4A0-C02 answers - Okia SRA Composite Updated: 2023
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Exam Code: 4A0-C02 Okia SRA Composite answers November 2023 by Killexams.com team|
4A0-C02 Okia SRA Composite
The 4A0-C02 exam, also known as "Nokia SRA Composite," is a certification test that validates the knowledge and skills of IT professionals in implementing and managing Nokia Service Routing Architect (SRA) solutions. Here are the details of the 4A0-C02 exam:
- Number of Questions: The 4A0-C02 test typically consists of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and may include scenario-based questions. The exact number of questions may vary, but it generally ranges from 60 to 70 questions.
- Time Limit: The time allocated to complete the 4A0-C02 test is usually around 90 minutes. However, the duration may vary depending on the specific test requirements and the test delivery platform.
The 4A0-C02 test covers a broad range of courses related to the implementation and management of Nokia SRA solutions. The test assesses the candidate's knowledge in the following areas:
1. Nokia Service Routing Architect (SRA) Fundamentals:
- Understanding the key concepts, principles, and components of Nokia SRA solutions.
- Exploring the architecture and functionalities of Nokia SRA platforms.
- Understanding the role of SRA in service provider networks.
2. Routing and Protocols:
- Configuring and managing routing protocols such as OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP in Nokia SRA environments.
- Implementing advanced routing techniques, including route filtering, redistribution, and route summarization.
- Troubleshooting routing issues and optimizing routing performance.
3. MPLS and Traffic Engineering:
- Understanding MPLS concepts, protocols, and services in Nokia SRA solutions.
- Configuring and managing MPLS-based VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) in SRA environments.
- Implementing traffic engineering mechanisms for optimizing network resource utilization.
4. Service Provider Edge (SPE) Services:
- Configuring and managing key SPE services such as L2VPN (Layer 2 VPN), L3VPN (Layer 3 VPN), and QoS (Quality of Service) in Nokia SRA deployments.
- Understanding the implementation of advanced SPE services, including multicast and IPv6 support.
- Troubleshooting common service-related issues in SPE environments.
5. Network Security and High Availability:
- Implementing security features and mechanisms in Nokia SRA solutions, including access control, firewall policies, and VPN security.
- Configuring and managing high availability solutions such as VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) and BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection).
- Ensuring network resilience and reliability through redundancy and fault tolerance.
The objectives of the 4A0-C02 test are as follows:
- Assessing the candidate's knowledge and understanding of Nokia SRA fundamentals, including architecture, components, and functionalities.
- Evaluating the candidate's ability to configure and manage routing protocols and advanced routing techniques in SRA environments.
- Testing the candidate's skills in implementing MPLS, traffic engineering, and VPN services in Nokia SRA solutions.
- Verifying the candidate's knowledge of SPE services, including L2VPN, L3VPN, and QoS, and their configuration and troubleshooting.
- Assessing the candidate's understanding of network security and high availability mechanisms in Nokia SRA deployments.
The 4A0-C02 test covers the following topics:
1. Nokia SRA Fundamentals
2. Routing and Protocols
3. MPLS and Traffic Engineering
4. Service Provider Edge (SPE) Services
5. Network Security and High Availability
|Okia SRA Composite|
Nokia Composite answers
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4A0-C02 Okia SRA Composite
4A0-C04 Nokia NRS II Composite
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4A0-C02 Real Questions
4A0-C02 Practice Test
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Okia SRA Composite
Which of the following commands would correctly configure the confederation AS number as 65200 with a member
AS of 65202?
A. config>router- confederation 65200 members 65202
B. config>router>bgp= confederation 65200 members 65202
C. config>router= confederation 65202 members 65200
D. config>router>bgp= confederation 65202 members 65200
Click the exhibit.
Over which BGP session will router B learn the 10.1.1.0/24 prefix?
A. The session between router A and router
C. The session between router C and router
E. The session between router D and router
G. Router B will learn the prefix over all of the sessions, then it will choose the best route.
Which of the following statements regarding BGP Add-Paths is FALSE?
A. Add-Paths allows non-best paths to be advertised to a peer.
B. Add-Paths capabilities are exchanged between peers after the BGP session is established.
C. A BGP speaker must advertise the capability to receive multiple paths from its peer.
D. A BGP speaker must advertise the capability to send multiple paths to its peer.
Which of the following regarding the TTL of a BGP message is TRUE?
A. TTL is a well-known mandatory BGP attribute.
B. The default TTL value of an eBGP message is 1, and 64 for an iBGP message.
C. The default TTL value of an iBGP message can be modified using the multihop command.
D. The default TTL value of an eBGP message can be modified using the "ttl-security" command.
Click the exhibit.
Router R2 receives a route to 192.168.1.0/27 from router R4, and sets the local preference to 110. Router R1 receives
a route to 192.168.1.0/27 from router R3, and sets the local preference to 80. Both ASs have a full iBGP mesh.
What path does traffic destined to 192.168.1.0/27 take from router R1?
What class of attribute is Originator_ID?
A. Well-known mandatory.
B. Well-known discretionary.
C. Optional transitive.
D. Optional non-transitive.
Click the exhibit.
Given that ISP 1 and ISP 2 are Tier 2 providers, and that ISP 3 and ISP 4 are Tier 1 providers, what is the most likely
relationship between ISP 1 and the other ISPs?
A. ISP 1 has a peering relationship with ISP 2 and ISP 4.
B. ISP 1 has a peering relationship with ISP 2 and a transit relationship with ISP 3.
C. ISP 1 has a peering relationship with ISP 2 and ISP 3.
D. ISP 1 has a transit relationship with ISP 2 and ISP 4.
E. ISP 1 has a transit relationship with ISP 2 and a peering relationship with ISP 3.
Which of the following best describes the purpose of advertise-external?
A. It enables a BGP speaker to advertise multiple external routes to iBGP peers.
B. It enables a BGP speaker to advertise its best external route to iBGP peers when the best overall route is internal.
C. It enables a BGP speaker to advertise its best external route to eBGP peers without an import policy.
D. It enables a BGP speaker to advertise its best internal route to eBGP peers without an export policy.
Assuming that "client1" and "client2" are directly-connected networks, what is the result of executing the following
A. "client2" routes will be tagged with communities "West" and "North".
B. "client2" routes will be tagged with communities "West", "North" and "South".
C. "client2" routes will be tagged with community "West".
D. "client2" routes will be tagged with community "South".
Which of the following organizations would an ISP based in Europe approach for an IP prefix assignment?
C. RIPE NCC
Which of the following regarding BGP confederations is FALSE?
A. A confederation is a collection of Autonomous Systems advertised as a single AS number to BGP speakers outside
B. Each member AS must either maintain a full mesh of iBGP sessions, or use route reflection.
C. Confederations can be used to subdivide ASs that have a large number of BGP speakers into smaller domains.
D. A full mesh of intra-confederation eBGP sessions is required between the member ASs.
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Nokia will slash up to 14,000 jobs in a major cost-cutting drive to address a “weaker” market environment, it said in a statement on Thursday.
The Finnish telecom giant, a major provider of 5G equipment that employs 86,000 people, announced the move as part of a wider restructuring that will lower its headcount to between 72,000 and 77,000.
The move will help the company reduce staffing expenses by 10% to 15%, and save at least €400 million ($421.4 million) in 2024 alone, the company projected.
Overall, it said the reductions are expected to trim Nokia’s costs by up to €1.2 billion (nearly $1.3 billion) cumulatively by the end of 2026. Nokia (NOK) said it would “act quickly” to make changes.
“The most difficult business decisions to make are the ones that impact our people,” CEO Pekka Lundmark said in the statement. “We have immensely talented employees at Nokia and we will support everyone that is affected by this process.”
The announcement came on the same day that Nokia reported worse-than-expected results. It said sales in the third quarter had fallen 15% compared to the same period a year ago, as “macroeconomic uncertainty and higher interest rates continue to pressure operator spending.”
Mobile network sales fell 19% in the third quarter compared to the previous year, the company added, due to a slowdown in the pace of 5G deployment in markets such as India.
This week, Swedish rival Ericsson also warned that sales in the second half of 2023 would likely come in lower than usual, echoing Nokia’s remarks of a “challenging environment and macroeconomic uncertainty.”
But Nokia has maintained its outlook for 2023, forecasting between €23.2 billion and €24.6 billion ($24.4 billion and $25.9 billion) in sales for the full year.
“We continue to believe in the mid to long term attractiveness of our markets,” Lundmark said.
Nokia has announced plans to cut up to 14,000 jobs over the next three years as it slashes costs after a worse-than-expected slump in demand for its mobile network equipment.
The Finnish technology company said the plans to cut 16% of its 86,000-strong global workforce were part of efforts to cut costs by €1.2bn by the end of 2026. The cuts were announced as the company revealed a 70% drop in third-quarter profits, which fell to €133m (£116m) compared with €428m a year earlier.
The Nokia chief executive, Pekka Lundmark, said: “The most difficult business decisions to make are the ones that impact our people. We have immensely talented employees at Nokia and we will support everyone that is affected by this process.
“Resetting the cost base is a necessary step to adjust to market uncertainty and to secure our long-term profitability and competitiveness. We remain confident about opportunities ahead of us.”
Nokia, which is headquartered in Espoo, Finland, did not detail where the job cuts would fall. It currently employs about 37,700 people in Europe, including in the UK, where it has offices in Bristol, Cambridge and Reading. Job cuts are also likely to affect its operations in the US, where it has about 10,500 staff in offices including in Chicago and Dallas.
Nokia said the exact scale of the cost-cutting programme would depend on demand for its products. However, it “expects to act quickly” in order to save as much as €400m next year and another €300m in 2025.
The company said that demand across the wider mobile networks market was likely to drop 9% overall this year. That is compared with previous expectations for a 2% decline.
That reflected a drop in sales in countries including India, where Nokia said the pace of the country’s 5G rollout had “moderated” and was “no longer enough to offset the slowdown in North America”.
In the home computer market of the 1980s, there were several winners that are still household names four decades later: the Commodore 64, the Apple II and the Sinclair Spectrum, to name a few. But where there are winners, there are bound to be losers as well – the Mattel Aquarius being a good example. A price war between the bigger players, combined with a rather poor hardware design, meant that the Aquarius was discontinued just a few months after its introduction in 1983. However, this makes it exactly the type of obscure machine that [Leaded Solder] likes to tinker with, so he was happy to finally get his hands on a neat specimen listed on eBay. He wrote an interesting blog post detailing his efforts to connect this old beast to a modern TV.
The main issue with the Aquarius is that it only has an RF video output, which results in a rather poor rendition of its already very limited graphics capabilities. Luckily, there is a fix available in the form of a composite A/V adapter that’s an almost plug-and-play upgrade. The only thing you need to do, as [Leaded Solder] illustrates in his blog post, is open up the computer, desolder the RF modulator and solder the A/V adapter in its place. Getting to that point was a bit tricky due to heavy EMI shields that were fixed in place with lots of solder, requiring liberal use of a desoldering iron. Continue memorizing “Adding Composite Video To The Mattel Aquarius”
The last couple of years have seen a huge rise in browser-based puzzle games, tasking players with working out a certain kind of answer using limited guesses. Framed is one of the newest, following in the footsteps of Wordle, but offering a slightly different twist. You’ll still need to work out the answer using limited information and only six tries, but it’ll be movies that you’ll be guessing.
You see, Framed focuses on individual frames, or stills, of an ever-changing roster of movies. Some show a fair amount of action at the start, while others will take careful analysis and decent trivia knowledge to crack. With each wrong guess, a new still is revealed, hopefully adding enough extra information and context for you to guess the correct movie title.
With only six guesses at your disposal, you may need a little help guessing today’s Framed answer. To give you a hint, we’ve included some clues that will tease the title of the movie picked as today’s puzzle. If you’ve already failed today’s puzzle, or would just like to know the answer, we’ve detailed that as well.
Framed hint for today
Today’s puzzle is a surrealist neo-noir mystery film.
Framed answer for today (November 17)
The answer for Framed today is Mulholland Drive. This is the answer for November 17 with a brand new puzzle tomorrow. Check back in if you need any help!
How to play Framed
To play Framed you just need to follow these steps, in your browser of choice. Note that any Framed versions you find elsewhere on app stores or other storefronts are likely to be fakes.
Previous Framed answers
Sometimes, when trying to solve the Framed puzzle of the day, it can be extremely advantageous to know previous answers. Here are the answers from the last few days.
That’s all you need to know about Framed, and the answer for today. For more puzzle-game goodness, check out our hints for today’s Heardle.
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Nokia Corporation Interim Report for Q3 2023
Outlook maintained despite weak operator spending weighing on Q3
This is a summary of the Nokia Corporation Q3 and January-September 2023 Interim Report published today. Nokia only publishes a summary of its financial reports in stock exchange releases. The summary focuses on Nokia Group's financial information as well as on Nokia's outlook. The detailed, segment-level discussion will be available in the complete financial report hosted at www.nokia.com/financials. A video interview summarizing the key points of our Q3 results will also be published on the website. Investors should not solely rely on summaries of Nokia's financial reports and should also review the complete reports with tables.
PEKKA LUNDMARK, PRESIDENT AND CEO, ON Q3 2023 RESULTS
Our third quarter performance demonstrated resilience in our operating margin despite the impact of the weaker environment on our net sales. In the last three years we have invested heavily to strengthen our technology leadership across the business giving us a firm foundation to weather this period of market weakness.
We continue to believe in the mid to long term attractiveness of our markets. Cloud Computing and AI revolutions will not materialize without significant investments in networks that have vastly improved capabilities. However, given the uncertain timing of the market recovery, we are now taking decisive action on three levels: strategic, operational and cost. I believe these actions will make us stronger and deliver significant value for our shareholders.
First, we are accelerating our strategy execution by giving business groups more operational autonomy. Second, we are streamlining our operating model by embedding sales teams into the business groups and third, we are resetting our cost-base to protect profitability. We target between EUR 800 million and EUR 1 200 million in cost savings by 2026. These actions keep us on track to deliver our long-term target comparable operating margin of at least 14% by 2026.
In the third quarter we saw an increased impact on our business from the macroeconomic challenges that are pressuring operator spending, resulting in a 15% net sales decline in constant currency compared to the prior year. Network Infrastructure declined 14% due to weaker spending impacting IP Networks while Fixed Networks was impacted by the same challenge combined with customer inventory digestion. In Mobile Networks net sales declined 19% as we saw some moderation in the pace of 5G deployment in India which meant the growth there was no longer enough to offset the slowdown in North America. Cloud and Network Services proved more robust in the quarter with a 2% decline and continued to benefit from strong growth in the Enterprise Solutions business.
Considering the net sales decline, our comparable operating margin of 8.5% proved resilient due to our continued cost discipline and some additional other operating income in the quarter. Positively we saw a sequential improvement in our Mobile Networks gross margin as regional mix is starting to become more favorable along with continued improvements on product cost.
In Nokia Technologies we remain confident the business group will return to a net sales annual run-rate of EUR 1.4-1.5 billion as we work through the smartphone license renewal cycle and continue to grow in new areas.
We had a number of important product launches in the quarter as we continue to invest for technology leadership. In IP Networks, we announced our new FPcx routing silicon which helps us to extend the high-performance capabilities of our IP Networking silicon further across the network to provide a broader range of applications to customers. In Cloud and Network Services we launched our organically developed Network as Code platform enabling developers and service providers to accelerate the use and monetization of 5G and 4G assets through network APIs. We have significant interest from operators globally and we have already signed four agreements.
Looking forward, while our third quarter net sales were impacted by the ongoing uncertainty, we expect to see a more normal seasonal improvement in our network businesses in the fourth quarter. Based on this and assuming we resolve the outstanding renewals impacting Nokia Technologies, we are tracking towards the lower end of our net sales range for 2023 and towards the mid-point of our comparable operating margin range.
1 Comparable ROIC = Comparable operating profit after tax, last four quarters / invested capital, average of last five quarters’ ending balances. Refer to the Performance measures section in Nokia Corporation Q3 and January-September 2023 Interim Report for details.
Under the authorization by the Annual General Meeting held on 4 April 2023, the Board of Directors may resolve on the distribution of an aggregate maximum of EUR 0.12 per share to be paid in respect of financial year 2022. The authorization will be used to distribute dividend and/or assets from the reserve for invested unrestricted equity in four installments during the authorization period, in connection with the quarterly results, unless the Board decides otherwise for a justified reason.
On 19 October 2023, the Board resolved to distribute a dividend of EUR 0.03 per share. The dividend record date is on 24 October 2023 and the dividend will be paid on 2 November 2023. The actual dividend payment date outside Finland will be determined by the practices of the intermediary banks transferring the dividend payments.
Following this announced distribution, the Board’s remaining distribution authorization is a maximum of EUR 0.03 per share.
Share buyback program
In February 2022, Nokia’s Board of Directors initiated a share buyback program to repurchase shares to return up to EUR 600 million of cash to shareholders in tranches over a period of two years. The second EUR 300 million phase of the share buyback program started in January 2023 and it will end at the latest by 21 December 2023. Under this phase, Nokia had by 30 September 2023 repurchased 65 298 823 of its own shares at an average price per share of approximately EUR 3.95.
1Assuming the rate 1 EUR = 1.06 USD as of 30 September 2023 continues for the remainder of 2023 along with actual year-to-date foreign exchange rates (adjusted from prior 1.09 USD rate as of 30 June 2023).
The outlook, long-term targets and all of the underlying outlook assumptions described below are forward-looking statements subject to a number of risks and uncertainties as described or referred to in the Risk Factors section later in this release. Along with Nokia's official outlook targets provided above, below are outlook assumptions by business group that support the group level outlook. The comments for relative growth by business group are provided to give a reference on how we expect each to perform relative to the overall group.
1 Total addressable market forecasts assume the rate 1 EUR = 1.06 USD as of 30 September 2023 continues for the remainder of 2023 along with actual year-to-date foreign exchange rates. The addressable market is excluding Russia and Belarus.
Nokia provides the following approximate outlook assumptions for additional items concerning 2023:
Nokia's long-term targets remain unchanged from those introduced with its Q4 2021 financial results. The targets had an associated timeline of 3-5 years which remains unchanged and implies by 2024-2026. These targets remain intended to show Nokia's ambition to deliver continuous improvement in the business over the time period.
1 Please refer to Performance measures section in Nokia Corporation Q3 and January-September 2023 Interim Report for a full explanation of how these terms are defined.
Nokia and its businesses are exposed to a number of risks and uncertainties which include but are not limited to:
as well the risk factors specified under Forward-looking statements of this release, and our 2022 annual report on Form 20-F published on 2 March 2023 under Operating and financial review and prospects-Risk factors.
Certain statements herein that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements reflect Nokia's current expectations and views of future developments and include statements regarding: A) expectations, plans, benefits or outlook related to our strategies, product launches, growth management, licenses, sustainability and other ESG targets, operational key performance indicators and decisions on market exits; B) expectations, plans or benefits related to future performance of our businesses (including the expected impact, timing and duration of potential global pandemics and the general or regional macroeconomic conditions on our businesses, our supply chain and our customers’ businesses) and any future dividends and other distributions of profit; C) expectations and targets regarding financial performance and results of operations, including market share, prices, net sales, income, margins, cash flows, the timing of receivables, operating expenses, provisions, impairments, taxes, currency exchange rates, hedging, investment funds, inflation, product cost reductions, competitiveness, revenue generation in any specific region, and licensing income and payments; D) ability to execute, expectations, plans or benefits related to changes in organizational structure and operating model; E) impact on revenue with respect to litigation/renewal discussions; and F) any statements preceded by or including "continue", “believe”, “commit”, “estimate”, “expect”, “aim”, “influence”, "will”, “target”, “likely”, “intend”, “may”, “could”, “would” or similar expressions. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, which could cause our actual results to differ materially from such statements. These statements are based on management’s best assumptions and beliefs in light of the information currently available to them. These forward-looking statements are only predictions based upon our current expectations and views of future events and developments and are subject to risks and uncertainties that are difficult to predict because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that will occur in the future. Factors, including risks and uncertainties that could cause these differences, include those risks and uncertainties identified in the Risk Factors above.
At Nokia, we create technology that helps the world act together.
As a B2B technology innovation leader, we are pioneering networks that sense, think and act by leveraging our work across mobile, fixed and cloud networks. In addition, we create value with intellectual property and long-term research, led by the award-winning Nokia Bell Labs.
Service providers, enterprises and partners worldwide trust Nokia to deliver secure, reliable and sustainable networks today – and work with us to create the digital services and applications of the future.
I came here 25 years ago to begin study for the priesthood. October 1998 was a heady time, the 20th anniversary of John Paul II’s papacy. Things were different this year, when the synod on synodality came to town. It was Pope Francis’ signature initiative: a sort of corporate retreat for several hundred bishops and ecclesiocrats to consider how to make the Catholic Church more relevant—to what wasn’t clear.
Copyright ©2023 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 87990cbe856818d5eddac44c7b1cdeb8
Finland-based mobile company Nokia is planning to cut between 9,000 to 14,000 jobs amid a sales slump and reduced demand for 5G equipment, it said on Thursday. The higher end of these cuts is likely to impact around 16% of the company's current global workforce of 86,000.
The layoffs are part of cost-cutting measures to reduce expenses by 400 million euros, or $421 million, in 2024 and a further 300 million euros in 2025.
The company wants to reduce total costs by 1.2 billion euros by 2026.
In a separate statement, Pekka Lundmark, the CEO of Espoo-based Nokia, said that the company's third-quarter sales of 4.9 billion euros had declined by 15% compared to the previous year due to macroeconomic challenges and higher interest rates.
The company reported operating profits of 424 million euros in the third quarter, a 36% drop from the same period last year.
"Resetting the cost base is a necessary step to adjust to market uncertainty and to secure our long-term profitability and competitiveness," Lundmark said.
Nokia — which sold its mobile phone business to Microsoft in 2014 — expects to meet the lower end of its sales targets in the third quarter, which were set in the range of 23.2 billion to 24.6 billion euros.
Nokia also slashed its outlook for the overall mobile networks market in 2023 and is now expecting a 9% reduction, compared to a previous forecast of a 2% drop. The company's slowing 5G growth in India could no longer compensate for the similar slowdown in North America, said Lundmark.
A Nokia spokesperson directed Insider to the company statement in response to a request for comment.
Nokia new logo displayed on mobile, with Nokia logo on screen.
Nurphoto | Nurphoto | Getty Images
Nokia on Thursday said it would cut up to 14,000 jobs as part of a cost reduction plan following a plunge in third-quarter earnings.
The Finnish telecommunications giant said that it will reduce its cost base and increase operation efficiency to "address the challenging market environment."
It is targeting to lower its cost base on a gross basis from 2023 by between 800 million euros ($842.5 billion) and 1.2 billion euros by the end of 2026.
This will reduce the number of employees currently from 86,000 to between 72,000 and 77,000.
The substantial layoffs come after Nokia reported third-quarter net sales declined 20% year-on-year to 4.98 billion euros. Profit over the period plunged by 69% year-on-year to 133 million euros.
One of the world's largest telecommunications equipment makers, Nokia has been facing headwinds from a slowing global economy and from infrastructure spending reductions made by mobile operators.
Sales from Nokia's biggest unit by revenue, its mobile networks business, declined 24% year-on-year to 2.16 billion euros, with operating profit for the division diving 64% year-on-year.
Nokia said this was mainly driven by declines in North America. The company also described sale volumes in key market India as "moderated," as 5G deployments "normalize." 5G is next-generation mobile internet that promises faster speeds, and Nokia is part of India's rollout of the technology.
Cost cutting measures have also taken place in the U.S. this year, particularly with carriers such as Verizon and AT&T.
Nokia CEO Pekka Lundmark said in a Thursday statement that the decline in mobile networks revenue was owed to "some moderation in the pace of 5G deployment in India which meant the growth there was no longer enough to offset the slowdown in North America."
The company still expects full-year net sales in a range between 23.2 billion euros and 24.6 billion euros, sticking to its forecast.
"I remain confident in the fundamental drivers of our business," Lundmark said.
"Data traffic growth continues, the 5G rollout is still only around 25% complete, excluding China, and networks will continued investment. Cloud computing and AI revolutions will not happen without significant investment in networks that have vastly improved capabilities."
Nokia's numbers come after Sweden's Ericsson released third-quarter results on Wednesday, which showed a decline in revenue and similar issues in North America.
Ericsson CEO Borje Ekholm warned in a Wednesday statement that the "underlying uncertainty impacting" its mobile networks business will persist into 2024, casting doubt over a recovery for telecommunications equipment makers.
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