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In an EVPN solution, what is the purpose of the Ethernet A-D per EVI (EAD
per EVI) route?
A. It identifies the Ethernet VPN instance for a specific route.
B. It provides information about the capabilities of an Ethernet segment.
C. It specifies the next hop for the route.
D. It carries information about Ethernet segment membership within an EV
D. It carries information about Ethernet segment membership within an EV
Explanation: The Ethernet A-D per EVI (EAD per EVI) route in an EVPN
solution carries information about Ethernet segment membership within an
Ethernet VPN instance (EVI). It allows devices within the EVPN network to
discover and learn about other devices and their associated Ethernet segments
within a specific EVI, facilitating proper connectivity and communication. Question: 61
In an EVPN solution, what is the purpose of the IP Virtual Gateway (IP-VG)
extended community attribute?
A. It identifies the Ethernet VPN instance for a specific route.
B. It associates IP routes with a virtual gateway.
C. It specifies the next hop for the route.
D. It provides information about the capabilities of an Ethernet segment. Answer: B
Explanation: The IP Virtual Gateway (IP-VG) extended community attribute in
an EVPN solution is used to associate IP routes with a virtual gateway. It helps
in the proper identification and forwarding of IP traffic to the appropriate
virtual gateway within the EVPN network. Question: 62
Which EVPN route type is responsible for advertising multicast Ethernet
A. Type 3
B. Type 4
C. Type 6
D. Type 5 Answer: D
Explanation: EVPN Type 5 routes are responsible for advertising multicast
Ethernet segments in an Ethernet Virtual Private Network (EVPN) solution.
These routes carry information about multicast group addresses and associated
Ethernet segments, enabling proper multicast forwarding within the EVPN
network. Question: 63
In an EVPN solution, what is the purpose of the IP Prefix route type?
A. It identifies the Ethernet VPN instance for a specific route.
B. It provides information about the capabilities of an Ethernet segment.
C. It carries information about IP prefixes associated with an Ethernet segment.
D. It specifies the next hop for the route. Answer: C
Explanation: The IP Prefix route type in an EVPN solution carries information
about IP prefixes associated with an Ethernet segment. It aids in the proper
routing and forwarding of IP traffic within the EVPN network, ensuring
efficient connectivity and communication. Question: 64
Which EVPN route type is responsible for advertising IP multicast group
A. Type 3
B. Type 4
C. Type 6
D. Type 5 Answer: C
Explanation: EVPN Type 6 routes are responsible for advertising IP multicast
group addresses in an Ethernet Virtual Private Network (EVPN) solution. These
routes carry information about IP multicast group addresses and associated
Ethernet segments, enabling proper multicast forwarding within the EVPN
$13$10 Question: 65
In an EVPN solution, what is the purpose of the Route Distinguisher (RD)
extended community attribute?
A. It indicates the administrative value of the route.
B. It identifies the Ethernet VPN instance for a specific route.
C. It specifies the next hop for the route.
D. It provides unique identification for VPN routes. Answer: B
Explanation: The Route Distinguisher (RD) extended community attribute in an
EVPN solution is used to identify the Ethernet VPN instance for a specific
route. It helps in the proper classification and separation of routes within the
EVPN network, ensuring that each route is associated with the correct VPN
$13$10 Question: 66
Which of the following statements about the EVPN data plane is FALSE?
D. 4 Answer: B
There are two MAC-VRFs in the exhibit, one for each EVI. A MAC-VRF is a logical entity that contains the MAC
forwarding information for a given EVI1.
Reference: Ethernet Virtual Private Networks (EVPNs) Question: 67
Which of the following statements about multi-homing for a Layer-2 service is TRUE?
A. In the single-active mode, the CE requires a LAG to be configured between the CE and all attached PEs.
B. In the single-active mode, the CE forwards traffic to all attached PES and receives traffic from a single P
C. In the all-active mode, all PES attached to a CE can forward traffic to and from the C
D. The Nokia 7750 SR supports a CE being multi-homed to a maximum of two PEs. Answer: B
In the all-active mode, all PEs attached to a CE can forward traffic to and from the CE. This provides load balancing
and redundancy for the CE. The CE does not require a LAG to be configured between the CE and all attached PEs1.
Reference: Ethernet Virtual Private Networks (EVPNs)
Which of the following statements about PE-to-PE MAC address advertisement is FALSE?
A. The service distinguisher (label or VNI) is advertised with the MAC/IP EVPN update.
B. Route targets are used to uniquely identify routes between EVIS in the case of MAC address overlaps.
C. A PE uses a single MP-BGP session with a remote peer to exchange the routes for all EVIs.
D. A PE advertises locally-learned MAC addresses to remote PES using EVPN type-2 routes. Answer: B
Route targets are not used to uniquely identify routes between EVIs in the case of MAC address overlaps. Route
targets are used to control the import and export of routes between different EVIs or VRFs. The service distinguisher
(label or VNI) is used to uniquely identify each service1.
Reference: Ethernet Virtual Private Networks (EVPNs) Question: 69
Which of the following statements about EVPN Layer-3 services that utilize the interface-full model is TRUE?
A. EVPN MAC/IP routes are used to advertise the IP prefixes of subnets attached to a VPR
B. VPRN instances are interconnected using a supplementary broadcast domain (SBD) VPL
C. Intra-subnet traffic is carried over the tunnels provided by the SBD VPL
D. The MAC/IP routing information is used to populate the VPRN routing table at the remote PEs. Answer: B
In the interface-full model, VPRN instances are interconnected using a supplementary broadcast domain (SBD) VPLS.
Intra-subnet traffic is carried over the tunnels provided by the SBD VPLS. The MAC/IP routing information is not
used to populate the VPRN routing table at the remote PEs, but rather to populate the FDB of the SBD VPLS2.
Reference: Nokia Ethernet Virtual Private Network Services Course | Nokia Question: 70
Based upon the exhibit,
Which of the following statements about the forwarding of BUM traffic is FALSE?
A. PE3 replicates the traffic and sends it to all PES in its VPLS I flooding list.
B. PE3 adds an ESI label to packets forwarded to PEI because PEI is connected to the same Ethernet segment.
C. PEI forwards the traffic received from PE3 to CEI, and CEI discards it based upon the ESI label.
D. PE2 decapsulates the packets received from PE3 and forwards the frames to CE2. Answer: B
PE3 does not add an ESI label to packets forwarded to PE1 because PE1 is connected to the same Ethernet segment.
PE3 adds an ESI label only to packets forwarded to PEs that are not connected to the same Ethernet segment, such as
Reference: Ethernet Virtual Private Networks (EVPNs) Question:
In the exhibit,
MACI moves from PEI to PE2.
Which of the following actions related to this MAC address mobility is performed?
A. CEI generates an update message to PEI withdrawing its MA
B. PEI generates an update message to remote PES identifying the new location of CE
C. PE2 advertises a MAC/IP route for MACI with a sequence number higher than that received from PE
D. PE3 waits to receive a data packet from CEI to update its FDB entry for MAC Answer: B
PE2 advertises a MAC/IP route for MAC1 with a sequence number higher than that received from PE1. This indicates
that MAC1 has moved from PE1 to PE2 and triggers a MAC withdrawal message from PE1 to remote PEs. CE1 does
not generate an update message to PE1 withdrawing its MAC, nor does PE1 generate an update message to remote
PEs identifying the new location of CE11.
Reference: Ethernet Virtual Private Networks (EVPNs) Question: 71
What are EVPN inclusive multicast Ethernet tag (IMET) routes used for?
A. To advertise the MAC or MAC/IP addresses of locally-learned hosts
B. To advertise the redundancy mode of a local Ethernet segment
C. To discover all PES participating in the same VPIS service
D. To discover all PES attached to the same Ethernet segment Answer: C
EVPN inclusive multicast Ethernet tag (IMET) routes are used to discover all PEs participating in the same VPIS
service. These routes are also used to build the flooding list for BUM traffic. Question: 72
Based on the exhibit below, which of the following statements is FALSE?
When forwarding BUM traffic, the local PE must replicate the traffic and send it as unicast to the advertising
A. The MPLS label 524284 presented indicates the service label value that the neighbor 10.10.10.2 uses to forward
BUM traffic to PE
B. When forwarding BUM traffic, the local PE uses an MPLS transport tunnel towards the advertising neighbor.
C. The IMET route is imported by a local VPLS configured with a route-target value of 65100:10. Answer: A
When forwarding BUM traffic, the local PE does not replicate the traffic and send it as unicast to the advertising
neighbor. Instead, the local PE uses an MPLS transport tunnel towards the advertising neighbor and sends the traffic
with an MPLS label that indicates the service. Question: 73
Based on the exhibit below, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. PE2 advertises this BGP update for a locally-configured VPWS service.
B. PEI uses this BGP update to build the flooding list of the associated service.
C. PEI uses MPLS label 524284 when sending traffic destined to
D. Neighbor 10.10.10.2 is connected to a multi-homed C Answer: B
PE1 uses this BGP update to build the flooding list of the associated service. The update contains an IMET route that
indicates that neighbor 10.10.10.2 is participating in a VPLS service with a network identifier of 10.
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Modified Angoff Method
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Fri, 16 Jun 2023 11:37:00 -0500entext/htmlhttps://www.isa.org/certification/exam-proceduresPrepare for the CAP Exam
ISA offers a variety of resources to help you prepare for the Certified Automation Professional (CAP®) exam.
The CAP Study Guide is a comprehensive self-study resource that contains a list of the CAP domains and tasks, 75 review mock test complete with justifications. References that were used for each study guide question are also provided with the question. The Study Guide also includes a recommended list of publications that you can use to do further study on specific domains. Order the CAP Study Guide.
A CAP review course is available in several formats as preparation for taking the certification exam. This course is offered by ISA and can also be offered at your location.
ISA also has a variety of training courses that would be helpful in preparing for CAP. NOTE: The CAP exam fee is not included with the CAP review courses (EC00, EC00V, EC00E, and EC00M). Visit the Automation Professional Training page for a complete list.
Basic Continuous Control: Process Instrumentation, Analytical Instrumentation, Continuous Control, Control Valves, Analog Communications, Control System Documentation, Control Equipment
Basic Discrete, Sequencing, and Manufacturing Control: Discrete Input & Output Devices and General Manufacturing Measurements, Discrete and Sequencing Control, Motor and Drive Control, Motion Control
Advanced Control Topics: Process Modeling, Advanced Process Control, Control of Batch Processes, Environmental, Environmental Monitoring, Building Automation
Reliability, Safety, and Electrical: Alarm Management, Reliability, Process Safety and Safety Instrumented Systems, Electrical Installations, Safe Use and Application of Electrical Apparatus
Integration and Software: Digital Communications, Industrial Networks, Manufacturing Execution Systems and Business Integration, System and Network Security, Operator Interface, Data Management, Software, Custom Software
Deployment and Maintenance: Operator Training, Checkout, System Testing, and Startup, Troubleshooting, Maintenance, Long-Term Support and System Management
Work Structure: Automation Benefits and Project Justifications, Project Management and Execution, Interpersonal Skills
CAP sample Questions
Questions on the exam were derived from the real practice of automation professionals as outlined in the CAP Role Delineation Study and job task analysis. Using interviews, surveys, observation, and group discussions, ISA worked with automation professionals to delineate critical job components to develop exam specifications to determine the number of questions related to each domain and task tested. This rigorous program development and ongoing maintenance process ensures that CAP certification accurately reflects the skills and knowledge needed to excel as an automation professional.
The following six questions were taken from the CAP exam question item bank and serve as examples of the question type and question content found on the CAP exam.
The method by which the tasks and hazards associated with a machine or process are analyzed is known as:
A. Risk assessment.
B. Machine assessment.
C. Risk reduction.
D. Risk abatement.
To test controller tuning or prototype new control strategies offline, the model should be a(an):
A. Tie-back (loopback) simulation.
B. Artificial neural network.
C. Dynamic process simulation.
D. Steady state process simulation.
The temperature measurement with the BEST repeatability and resolution is the:
B. Resistance temperature detector (RTD).
C. Dial thermometer.
D. Capillary system.
Which of the following is NOT a variable speed drive setup parameter?
A. Acceleration rate.
B. Motor winding type.
C. Output frequency.
D. Maximum speed.
A complete test plan for system integration testing MUST include:
A. Comments for the application programmer.
B. Multiple test cases for each mode of operation.
C. At least five test cases for each test.
D. Expected results for each test case.
Frequency of maintenance should be determined by:
A. Failure rates of components.
B. Availability of personnel and parts.
C. Management targets for efficiency and productivity.
D. Effectiveness of maintenance personnel.
Sample Questions Answer Key
Exam Content Outline
Domain 1, Task 4
Domain 2, Task 2
Domain 3, Task 3
Domain 4, Task 7
Domain 5, Task 5
Domain 6, Task 2
Wed, 14 Jul 2021 04:33:00 -0500entext/htmlhttps://www.isa.org/certification/cap/prepare-for-the-cap-examExam Information
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Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:20:00 -0500entext/htmlhttps://www.slu.edu/law/academics/registrar/exam-information/index.phpNokia supercharges AI with Ultra Ethernet
Nokia supercharges AI with Ultra Ethernet
Nokia working with Ultra Ethernet Consortium to develop an open networking standard to address demanding networking requirements of high-performance computing (HPC) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) workloads
Nokia leadership in Ethernet networking and standards development to help to shape Ultra Ethernet as highly compatible, low cost and interoperable part of AI and HPC application stacks
21 November 2023
Espoo, Finland – Nokia today announced its support for the Ultra Ethernet Consortium (UEC), a group that brings together companies for industry-wide cooperation to develop Ethernet specifications and software APIs that empower AI and HPC environments. Nokia will bring its technology leadership in building super scalable, low latency deterministic networks for data centers and data center interconnect to the definition of the Ultra Ethernet standard being developed by the UEC.
The AI revolution is not only driving the need for expanded computing resources, it’s also driving changes to networks, especially those connecting computing clusters for HPC used in AI training and inference. The near-universal protocol for data networks, Ethernet is the ideal place to start for meeting the broad performance needs of AI. With Nokia’s support, the UEC will develop new standards, best practices and architectures for specialized AI data center networks.
As a leader in providing super scalable, low latency network solutions for data center and data center interconnect, Nokia will bring its extensive expertise to bear on defining Ultra Ethernet. The company will leverage its deep understanding of web, enterprise and service provider networks by contributing to several UEC working groups, where it will help ensure that Ultra Ethernet will meet the critical needs of all its customers.
J Metz, Chair of the Ultra Ethernet Consortium, said: “The UEC welcomes Nokia’s deep experience and expertise in building some of the world’s highest-performing networks. Together with a broad ecosystem of consortium partners, our goal is to provide an open, interoperable standard that allows networks to be upgraded easily and inexpensively to meet the needs of AI and HPC applications. With strong partners like Nokia, we know the UEC will drive the kind of standard to ensure broad AI adoption.”
Vach Kompella, Head of Nokia’s IP business, said: “Generative AI and ML are revolutionizing every aspect of our customers’ businesses. Our networking solutions advance their ability to deploy AI quickly and pursue exciting new use cases and applications. With our extensive footprint in communications, enterprise and webscale networks, we are focused on making Ultra Ethernet a highly compatible, low cost and interoperable part of future AI and HPC application stacks.”
At Nokia, we create technology that helps the world act together.
As a B2B technology innovation leader, we are pioneering networks that sense, think and act by leveraging our work across mobile, fixed and cloud networks. In addition, we create value with intellectual property and long-term research, led by the award-winning Nokia Bell Labs.
Service providers, enterprises and partners worldwide trust Nokia to deliver secure, reliable and sustainable networks today – and work with us to create the digital services and applications of the future.
Tue, 21 Nov 2023 02:00:00 -0600entext/htmlhttps://www.morningstar.com/news/globe-newswire/1000900382/nokia-supercharges-ai-with-ultra-ethernetDoctoral Candidacy Examination Instructions
All students participating in a Master of Science or Doctor of Philosophy degree program must complete a thesis or dissertation proposal for approval by the members of the student's steering committee. The major professor and each of the graduate steering committee members must approve the proposal using the Graduate School'sproposal approval form. MS thesis proposals should generally be completed two semesters prior to defense of the thesis; PhD dissertation proposals must be completed to achieve candidacy (in concert or in parallel with the candidacy examination process). Each Department/Program may have requirements that exceed those specified broadly in this policy; however, they must be consistent with the Graduate School's requirements. Departmental requirements beyond the minimum stated here must be specified in writing and submitted to the Graduate School as well as listed in departmental web pages. It is the responsibility of the student to be aware of, and comply with, all Graduate School and Departmental dissertation proposal requirements.
The objectives of this examination are to confirm the student's breadth and depth of knowledge in their chosen field of study as well as the student's understanding of the scientific process. The doctoral candidacy examination should be administered upon completion of the majority of coursework, and successful completion of the exam signifies readiness to undertake the research and dissertation component of the doctoral program. This examination must be taken within three years from the first date of matriculation, and at least one year prior to the dissertation defense.
Upon the recommendation of the appropriate Department Chairperson, the Associate Provost for Instruction and Office of the Graduate School appoints the doctoral candidacy examination committee consisting of the student's major professor, the student's steering committee and an additional faculty member from an appropriate area. Additionally, the Associate Provost for Instruction and Office of the Graduate School appoints a committee chair who is not from the department of the student's degree program. The role of the examination committee chair is to manage the examination, ensure its integrity and represent the interests of the faculty and student.
The examination must have both written and oral components, described below.
The purpose of the written exam is to assess the readiness of the student to move beyond the coursework stage of the doctoral program, into the development of a substantial research project and dissertation. Traditionally, questioning should verify sufficient breadth and depth of knowledge to successfully undertake such research, and then communicate the results in a scholarly manner appropriate to the discipline.
To initiate the examination process, the examining committee shall convene at a planning meeting with the student. During the first part of the planning meeting, the committee determines the form and schedule for the process and establishes the date for the oral component (reported on form 6E). The student is then excused from the meeting and the committee develops and discusses the exam content. There are three alternative forms for the written component, as follows:
Form 1: Each member of the committee (excluding the chair) submits one distinct question, set of questions, or problem related to the objectives of the exam. The questions are discussed and agreed upon at the planning meeting. The major professor administers the written examination. Typically, each question or set of questions must be completed within a prescribed period of time, not to exceed approximately 8 hours each, with additional time permitted for reasonable breaks, meals, etc.. No more than one question or set of questions should be administered per 24 hours. Upon completion by the student, the examination questions are reviewed and graded by the committee members who prepared them. The committee then collectively reviews the entire examination.
Form 2: The student prepares a written report on a course or problem assigned collectively by the examining committee as a whole. The course or problem must meet the objectives of the examination and its content cannot be directly related to the student's dissertation research topic. The student has approximately one month to develop a thorough understanding of the assigned course and prepare a written report. The report is reviewed by the committee members and committee chair.
Form 3: The student prepares and defends a written proposal of future research likely to be carried out during their Ph.D. project. This research prospectus must be presented to the examining committee two weeks prior to the oral candidacy exam and should include preliminary studies supporting the feasibility of the proposed research. The exam will test the candidate's understanding of concepts directly related to his or her immediate area of research, knowledge of prior related research that has been conducted by others, their ability to design and interpret experiments in this area, and capacity to think and write independently and to present work plans orally in a clear and rational manner. The report is reviewed by the committee members and committee chair.Form 3 is availableonlyto doctoral students in the Department of Chemistry and Environmental Resources Engineering.
At least 3 business days prior to the oral exam, the major professor shall confirm with the chair of the examining committee that the oral examination should proceed as scheduled. The written exam is thus considered to be "provisionally successful." If the written examination componentdoes notmeet the standards established for the candidacy exam, the committee has two options.
If the deficiencies are relatively minor, or in the case of Form 1, limited to a minority of the written questions, the oral exam may be postponed by the Office of the Graduate School at the recommendation of the chair of the exam committee. The student may then be provided with an additional time period, the length of which should be determined by the full examination committee in consultation with the chair, to address deficiencies identified in the written examination. This time period should be no less than 8 hours (typically for Form 1), and may extend up to 5 business days for Forms 2 and 3. This action is treated as a suspension and extension of the written exam "in progress," and, if ultimately successful, does not constitute a failure of the entire exam, nor count toward the limited number of attempts prescribed by Graduate School policy below.
If the deficiencies are severe, the major professor, in consultation with the examination committee may decide to fail the candidate without performing the oral component. This latter action does constitute a failure of the candidacy exam in its entirety, anddoes counttoward the limited number of attempts prescribed by Graduate School policy below.
The purpose of the oral examination is to further confirm the fitness of the student to apply the skills and knowledge acquired to date toward a successful and significant research project. The oral examination provides the opportunity for the student to demonstrate their ability to think synthetically and critically in a manner conveying their readiness to commence the dissertation project.
The oral component of the candidacy examination is typically scheduled for a period of approximately two hours, and is broken in to two distinct rounds of questioning. The first round, lasting approximately 60 minutes, consists of questions from each of the members of the examination committee, including the chair should they choose to contribute questions. Time should be shared equitably among the questioners, with interjections or interruptions by other questioners prohibited during the first round. The second round of questions may be more flexibly structured, with broader discussion and interchange among questioners is encouraged.
Any member of the faculty may be a silent observer for the oral component. The candidate may also invite a silent student observer to attend the oral examination. At the completion of the oral examination, the candidate and observers are excused from the room and the examination committee determines whether the student has successfully completed the oral component of the exam and achieved the status of "doctoral candidate." The committee chair has the option to vote. Unanimous agreement is required to pass the student on the first attempt. If less than unanimous agreement is reached, the student is considered to have failed the first candidacy examination. A student who fails the first candidacy exam may request a second exam, which must take place no more than one year from the date of the first examination. The second candidacy examination may, or may not include a new written component, at the discretion of the student's major professor and examination committee, in consultation with the examination chair. At the second exam, the student has passed if there is not more than one negative vote. A student who is determined to have failed the second candidacy examination is terminated from the doctoral program.
Scheduling the Candidacy Exam
To schedule a doctoral candidacy examination, the student should complete the following steps:
In consultation with your major professor, completeForm 6Bfor your Department Chairperson to review, sign, and forward to the Office of Instruction and Graduate Studies. Form 6B should be submitted according to theacademic year deadlinesfor defense exams.
The Associate Provost for Instruction and Office of the Graduate School will assign a faculty member outside of your degree program to serve as chair of your examination committee. When you receive a copy of Form 6C which officially appoints your examination committee, you must consult with all members of your committee (major professor, steering committee, additional examiner, and defense chair) to arrange a mutually convenient date, time, and location for a planning meeting.
You must inform the Office of Instruction and Graduate Studies of the agreed upon date, time, and location for your planning meeting at least two weeks in advance of the date. This Office will confirm in Form 6D these arrangements with all concerned individuals.
At the planning meeting, your exam chair and the committee complete Form 6E, the committee chair will sign it and return it to the Office of Instruction and Graduate Studies, which will distribute copies to you and the committee.
If you are using Form 1 of the examination, you and your major professor should arrange for a time and location to administer the questions.
The last step is to meet with your committee and complete the oral examination at the designated date. At the end of the oral examination, your committee will ask you and any observers to leave the room while it determines if you have satisfactorily completed the doctoral candidacy examination. You will be invited back to receive the decision of the committee which will also be reported on Form 6F and returned by the exam chair to the Office of Instruction and Graduate Studies.
Thu, 25 Aug 2022 07:07:00 -0500entext/htmlhttps://www.esf.edu/graduate/programs/docexam.phpExamination advice
A typical examination question in Mathematics will have several parts to it. Some parts (most usually at the beginning of the question) test your knowledge, by asking you to reproduce "bookwork", i.e. material presented in the lectures. Really, these parts test how well you've revised. Occasionally, especially in certain more advanced courses, there are entire questions that are bookwork. In some courses, some pieces of bookwork come up in the exam almost every year. In other courses, hardly any bookwork is set explicitly.
Tip: Figure out which pieces of bookwork come up most frequently, and make sure you can answer those questions easily and quickly.
You would be surprised how many poor attempts at routine bookwork questions we see every year. These are the parts of the questions that we expect students to be able to do.
Other parts of examination questions involve a "problem". In a "Methods" course, this will typically involve you applying a known technique from the course, and again this is something we expect you to be able to do. In a Pure Mathematics course, you might be asked to prove a result, or to apply a result in a particular setting.
Tip: Sometimes (but certainly not always!), the first part of the question is intended as a big hint as to how you should approach the second part.
Many exam questions, especially those that are otherwise very routine, have a last part (a "rider") which is more challenging than the rest of the question. This is quite deliberate, and the intention is to test whether you've really understood the material.
Tip: Do try all the riders (they're not always so hard after all!) but don't waste too much time on them in an exam if there are other things you can tackle instead.
Students sometimes seem to be annoyed that they have to do something clever to get 100% on a question. Don't forget, in many other subjects it's practically impossible to score 100% on a question!
Tip: Make sure you've answered all the parts of the question. Sometimes you're asked to do seven or eight things, and it's easy to overlook one.
Fri, 28 Aug 2020 05:22:00 -0500en-GBtext/htmlhttps://www.lse.ac.uk/Mathematics/Current-Students/Examination-advice'Unsolvable' exam question meant for 11-year-old leaves adults defeated
A baffling exam question meant to test 11-year-old students has been leaving adults defeated - and the 'unsolvable puzzle will make you glad you're no longer in school
The question has left people baffed (stock photo)(
Image: Getty Images)
A mind-bending maths question designed for school children has left adults stumped - with some saying the puzzle is completely 'unsolvable'.
Do you remember sitting your maths exams at school and scratching your head at the strange real-life quiz questions you'd be presented with? The questions are designed to encourage students to use logic to pick out the important parts of the often long-winded story and then figure out which maths discipline they need to use to find the correct answer.
They're not always easy and for many of us, they will have been the least favourite part of any exam. And it's no different for kids today either, as one maths question designed for 11-year-old students has been leaving children and adults alike baffled as they struggle to find the answer.
The question came from a Chinese exam paper that was designed for schoolchildren aged 11 in 2018. According to the BBC, a translation of the question asks: "If a ship had 26 sheep and 10 goats onboard, how old is the ship's captain?"
That's it. That's all the information you're given for this question - so try and answer it. Surely there must be some way to work it out, even though it certainly feels like you haven't been given enough details about the imaginary ship and its captain to truly reach a solution.
Other people who tried to work out the correct answer thought the same, and thanks to the South China Morning Post, we can even see some of the answers that clever students gave. One pupil argued: "The captain is 36 years old. He is quite narcissistic, so the number of animals corresponds to his age."
Another defied the question writers and refused to answer, as they said: "The number of the sheep and goats is irrelevant to the captain's age," and a third dejected student simply wrote: "The captain's age is ... I don't know. I can't solve this."
One answer from an adult on social media also tried to work the puzzle out using very sound logic, as they said: "In China, if you're driving a ship that cargo you need to have possessed a boat license for five years. The minimum age for getting a boat's license is 23, so he's at least 28."
But what is the correct answer? Well, there isn't one. Yep, that's right. Unfortunately, when we said this puzzle was "unsolvable", we meant it. As infuriating as it is, apparently the whole point of the question is that there's no way to work out the answer, and students will get the question right on their exam if they explain they don't have enough information to provide a solution.
In a statement, Shunqing Education Department confirmed there was no answer, as they said: "The role of education is not to produce standardised spare parts ... Each answer can reflect a different personality. A question that can have different answers is a good question."
Sat, 18 Nov 2023 01:32:00 -0600entext/htmlhttps://www.mirror.co.uk/news/weird-news/unsolvable-exam-question-meant-11-31449550?int_source=nbaWhat the GRE Test Is and How to PrepareNo result found, try new keyword!But one significant change coming in September is a shorter test that will be completed in 1 hour and 58 minutes. The analytical writing section will shrink to just one question – "Analyze an ...Mon, 25 Jun 2018 03:17:00 -0500https://www.usnews.com/education/best-graduate-schools/articles/what-the-gre-test-is-and-how-to-prepareNextGen Bar exam MC Questions Only Require Takers To Spot Issues, And Not Apply the Rules
In law schools, generations of students have been taught the IRAC model to answer legal questions. First, students must spot the issue–what legal doctrine do the facts implicate? Second, students must state the rule–what particular legal precedent, statute, or principle governs this conflict? Third, students must then apply the rule to these facts–under a particular legal standard, how should the court rule? Fourth, students must state the conclusion–who wins, the plaintiff or the defendant?
Of course, there are many variations of IRAC, and invariably, many students stop using it rigidly at some point during the second year. But the basic process–applying a rule to particular facts is a cornerstone of legal education.
That background brings me to the NextGen bar exam. I have written about this new formulation of the multistate bar exam, which will launch in some states in 2026. Justice Jay Mitchell of the Alabama Supreme Court already expressed a concern that the National Conference of Bar Examiners (NCBE) is placing DEI concerns over competence. (Critics contend that the bar exam is racist, and should be eliminated). I have another concern, which may be related–the NCBE seems to be making the exam substantially easier.
The NCBE released a batch of questions to demonstrate how the NextGen exam will function. The multiple choice questions reflect a new approach. Rather than forcing students to memorize particular rules, and then apply them, the new questions only ask students to spot the issue. The thinking is that practicing attorneys do not actually have to memorize particular rules, or even know how to apply them. So long as they can recognize what doctrine is implicated, a quick query on WestLaw, Lexis, and (lord help us) ChatGPT can locate the particular rule, and then the lawyer can figure out how to apply that rule to the facts (or just ask ChatGPT to do it). In short, bar examinees will not have to know the rule, apply the rule, or conclude the case. They only have to spot the issue. Only I, not RAC.
Consider this Criminal Procedure question:
You are a criminal defense lawyer representing a client who has been charged with fentanyl possession. The police found the fentanyl in the guest bedroom of the client's uncle's house when responding to a noise complaint at the house. Before entering the house, the officers knocked on the door. When the uncle answered the door, the officers asked if they could look inside the house, and the uncle agreed. The client did not live in the house and was not there at the time of the search. The client had stayed in the guest bedroom of the house two nights prior to the search. The uncle told the officers that the client was the last person to have slept in that room.
You are considering filing a motion to suppress the fentanyl under the Fourth Amendment.
Which of the following legal Topics are the most important for you to research to determine the likelihood of success on a motion to suppress? Select two.
A. Consent search. B. Exigent circumstances. C. Hot pursuit. D. Probable cause. E.Reasonable suspicion. F. Standing.
The correct answer here is A (Consent Search) and F (Standing). Those are the legal Topics that are "most important" to research. First, would the Uncle have authority to consent to the search? Second, would the criminal defendant have standing to challenge the Uncle's consent? Now the examinee does not actually have to answer whether the motion to suppress would be granted. Who cares if the Uncle could consent to the search? It doesn't matter if the defendant has standing. The test taker doesn't even have to know the relevant rules for consent searches and standing. All she has to do is spot the issue. I suppose the NCBE thinks that a first-year lawyer can simply enter "consent search" and "standing" into ChatGPT, knowing nothing more, and download the answer. I am not confident anyone can figure out these doctrines on the fly.
Let's try a Property question.
You are representing a client in a dispute with a neighbor. The client owns a single-family home with several acres of surrounding land. Recently, the client noticed that his neighbor had built a fence that extends onto the client's land. The client is unsure when the fence was built because that part of the client's land is obscured by large trees. When the client contacted the neighbor about the fence, the neighbor claimed that she did not know the location of the property line. The client has shown you a accurate survey of the property that confirms the encroachment and has asked you whether he has a claim against the neighbor.
Which of the following legal Topics are the most important for you to research before advising the client? Select two.
A. Adverse possession. B. Conversion. C. Implied easement. D. License. E. Negligence. F. Trespass.
The answers here are, once again, A (Adverse Possession) and F (Trespass). The question presented is whether the neighbor's fence encroaches (trespasses) on the client's property, and if there is an encroachment, has the neighbor acquired the right to do so through adverse possession. This question is complicated, because trees obscure the boundary (affecting the open and notorious prong), and the neighbor may not have even known if he was obtaining land through adverse possession (in the lingo, did he have the right claim of right?). I could see a student struggling with applying the rules to this question. But on the bar, an applicant only needs to spot the relevant doctrine, and pray they can figure stuff out when in practice.
I worry that these questions are far too simple. If the states end up adopting the NextGen exam, they should increase the cut score (the relevant percentage needed to pass the exam). Finally, I worry how this exam will trickle down to law school pedagogy. Will professors shift their coverage to no longer require memorizing and applying the rules–only spotting issues? It's true that all lawyers have sophisticated tools at their disposal to research different topics. This new format seems to be a surrender to this technology–don't require students to do what they don't have to. I, for one, do not plan to change how I teach for this exam. And state supreme court justices should take a very long pause before adopting this new exam.
Wed, 12 Jul 2023 02:47:00 -0500Josh Blackmanen-UStext/htmlhttps://reason.com/volokh/2023/07/12/nextgen-bar-exam-mc-questions-only-require-takers-to-spot-issues-and-not-apply-the-rules/'Unsolvable' exam question leaves Chinese students flummoxedThe question has gone viral online
An apparently unsolvable exam question on a Chinese maths paper has left both students and social media stumped.
Primary school students at a school in the Chinese district of Shunqing were faced with this question on a paper: "If a ship had 26 sheep and 10 goats onboard, how old is the ship's captain?"
The question appeared on a accurate fifth-grade level paper, intended for children around 11 years old.
Pictures of the question, along with students' valiant attempts at answers, surfaced this week on Chinese social media - where it triggered debate and quickly went viral.
Education officials later said the question was not a mistake, but meant to highlight "critical awareness".
It is not clear how many points the question (circled) was worth or if it was part of a bonus section
"The captain is at least 18 because he has to be an adult to drive the ship," one student answered.
"The captain is 36, because 26+10 is 36 and the captain wanted them to add up to his age," another guessed.
One student however, simply gave up.
"The captain's age is... I don't know. I can't solve this."
Online, however, people weren't quite as generous.
"This question makes no logical sense at all. Does the teacher even know the answer?" said one commenter on Weibo, a Chinese microblogging platform.
"If a school had 26 teachers, 10 of which weren't thinking, how old is the principal?" another asked.
Some however, defended the school - which has not been named - saying the question promoted critical thinking.
"The whole point of it is to make the students think. It's done that," one person commented.
"This question forces children to explain their thinking and gives them space to be creative. We should have more questions like this," another said.
"Some surveys show that primary school students in our country lack a sense of critical awareness in regard to mathematics," it said.
The traditional Chinese method of education heavily emphasises on note-taking and repetition, known as rote learning, which critics say hinders creative thinking.
But the department said questions like the boat one "enable students to challenge boundaries and think out of the box".
And of course, there's always that one person that has all the answers.
"The total weight of 26 sheep and 10 goat is 7,700kg, based on the average weight of each animal," said one Weibo commenter.
"In China, if you're driving a ship that has more than 5,000kg of cargo you need to have possessed a boat license for five years. The minimum age for getting a boat's license is 23, so he's at least 28."
Sun, 10 Dec 2023 13:44:00 -0600text/htmlhttps://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-42857864