodity loader tactics, techniques and procedures in response to changing security features. Image: Cisco Talos

Threat actors used different methods compared to previous years for spreading their malware and infecting devices, such as using JavaScript, PowerShell, OneNote documents, or HTA files, to name a few. They also used the Google Ads platform to deploy malware such as Ursnif, IcedID or Trickbot, fully avoiding macros.

Some other threat actors deploying Emotet, IcedID and Ursnif have been observed using older methods with macros, probably because the success rate on unpatched enterprise legacy systems is still high.

How to protect your business from these cybersecurity threats

The threat landscape evolves to suit cybercriminals’ needs, and your security team needs to ensure its mitigation strategies are keeping up with the trends. Here are some tips for securing your business from these cyberthreats. In addition, all operating systems and software must be up to date and patched to avoid being compromised by common vulnerabilities.


Access control mechanisms should be carefully reviewed in all corporate environments, and data segmentation should be applied for storing sensitive data because ransomware threat actors are increasingly trying to steal sensitive data rather than encrypt it.

Network devices

Network devices must be up to date and patched. Default passwords, if any, must be changed to strong passwords. All of the devices’ configuration files should be carefully analyzed and tuned to avoid any malicious exploitation. When possible, multifactor authentication must be deployed on those devices. Also, inbound and outbound communications from the devices should be monitored to detect malicious communication.

Commodity loaders

The main families of commodity loaders have dropped their banking trojan capabilities to be lighter and stealthier, even without using macros — often to facilitate ransomware operations. Organizations should educate their employees to handle more file types with caution, such as PDF files or ZIP archives that might contain malicious files.

Disclosure: I work for Trend Micro, but the views expressed in this article are mine.

Tue, 05 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.techrepublic.com/article/cisco-talos-year-end-report/
To Make the Splunk Acquisition Successful, a New Approach to Storage is Needed

Cisco’s acquisition of Splunk in September generated a lot of commentary, most of which unsurprisingly focused on how the two companies complement each other and what this means for their respective customers. 

As Cisco CEO Chuck Robbins stated when announcing the purchase, “our combined capabilities will drive the next generation of AI-enabled security and observability. From threat detection and response to threat prediction and prevention, we will help make organizations of all sizes more secure and resilient.”

From the product perspective, it is clear that the synergies are substantial. Cisco sells hardware that generates massive amounts of data and Splunk is the category leader for data-intensive observability and security information and event management (SIEM) products.

Viewed from the industry perspective, Splunk’s acquisition fits a distinct pattern.This transaction represents  the fifth this year for an observability platform following changes of control at Moogsoft, Ops Ramp, Sumo Logic and New Relic.

In all cases, including PE firm Francisco Partner’s takeover of both New Relic and Sumo Logic, the aim is clear: use the data these companies collect to fuel the next big wave of AI-powered operations and security tools. 

However, this next generation of AI-enabled tools faces a significant challenge: AI is data-hungry and requires always-hot storage, which is likely to be prohibitively expensive on current platforms.

This fundamental economic challenge confronts not just Cisco, but also HPE (Ops Ramp), Dell (Moogsoft), and Francisco Partners, as they attempt to make good on this AI-driven vision. It is possible, unless architectures change, that the high cost of storing and using data in these platforms, and the tradeoffs these costs impose, will impede the building of AI-enabled products.

AI is Data Hungry

With a few caveats, it is safe to say that more data makes for better AI models and, by extension, AI-enabled products. Larger training sets translate into greater accuracy, the ability to detect subtle patterns, and most importantly for the use cases envisioned by Cisco, generalization accuracy. Generalization describes how well a model can analyze and make accurate predictions on new data. For security use cases this can mean the difference between detecting or failing to detect a cyber threat.

But it’s not just enough to have a lot of data at hand. That data needs to be easy to access repeatedly and on a basically ad hoc basis. That’s because the process of building and training models is experimental and iterative. 

In data storage terms, AI use cases require hot data. And when it comes to platforms like Splunk, that’s a problem.

In AI, All Data Must Be Hot

To minimize costs, data on today’s leading SIEM and observability platforms is stored in hot and cold tiers.  

Hot storage is for data that must be accessed frequently and requires fast or low-latency query responses. This could be anything from customer databases to Kubernetes logs. It is data used in the daily operation of an application. 

Cold storage, on the other hand, serves as a low-cost archive. But in order to achieve this cost savings, performance is sacrificed. Cold data is slow to access and difficult to query. To be usable, cold data must be transferred back to the hot storage tier, which can take hours or even days. Cold storage simply won’t work for AI use cases.

Data science teams use data in three phases: exploratory analysis, feature engineering and training, and maintenance of deployed models, each of which is characterized by constant refinement through experimentation. Each phase is highly iterative, as is the entire process.

Anything that slows down these iterations, increases costs, or otherwise creates operational friction – and restoring data from cold storage does all three – will negatively impact the quality of AI-enabled products. 

The High Cost of Storage Forces Tradeoffs

It is no surprise to anyone paying attention to the industry that Splunk, like its competitors, is perceived as expensive. It was a top concern of customers before the acquisition and it remains the number one concern in surveys taken since. It is easy to see why. Though their pricing is somewhat opaque, estimates put the cost to store a GB of data for a month at $1,800 for hot data. Compare that to the starting cost to store data in AWS’s S3 for $0.023 (essentially cold storage).

Of course, there’s a lot of value added to the data stored in observability platforms, such as compute and storage resources required to build indexes that make that data searchable, but understanding the costs doesn’t change the fact that storing data in these platforms is expensive. According to Honeycomb and other sources, companies on average spend an astounding 20 to 30 percent of their overall cloud budget on observability.

The solution Splunk and others adopted to help manage these massive costs – and the crux of the problem for Cisco’s AI ambitions – is an aggressive retention policy that keeps only thirty to ninety days of data in hot storage. After that, data can be deleted or, optionally, moved to the cold tier from which, according to Splunk’s own documentation, it takes 24 hours to restore.

A New Model is Needed

Observability and SIEM are here to stay. The service that platforms like Splunk provide is valuable enough for companies to dedicate a significant percentage of their budget to provisioning it. But the costs to deliver these services today will impede the products they deliver tomorrow if the fundamental economics of hot data storage isn’t overturned. Hot storage costs need to be much closer to raw object storage to serve the AI ambitions of companies like Cisco, Dell, and HPE. Architectures are emerging that decouple storage, allowing compute and storage to scale independently, and index that data so that it can be searched quickly. This provides solid-state drive-like query performance at near object storage prices.

The biggest hurdle may not be a strictly technical one, though. The incumbent observability and SIEM vendors must recognize that they have a significant economic barrier to executing on their AI-enabled product roadmap. Once they realize this, they can proceed to the solution: integrating next-gen data storage technologies optimized for machine-generated data into their underlying infrastructure. Only then can vendors like Cisco, HP, etc. transform the economics of big data and deliver on the promise of AI-enabled security and observability.

About the Author

Marty Kagan is the CEO and co-founder of Hydrolix, an Oregon-based maker of cloud data processing software. He was previously founder and CEO of Cedexis (acquired by Citrix) and held executive engineering positions at Akamai Technologies, Fastly, and Jive Software.

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Fri, 22 Dec 2023 21:00:00 -0600 Contributor en-US text/html https://insidebigdata.com/2023/12/23/to-make-the-splunk-acquisition-successful-a-new-approach-to-storage-is-needed/

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