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Killexams : Sair Configuration benefits - BingNews Search results Killexams : Sair Configuration benefits - BingNews Killexams : Veteran Benefits No result found, try new keyword!Veteran benefits aren't just a nice perk -- they are something you earned through service in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Space Force, Air Force or Coast Guard. But knowing what your benefits are ... Wed, 18 Sep 2019 05:30:00 -0500 en text/html Killexams : What Are the Maximum Social Security Disability Benefits?

In 2022, the estimated average Social Security disability benefit for a disabled worker receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is $1,358 per month, according to the Social Security Administration (SSA). That figure is expected to go up to $1,483 in 2023. These benefits are based on average lifetime earnings, not on household income or the severity of an individual’s disability.

If you’ve kept your annual Social Security statement, you can find what you are likely to receive in the Estimated Benefits section. The total amount that a disabled worker and their family can receive is about 150% to 180% of the disabled worker’s benefit. Eligible family members can include a spouse, divorced spouse, child, disabled child, and/or an adult child disabled before age 22.

The estimated average monthly Social Security benefits payable to a disabled worker, their spouse, and one or more children in 2023 is $2,616, which is an increase from the approximate benefit of $2,383 in 2022. These, along with other amounts, are subject to change annually based on inflation.

For a more precise indication, Social Security has an online calculator that you can use to obtain an estimate of both retirement and disability benefits for you and your family members.

Key Takeaways

  • The total amount that a disabled worker and their family can receive is about 150% to 180% of the disabled worker’s benefit.
  • There are some conditions that the Social Security Administration considers so severe that they automatically render an applicant disabled.
  • Many conditions require careful screening by the SSA.
  • There is a mandatory waiting period of five months after your disability begins before you can start receiving benefits.
  • Benefit amounts change annually based on inflation.

What Are Social Security Disability Benefits?

Social Security disability benefits come from payroll deductions required by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) to cover the cost of Social Security benefits, such as retirement and spousal and survivor benefits. Some of this funding goes into the Disability Insurance (DI) Trust Fund and pays for disability benefits.

According to the Social Security website, to qualify for Social Security disability benefits, you must have worked a certain length of time in jobs covered by Social Security. Generally, you need 40 credits, 20 of which were earned in the past 10 years, ending with the year you became disabled. You must also have a medical condition that meets Social Security’s definition of disability.

SSDI should not be confused with Supplemental Security Income (SSI), which pays benefits to those who have financial needs regardless of their work history. Although these two names sound similar, the qualifications to get the payments and what you might receive are very different.

Younger workers may qualify for SSDI with fewer credits.

Social Security Disability Evaluation Process

Though there are some conditions that the SSA considers so severe that they automatically render an applicant disabled, many conditions require careful screening, including answering these five questions:

  1. Are you currently working? If you are working, you are not blind, and your earnings average more than $1,350 per month in 2022 ($1,470 in 2023), then you will not be considered disabled. If you are not working, or if your income falls below Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA) limits, move on to question two.
  2. Is your condition severe? If Social Security determines that your condition does not interfere with basic work-related activities, then you will not be considered disabled. If your condition does interfere with basic work-related activities, move on to question three.
  3. Is your condition found in the list of disabling conditions? Social Security maintains a list of disabling medical conditions that automatically qualify you as disabled. If your condition is not one of these, then Social Security will determine if it is severe enough to qualify. If it is deemed severe enough, you will be considered disabled and your application will be approved. If not, move on to question four.
  4. Can you do the work you did previously? If your condition does not interfere with your ability to do the work that you used to do, then you will not be considered disabled. If it does, move on to question five.
  5. Can you do any other type of work? Finally, if you can’t do the work that you did previously, then Social Security will determine whether you can do some other type of work. If Social Security determines that you can adjust to other suitable work (taking into account your medical condition, age, education, previous work experience, and other factors), then you will not be considered disabled and your claim will be denied. If you cannot adjust, then your claim will be approved.

In addition, qualifying conditions must be expected to last at least one year or result in death.

There is a mandatory waiting period before disability benefits begin to disperse.

When Payments Begin

Many people believe you have to be disabled for a certain period of time before you can apply for Social Security disability benefits. That isn’t true. You can (and should) apply as soon as you believe that you are disabled.

There is a mandatory waiting period, though, before you can receive payments. According to the SSA, you will receive benefits after your sixth full month of disability. When you start getting them, whether or not they are taxable depends on your income.

How Much Does Social Security Disability Pay a Month?

SSDI benefit payments are based on each individual’s average lifetime earnings. To find out what you could get, check out the SSA’s online benefits calculator.

How Long Does Social Security Disability Last?

Normally, unless your medical condition improves, you’ll continue to receive Social Security disability payments. As some conditions do Improve over time, the SSA periodically reviews cases to make sure recipients are still eligible.

How Long After You're Approved for Disability Do You Get Your Money?

There is a waiting period. Usually, it can take five months for benefits to get paid, with the first payment arriving the sixth full month after the date the SSA determined your disability began.

So, for example, if the SSA determined that your disability began on June 15, 2022, and you applied on July 1, 2022, your first benefit would be paid for the month of December 2022.

The Bottom Line

You should apply for Social Security disability benefits as soon as you become disabled. The application process can take three to five months, according to Social Security, and counts as part of the mandatory waiting period of five months after the onset of your disability.

You can apply on the Social Security website or by calling 1-800-772-1213.

Wed, 13 Aug 2014 13:20:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Employee Benefits

At the Smithsonian we realize our staff is the source for the creative energy that produces world-class exhibitions, programs and research. The Smithsonian provides a comprehensive and competitive benefits package to its federal and nonfederal (Trust) employees which include insurance, retirement and work/life benefits. Below is a list of Federal and Trust benefits:

Federal and Trust Benefits Federal Trust
Health Yes Yes
Dental Yes Yes
Vision Yes Yes
Life Yes Yes
Voluntary Accidental Death
and Dismemberment
Yes Yes
Health and Dependent Care Flexible
Spending Account
Yes Yes
Long Term Care Yes No
Long Term Disability No Yes
Business Travel Yes Yes
Workers' Compensation Yes Yes
Annual Leave
(Starting at 13 days per year)
Yes Yes
Sick Leave Yes Yes
Paid Holidays
(10 days per year)
Yes Yes


Federal Employees

  • Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS)/ Federal Employees Retirement System-Revised Annuity Employees (FERS-RAE): Federal employees are generally enrolled in either FERS or FERS-RAE. FERS is a retirement plan that provides benefits from three different sources: a Basic Benefit Plan (the FERS or FERS-RAE component), Social Security and the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP). Two of the three parts of FERS (Social Security and the TSP) can carry over to your next job if you leave the federal government before retirement. The Basic Benefit and Social Security parts of FERS require you to pay your share each pay period. For more information on FERS, visit
  • Thrift Savings Plan (TSP): Each pay period the Smithsonian deposits into your account an amount equal to 1% of the basic pay you earn for the pay period. You can also make your own contributions to your TSP account and the Smithsonian will also make matching contributions up to a maximum of 5%. These contributions may be either tax deferred or Roth contributions. For more information on TSP, visit

Trust Employees

Trust employees can enroll in a Tax Deferred Annuity (TDA) Plan which allows employees to save for retirement with tax deferred contributions up to the legal maximum.

In addition, trust employees who meet the eligibility requirements can enroll in the Defined Contribution Retirement plan which provides employer contributions of 12% of salary. If the employee’s salary exceeds the OASDI (social security) maximum, employer contributions increase to 17% on the amount of salary over the OASDI maximum.

Other Benefits

Pretax Commuter Benefit
Program/Transit Subsidy Program

The Smithsonian Transit Subsidy Program provides up to the current maximum per month for mass transit costs incurred while commuting to and from an employee's work duty station.

The pretax Parking Program allows employees to use pretax dollars to pay for eligible parking expenses while at work.

The Commuter Bicycle Reimbursement Program provides employees with reimbursement for reasonable expenses incurred for the purchase of a bicycle or bicycle maintenance, repair and storage if the bicycle is regularly used for travel between the employee’s home and place of employment.


The Smithsonian offers a telework program to eligible employees that allows them to work remotely. Supervisors and employees sign a ‘telework’ agreement that is managed using the same performance standards in their annual performance plan.

Flexible Work Schedule

Many departments offer the opportunity for a flexible workday allowing employees to create their own schedule around core workday hours.

Child Care/Day Care

Our award winning early enrichment program, The Smithsonian Early Enrichment Program (SEEC), serves children between the ages of 3 months and 6 years through its child development center, preschool program and kindergarten.

Employee Assistance Program (EAP)

The EAP Office offers free confidential evaluation, referral and counseling services to employees with work-related or personal problems. They also produce lunchtime seminars on a variety of lifestyle and workplace issues.

Exercise Facilities

Many of the DC museums and office locations offer free exercise facilities.

Credit Union

The Smithsonian is affiliated with the Department of Agriculture Federal Credit Union which maintains a branch office in the Smithsonian Castle.

Smithsonian Shop Discounts

Employees receive a 20% discount in Smithsonian museum shops and restaurants.


Employees are encouraged to take advantage of all that Smithsonian offers. Smithsonian museums and research centers offer rich programs to free lectures during the day, lunchtime and evenings.

Employee Picnic

The Smithsonian also hosts an annual employee picnic on the National Mall in July.

Thu, 13 Aug 2020 13:56:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Member Benefits

WHYY Passport

A new member benefit which gives WHYY members who make a yearly contribution of at least $60 or an ongoing monthly contribution of $5 or more extended on-demand access to a rich library of great of public television programming.

“I always learn something new when I listen to WHYY. Thanks for great programming and in-depth coverage of many important issues.” – Philadelphia, PA

COVID-19 Update:
Due to COVID and other issues, hours and discounts may change. Contact businesses directly for updates.

WHYY MemberCard

As a member of WHYY, you’re eligible for special experiences and discounts throughout our community. You’ll have access to exclusive member events and enjoy discounts to museums, theaters, restaurants and shops with our WHYY MemberCard.

Are you a business or organization interested in becoming a WHYY MemberCard Partner? Fill out our online application!

If you are already a member and have general questions about your membership, please contact Member and Audience Services.

WHYY Events

Live music performances, film screenings, creative workshops, guest lectures, community forums, meet-and-greets and more — WHYY offers something for everyone. Enjoy discounted and exclusive access to many WHYY events.

Mon, 02 Mar 2020 12:42:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : SNAP Benefits by State

Millions of Americans have participated in the United States Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), getting access to basic food products that they might have otherwise been unable to afford. Given that SNAP is a federal program, it would be easy to assume that it functions relatively uniformly throughout the U.S.

In practice, however, the presence of local SNAP offices, the way benefits are calculated, and varying regional economic circumstances result in some notable differences in SNAP benefits by state. This is most apparent in the colloquial names of programs and the average amount of benefits offered per household.

Key Takeaways

  • An individual or family's SNAP benefit amount is based on their income, size, and certain other expenses. The federal government expects SNAP recipients to spend 30% of their net income on food. If a participant has no net income, they will instead receive the maximum possible benefit.
  • At $402, Hawaii had the highest average monthly SNAP benefit per household member in 2021 and was double many states' average monthly benefits.
  • In 2021, California had the largest number of SNAP participants out of any other state and the District of Columbia, with 4,327,100 people in total.
  • Although New Mexico had just 520,500 participants in 2021, this still represents 25% of the state's total population, which was the highest percentage of all 50 states and the District of Columbia.
  • Mississippi, Louisiana, and New Mexico—the three states with the highest percentages of their populations below the poverty line in 2021—were also among the top five states by SNAP participation as a percentage of the total population during this same period.

Understanding SNAP Benefits

SNAP is a government assistance program designed to provide low-income individuals and families with an alternate means of purchasing food from certain retailers, typically grocery stores and farmers markets. Originally utilizing paper "food stamps," electronic benefits transfer (EBT) cards began to supersede these starting in 1990.

SNAP is one of several nutrition assistance programs available in the U.S. and is the largest overall. The program is intended to address the food insecurity aspects of poverty, rather than addressing the root causes of it.

All 50 states and the District of Columbia offer SNAP benefits, though many of them refer to their programs by a colloquial name—Food Stamps in Idaho and CalFresh in California, for example. Each state also has a unique EBT card issued as part of its benefits program that may also have a special name, such as the Lone Star Card (Texas) and Arizona Quest Card. EBT cards are refilled on a monthly basis and can be used to purchase the following items:

  • Beer, wine, liquor, cigarettes, or tobacco

  • Vitamins, medicines, and supplements

  • Most live animals

  • Hot foods

  • Pet foods

  • Cleaning supplies, paper products, and other household supplies

  • Hygiene items and cosmetics

Individuals or families in 48 states and the District of Columbia (Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands are subject to different eligibility, benefit, and deduction levels) are eligible for SNAP benefits if they meet the following three criteria:

  • Gross monthly income: Household income before any of the program's deductions are applied must be at or below 130% of the poverty line. Households with members who are older (age 60+), have a disability, or who are "categorically eligible" due to participating in another economic security program are exempt from this criteria.
  • Net income: After all deductions are applied, household income must be at or below the poverty line. Both gross monthly and net income include earned (i.e., before payroll taxes are deducted) and unearned cash income (for example, cash assistance, Social Security, unemployment insurance, and child support).
  • Assets: Households without an older member (age 60 or older) or someone with a disability must own assets worth $2,500 or less. Those who do have such a member must have $3,750 or less in assets. In the context of SNAP, only resources that could be available to the household to purchase food are considered assets. Individual state governments may "relax" these asset limits if they so choose. Categorically eligible households are also exempt from this criteria.

Individuals who are on strike, all unauthorized immigrants, some part-time college students, and certain lawfully present immigrants are ineligible for SNAP benefits. In many parts of the U.S., unemployed adults without children in the home and who aren't disabled are limited to three months of SNAP benefits every three years, unless they meet certain additional requirements.

In 2021, nearly 42 million Americans participated in SNAP, up by about 3.5 million since 2019. SNAP benefit amounts are based on an individual or family's income, size, and certain other expenses. The federal government expects those receiving SNAP benefits to spend 30% of their net income on food.

As such, the monthly SNAP benefit for a household that has a net income is equal to the maximum benefit for its size minus the household’s 30% expected contribution. Participants who have no net income will instead receive the maximum possible benefit.

Because SNAP benefit calculations are partially based on an individual or family's income, the existence of differing economic conditions among states means that participants may earn more or less depending on where they live. Below is our analysis of SNAP benefits by state.

State-by-State Breakdown

  • According to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, at $402, Hawaii had the highest average monthly SNAP benefit per household member in 2021. Additionally, Hawaii's monthly benefit was double the amount of many other states. The second-highest state, Minnesota, came in at $366 per month. The state with the lowest monthly benefit payment was Idaho, at $162, with the second lowest, Arkansas, at $184.

At 4,327,100 people in 2021, the state of California had the largest number of participants in its CalFresh program. The second highest, and one of three states with more than 3 million participants, was Texas at 3,408,400.

The third-highest state was just a bit lower than Texas, with Florida's Food Assistance Program having 3,356,200 participants that same year. The state with the lowest number of participants was Wyoming, at 29,100, followed by North Dakota at 50,400.

Although California had the largest number of participants, this group accounted for just 11% of the state's population in 2021. Though New Mexico's 520,500 participants are far fewer than California's, they represent 25% of the state's total population—the highest percentage out of all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

The District of Columbia, at 21%, had the second highest percentage of residents collecting SNAP benefits, while 20% of people in the state of Louisiana received aid in 2021. Meanwhile, New Hampshire, Utah and Wyoming were tied for the lowest percentage, at 5%; however, as noted above, Wyoming has the lowest number of participants out of any state.

SNAP and Low-Wage Jobs

SNAP exists to help workers in low-paying jobs—frequently with inconsistent schedules and no benefits, all of which contribute to high turnover rates and periods of unemployment—afford a basic diet. Not surprisingly, recipients cluster in the nation's lowest-paying jobs.

According to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 4.52 million SNAP participants in total work in the service industry. Laborers in many of these fields have mean hourly wages far below the U.S. average and/or work fewer or less-consistent hours than they would like. As such, SNAP provides them with the support they need to make ends meet.

At 760,300, or 23% of the entire industry in 2017, cashiers accounted for the largest number of workers within a single occupation participating in SNAP. Conversely, graders and sorters of agriculture products, at 28%, made up the largest percentage of SNAP participants within a single occupation, even though this amounted to just 15,700 workers.

According to Brookings, 30% of low-wage workers in 2019 (approximately 16 million people) are earning below 150% of the poverty line. As such, it makes sense that the three states with the highest percentages of their populations below the poverty line (Mississippi, Louisiana, and New Mexico) were also among the top five states by SNAP participation as a percentage of the total population in 2021.

Conversely, the two states with the lowest percentages of their populations below the poverty line (New Hampshire and Utah) were two out of the three states with the smallest number of SNAP participants as a percentage of their total population that same year. Although these two factors don't perfectly correlate, the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities data suggests that if a state is experiencing a high rate of poverty, its residents are more likely to require SNAP benefits, as the data below demonstrates.

What State Offers the Most SNAP Benefits?

SNAP benefit amounts will vary depending on an individual or family's income, size, and certain other expenses. That said, the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities found that Hawaii's $402 average monthly SNAP benefit per household member was the largest in the U.S. in 2021.

What's the Difference Between Food Stamps and SNAP?

The first federal Food Stamp Program went into effect in 1939, which was replaced in 1964 by the current SNAP program. Even after the switch, paper food stamps were the "currency" used to purchase goods from participating vendors. As a result, SNAP is often referred to as a "food stamps program," even though the stamps themselves were phased out in favor of electronic benefits transfer (EBT) cards starting in 1990.

Which States Have the Highest Number of SNAP Recipients?

The following 10 states had the highest number of SNAP participants in 2021:

  • California: 4,327,100
  • Texas: 3,408,400
  • Florida: 3,356,200
  • New York: 2,780,700
  • Illinois: 1,930,400
  • Pennsylvania: 1,766,700
  • Georgia: 1,640,600
  • North Carolina: 1,541,700
  • Ohio: 1,509,400
  • Michigan: 1,278,200

The Bottom Line

The biggest differences in SNAP benefits by state are primarily a result of the economic circumstances of each individual participant and the state in which they reside, rather than anything really inherent to the program itself. Residents of states with high poverty rates are naturally going to need SNAP more than others, and the program is geared more toward keeping people afloat rather than tackling the systematic issues that allow poverty to exist.

SNAP has proved a major resource for millions of Americans in need, and it isn't the only nutrition assistance program available. Despite all of this, as reported by the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities in 2021, researchers have estimated that SNAP benefits are approximately $11 per person below the amount needed to pay for a weekly nutritious meal plan.

This is especially apparent in higher-cost areas, where healthy diets are particularly hard to afford for low-income families due to a higher cost of living. The fact that SNAP can be more effective at counteracting poverty in some states than others shows that more needs to be done to ensure our most economically vulnerable citizens are provided for and protected.

Tue, 12 Oct 2021 03:02:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : 7 Surprising Benefits of Hyaluronic Acid

The body naturally produces hyaluronic acid, which helps lubricate our tissues. It plays a role in skin health, wound healing, bone strength, and many other other bodily systems or functions.

Hyaluronic acid, also known as hyaluronan, is a clear, gooey substance that is naturally produced by your body.

The largest amounts of it are found in your skin, connective tissue, and eyes.

Its main function is to retain water to keep your tissues lubricated and moist.

Hyaluronic acid has a variety of uses. Many people take it as a supplement, but it’s also used in topical serums, eye drops, and injections.

Here are 7 scientifically backed benefits of taking hyaluronic acid.

Hyaluronic acid supplements can help your skin look and feel more supple.

Hyaluronic acid is a compound found naturally in the skin, where it binds to water to help retain moisture (1).

However, the natural aging process and exposure to things like ultraviolet radiation from the sun, tobacco smoke, and pollution can decrease its amounts in the skin (2, 3).

Taking hyaluronic acid supplements may prevent this decline by giving your body extra amounts to incorporate into the skin (4, 5).

According to one 2014 study, doses of 120–240 milligrams (mg) per day for at least 1 month have been shown to significantly increase skin moisture and reduce dry skin in adults (3).

Hydrated skin also reduces the appearance of wrinkles, which may explain why several studies show that supplementing with it can make skin appear smoother (6, 7).

When applied to the surface of the skin, hyaluronic acid serums can reduce wrinkles, redness, and dermatitis (8, 9, 10).

Some dermatologists even inject hyaluronic acid fillers to keep skin looking firm and youthful (11, 12).


Hyaluronic acid supplements can help increase skin moisture and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Topical treatments can soothe redness and dermatitis, while injections can make skin appear firmer.

Hyaluronic acid also plays a key role in wound healing.

It’s naturally present in the skin, but its concentrations increase when there is damage in need of repair.

Hyaluronic acid helps wounds heal faster by regulating inflammation levels and signaling the body to build more blood vessels in the damaged area (13, 14).

In some older studies, applying it to skin wounds has been shown to reduce the size of wounds and decrease pain faster than a placebo or no treatment at all (15, 16, 17, 18).

Hyaluronic acid also has antibacterial properties, so it may help reduce the risk of infection when applied directly to open wounds (19, 20).

What’s more, it’s effective at reducing gum disease, speeding up healing after tooth surgery, and eliminating ulcers when used topically in the mouth (21).

While the research on hyaluronic acid serums and gels is promising, there has been no research to determine whether hyaluronic acid supplements can provide the same benefits.

However, since oral supplements boost the levels of hyaluronic acid found in the skin, it’s reasonable to suspect they may provide some benefit.


Applying hyaluronic acid directly to an open wound can help speed up the recovery process. It’s unknown whether supplementing with it would have the same effect.

Hyaluronic acid is also found in the joints, where it keeps the space between your bones lubricated (22).

When the joints are lubricated, the bones are less likely to grind against each other and cause uncomfortable pain.

Hyaluronic acid supplements are very helpful for people with osteoarthritis, a type of degenerative joint disease caused by wear and tear on the joints over time.

Taking 80–200 mg daily for at least 2 months has been shown to significantly reduce knee pain in people with osteoarthritis, especially those between the ages of 40 and 70 years old (23, 24).

Hyaluronic acid can also be injected directly into the joints for pain relief. However, an analysis of over 21,000 adults found only a small reduction in pain and a greater risk of adverse effects (25).

Some research shows that pairing oral hyaluronic acid supplements with injections can help extend pain-relieving benefits and increase the amount of time between shots (26).


Hyaluronic acid supplements are effective at reducing joint pain in people with osteoarthritis. Injections can also be used but may come with risks.

New research shows hyaluronic acid supplements may help reduce symptoms of acid reflux.

When acid reflux occurs, the contents of the stomach are regurgitated up into the throat, causing pain and damage to the lining of the esophagus (27).

Hyaluronic acid may help soothe the damaged lining of the esophagus and speed up the recovery process.

One 2012 test-tube study found that applying a mixture of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate to acid-damaged throat tissue helped it heal much faster than when no treatment was used (28).

Human studies have also shown benefits.

One study found that taking a hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate supplement along with an acid-reducing medication decreased reflux symptoms 60% more than taking acid-reducing medication alone (29).

Another older study showed that the same type of supplement was five times more effective at reducing acid reflux symptoms than a placebo (30).

Research in this area is still relatively new, and more studies are needed to replicate these results. Nevertheless, these outcomes are promising.


A combination supplement containing hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate may help reduce the symptoms of acid reflux in some people.

Approximately 11% older adults experience symptoms of dry eye due to reduced tear production or tears evaporating too quickly (31).

Since hyaluronic acid is excellent at retaining moisture, it’s often used to treat dry eye.

Eye drops containing 0.2–0.4% hyaluronic acid have been shown to reduce dry eye symptoms and improve eye health (32, 33).

Contact lenses that contain slow-release hyaluronic acid are also being developed as a possible treatment for dry eye (34, 35, 36).

In addition, hyaluronic acid eye drops are frequently used during eye surgery to reduce inflammation and speed wound healing (37, 38).

While applying them directly to the eyes has been shown to reduce dry eye symptoms and Improve overall eye health, it is unclear whether oral supplements have the same effects.

One small study in 24 people found that combining topical and oral hyaluronic acid was more effective at improving symptoms of dry eye than topical hyaluronic acid alone (39).

However, more large, high-quality studies are needed to understand the effects of oral hyaluronic acid supplements on eye health.


Hyaluronic acid is naturally found in the eyes and often an ingredient in eye drops to relieve dry eye symptoms. More research is needed to confirm whether supplementing with it would have the same effects.

New animal research has begun to investigate the effects of hyaluronic acid supplements on bone health.

Two older studies have found that hyaluronic acid supplements can help slow the rate of bone loss in rats with osteopenia, the beginning stage of bone loss that precedes osteoporosis (40, 41).

Some older test-tube studies have also shown that high doses of hyaluronic acid can increase the activity of osteoblasts, the cells responsible for building new bone tissue (42, 43).

While more high quality, accurate research in humans is needed, early animal and test-tube studies are promising.


Some older animal and test-tube studies suggest that high doses of hyaluronic acid may help prevent bone loss, but no research has been conducted in humans.

Approximately 3–6% of females suffer from a condition called interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome (44).

This disorder causes abdominal pain and tenderness, along with a strong and frequent urge to urinate (45).

While the causes of interstitial cystitis are unknown, hyaluronic acid has been found to help relieve the pain and urinary frequency associated with this condition when inserted directly into the bladder through a catheter (46, 47, 48).

It’s unclear why hyaluronic acid helps relieve these symptoms, but researchers hypothesize that it helps repair damage to bladder tissue, making it less sensitive to pain (49).

Studies have not yet determined whether oral hyaluronic acid supplements can increase amounts of it in the bladder enough to have the same effects.


Hyaluronic acid can relieve bladder pain when inserted directly into the bladder through a catheter, but taking supplements by mouth may not have the same effects.

Hyaluronic acid is generally very safe to use, with few reported side effects.

Since the body naturally produces it, allergic reactions are very rare.

One 2012 study in 60 people with osteoarthritis who took 200 mg daily for 1 year reported no negative side effects (50).

However, its effects during pregnancy or breastfeeding have not been thoroughly studied, so these groups should be cautious and avoid supplementing with it.

There is also some evidence that cancer cells are sensitive to hyaluronic acid and taking supplements could make them grow faster (51, 52).

For this reason, it is generally advised that people with cancer or a history of cancer avoid supplementing with it (53).

Hyaluronic acid injections into the skin or joints have a higher risk of side effects. However, negative reactions are mostly associated with the injection procedure, rather than hyaluronic acid itself (1).


Hyaluronic acid is generally very safe when used as a supplement, but people who are pregnant or have cancer or a history of cancer may want to avoid taking it.

Hyaluronic acid supplements can be safely taken by most people and provide many health benefits.

Hyaluronic acid is well known for its skin benefits, especially alleviating dry skin, reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and speeding up wound healing.

It can also help relieve joint pain in people with osteoarthritis.

Other notable applications include hyaluronic acid eye drops to relieve dry eye and inserting hyaluronic acid directly into the bladder via catheter to reduce pain.

Overall, hyaluronic acid is a beneficial supplement for a variety of conditions, especially those related to skin and joint health.

Sat, 26 Nov 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : 8 Benefits of Hibiscus Tea

Hibiscus tea is high in antioxidants and offers many benefits. In particular, it may help promote weight loss, reduce the growth of bacteria and cancer cells, and support the health of the heart and liver.

Hibiscus tea is an herbal tea that’s made by steeping parts of the hibiscus plant in boiling water.

It has a tart flavor similar to that of cranberries and can be enjoyed both hot and cold.

There are several hundred species of hibiscus varying by the location and climate they grow in, but Hibiscus sabdariffa is most commonly used to make hibiscus tea (1).

Research has uncovered a range of health benefits linked to drinking hibiscus tea, showing that it may lower blood pressure, reduce the growth of bacteria, and even aid weight loss.

This article reviews 8 benefits of drinking hibiscus tea.

Antioxidants are molecules that help protect against compounds called free radicals, which cause damage to your cells (2).

Hibiscus tea is rich in powerful antioxidants and may therefore help prevent damage and disease caused by the buildup of free radicals.

One study in people with Marfan syndrome, a disorder that affects connective tissue, found that an infusion with hibiscus extract reduced oxidative stress and increased antioxidant levels in the blood (3).

Another animals study had similar findings, showing that hibiscus extract helped protect against cell damage in rats (4).

However, keep in mind that these studies used concentrated doses of hibiscus extract rather than hibiscus tea. More studies are needed to determine how antioxidants in hibiscus tea may affect humans.


Animal studies have found that hibiscus extract has antioxidant properties. Additional studies are needed to determine how this may translate to humans.

One of the most impressive and well-known benefits of hibiscus tea is that it may lower blood pressure.

Over time, high blood pressure can place extra strain on the heart and cause it to weaken. High blood pressure is also associated with an increased risk of heart disease (5).

Several studies have found that hibiscus tea may lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

In one study, 46 people with high blood pressure were given hibiscus tea or a placebo. After 1 month, those who drank hibiscus tea had a greater decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, compared to the placebo (6).

Similarly, a 2015 review of five studies found that hibiscus tea decreased both systolic and diastolic blood pressure by an average of 7.58 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and 3.53 mmHg, respectively (7).

While hibiscus tea may be a safe and natural way to help lower blood pressure, it is not recommended for those taking medications used to treat high blood pressure, as it may interact with these drugs (8).


Some studies have found that hibiscus tea may lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, it should not be taken with blood pressure medications to prevent an interaction.

In addition to lowering blood pressure, some studies have found that hibiscus tea may help lower blood fat levels, which are another risk factor for heart disease (9).

In one 2009 study, 60 people with diabetes were given either hibiscus tea or black tea. After 1 month, those who drank hibiscus tea experienced increased levels of HDL (good) cholesterol and decreased levels of total cholesterol, LDL (bad) cholesterol, and triglycerides (10).

Another older study in those with metabolic syndrome showed that taking 100 milligrams (mg) of hibiscus extract daily was associated with decreased total cholesterol and increased HDL (good) cholesterol (11).

Plus, a 2022 review found that hibiscus tea could reduce levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol more effectively than other types of tea and a placebo (12).

However, other studies have produced conflicting results regarding hibiscus tea’s effects on blood cholesterol.

In fact, a review of seven studies including 362 participants concluded that hibiscus tea did not significantly reduce total cholesterol or triglyceride levels (13).

Furthermore, most studies showing a benefit of hibiscus tea on blood fat levels have been limited to people with specific conditions like metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

More large-scale studies examining the effects of hibiscus tea on blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels are needed to determine its potential effects on the general population.


Some studies have shown that hibiscus tea may reduce blood cholesterol and triglycerides in those with diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, other studies have produced conflicting results. More research is needed in the general population.

From producing proteins to secreting bile to breaking down fat, your liver is essential to your overall health (14).

Interestingly, studies have shown that hibiscus may promote liver health and help keep it working efficiently.

One 2014 study in 19 people with overweight found that taking hibiscus extract for 12 weeks improved liver steatosis. This condition is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to liver failure (15).

A study in hamsters also demonstrated the liver-protecting properties of hibiscus extract, showing that treatment with hibiscus extract decreased markers of liver damage (16).

Another 2022 animal study reported that hibiscus extract helped Improve fatty liver disease in rats fed a high fat diet (17).

However, these studies all assessed the effects of hibiscus extract, rather than hibiscus tea. Further research is needed to know how hibiscus tea affects liver health in humans.


Human and animal studies have found that hibiscus extract may benefit liver health by reducing liver damage and fatty liver.

Several studies suggest that hibiscus tea may be associated with weight loss and could help protect against obesity.

One 2014 study gave 36 participants with overweight either hibiscus extract or a placebo. After 12 weeks, hibiscus extract reduced body weight, body fat, body mass index, and hip-to-waist ratio (15).

An animal study had similar findings, reporting that hibiscus extract could help reduce body weight and appetite by preventing the accumulation of fat cells (18).

Current research is limited to studies using concentrated doses of hibiscus extract. More studies are needed to determine how hibiscus tea may influence weight loss in humans.


A few human and animal studies have associated the consumption of hibiscus extract with decreased body weight and body fat, but more research is needed.

Hibiscus is high in polyphenols, which are compounds that have been shown to possess powerful anti-cancer properties (19, 20).

Test-tube studies have found impressive results regarding the potential effects of hibiscus extract on cancer cells.

In one test-tube study, hibiscus extract impaired cell growth and reduced the invasiveness of mouth and plasma cell cancers (21).

Another test-tube study reported that hibiscus leaf extract prevented human prostate cancer cells from spreading (22).

Hibiscus extract and its components have also been shown to inhibit the growth of other types of cancer cells in test-tube studies, including breast, stomach, and skin cancer (23, 24, 25).

Keep in mind that these were test-tube studies using high amounts of hibiscus extract. Research in humans is needed to evaluate the effect of hibiscus tea on cancer.


Test-tube studies have found that hibiscus extract reduces the growth and spread of several types of cancer cells. Human studies are needed to evaluate the effect of hibiscus tea.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can cause a variety of infections, ranging from bronchitis to pneumonia to urinary tract infections.

In addition to having antioxidant and anti-cancer properties, some test-tube studies have found that hibiscus could help protect against bacterial infections.

In fact, one test-tube study found that hibiscus extract inhibited the activity of E. coli, a strain of bacteria that can cause symptoms like cramping, gas, and diarrhea (26).

Another test-tube study showed that the extract fought eight strains of bacteria and was as effective as some medications used to treat bacterial infections (27).

However, no human studies have looked at the antibacterial effects of hibiscus tea, so it is still unclear how these results may translate to humans.


Test-tube studies have found that hibiscus extract could reduce the growth of certain strains of bacteria. More research is needed to determine how hibiscus tea may affect bacterial infections in humans.

Aside from its multitude of possible health benefits, hibiscus tea is delicious and easy to prepare at home.

Simply add dried hibiscus flowers to a teapot and pour boiling water over them. Let it steep for 5 minutes, then strain, sweeten it if desired, and enjoy.

Hibiscus tea can be consumed hot or cold and has a tart taste similar to that of cranberries.

For this reason, it is often sweetened with honey or flavored with a squeeze of lime juice to balance the tartness.

Dried hibiscus can be purchased at your local health food store or online. Hibiscus tea is also available in pre-made tea bags, which can simply be steeped in hot water, removed, and enjoyed.


Hibiscus tea can be made by steeping hibiscus flowers in boiling water for 5 minutes. It can be consumed hot or cold and has a tart taste that is often sweetened with honey or flavored with lime.

Hibiscus tea is a type of herbal tea associated with many health benefits.

It also has a delicious, tart flavor and can be made and enjoyed from the comfort of your own kitchen.

Animal and test-tube studies have indicated that hibiscus may aid weight loss, Improve heart and liver health, and even help reduce the growth of cancer cells and bacteria.

However, most of the current research is limited to test-tube and animal studies using high amounts of hibiscus extract. More studies are needed to determine how these benefits may apply to humans who drink hibiscus tea.

Sat, 19 Nov 2022 09:59:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Health Benefits of Collagen

Collagen is a protein responsible for healthy joints and skin elasticity, or stretchiness. It’s in your bones, muscles, and blood, comprising three quarters of your skin and a third of the protein in your body.

As you age, your existing collagen breaks down, and it gets harder for your body to produce more. As a result, many people turn to collagen supplements. These supplements are usually powders, though there are also capsules and liquid supplements available.

Collagen is also produced naturally in the body by combining amino acids, the building blocks of proteins found in food. To produce collagen, your body needs:

Nutrition Information

Fourteen grams of collagen peptide (supplement) contains:

  • Calories: 50
  • Protein: 12 grams
  • Fat: 0 grams
  • Carbohydrates: 0 grams
  • Fiber: 0 grams
  • Sugar: 0 grams

The same amount of collagen peptide also contains 29 milligrams of calcium, 44.9 milligrams of sodium, and 0.98 milligrams of potassium.

Potential Health Benefits of Collagen Supplements

Because it makes up so many critical parts of our bodies, collagen is not only beneficial but essential to maintaining good health. However, the benefits of collagen supplements are still debated. While there is reasonable evidence that they help maintain hydrated skin and relieve osteoarthritis pain, more research is needed into less well-understood benefits, such as lowering blood pressure and blood sugar levels.

Here are some commonly cited benefits of collagen supplements:

Stronger Bones

As you age, your bones become less dense and more brittle, breaking more easily and taking longer to heal. Studies have shown that daily collagen supplements can help make your bones denser, slowing the aging process that makes them brittle and helping your body to produce new bone.

Skin Elasticity and Hydration 

Oral collagen supplements have been shown to Improve skin hydration and elasticity for older people. They might also help to lessen wrinkles.

Thicker Hair

While more men go bald, many women also experience hair loss or thinning as they age. In one study, a group of women with thinning hair saw significant increases in their hair’s quantity, scalp coverage, and thickness while taking daily collagen supplements.

Healthier Nails

Some people’s nails break more easily than others, and don’t grow as fast. One study in a group of women showed faster nail growth and fewer broken or chipped nails after only four weeks of daily collagen supplements.

Reduced Osteoarthritis Pain

For people with knee osteoarthritis, oral collagen supplements might act as a mild pain reliever and Improve joint function. It may take about three to five months of daily treatment before you see these improvements.

Increased Muscle Mass

A combination of collagen peptide supplements and strength training could potentially help increase muscle mass and strength.

Potential Risks of Collagen Supplements

Side effects of collagen supplements are rare. If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, you may want to hold off on taking a collagen supplement for now, since there isn’t yet enough research to come to any conclusions about their safety.

Healthier Alternatives

The effects of collagen supplements continue to be researched and debated. Instead of buying these supplements, you can always help your body make more collagen naturally by ensuring your diet is packed with healthy foods.

To produce collagen, your body puts the amino acids glycine and proline together with other amino acids including vitamin C, zinc, and copper. You can help your body produce more collagen by eating lots of glycine- and proline-rich foods like chicken, beef, fish, dairy, eggs, and beans. For vitamin C, zinc, and copper, you should also be sure to eat foods like citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy greens, shellfish, nuts, and whole grains.

Sun, 13 Nov 2022 10:01:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Benefits Overview

Drexel University is pleased to offer comprehensive and competitive benefits to eligible employees and their eligible dependents. Benefits-eligible employees of Drexel University, Drexel University Online (DUO) and the Academy of Natural Sciences can enroll themselves and their dependents either upon hire (to be effective the first of the following month), during the open enrollment period or if they experience a qualified life event. Drexel strives to provide employees with happy and healthy lifestyles to foster a solid work-life balance. All employee benefits are explained throughout this section and listed in the table below.

If you are a benefits-eligible faculty or professional staff member, your benefits begin on the first of the month following the Date of Hire. If you are hired on the first of the month, benefits are effective on the Date of Hire. Please direct questions about eligibility to your Human Resources Business Partner.

To enroll, waive or view benefits information, log in to the My Drexel Benefits portal under the Employee tab in DrexelOne.

Whom to Contact with Questions

Employees who have questions regarding their benefits may use the following contact options:

Benefits Structure

Tue, 03 May 2022 03:34:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Small Business Employee Benefits (2022 Guide)

There are several small business employee benefits that you’re legally required to provide to your employees. You must offer them to stay compliant with the U.S. Department of Labor laws and regulations. Failure to do so can lead to steep fines and other penalties. If you’re unsure of the benefits requirements for your particular business, don’t hesitate to consult an employment lawyer.

Workers’ Compensation

Workers’ compensation is a type of insurance that protects employers and employees from litigation over work-related accidents and illnesses. Required in every state except Texas, workers’ comp covers medical treatment, lost wages, rehabilitation care, disability costs and funeral benefits for employees injured on the job.

Since workers’ compensation laws vary by state, it’s important to find out your state’s requirements. Keep in mind that rates depend on the type of work your employees perform so if you’re in an industry such as accounting that requires a lot of office work, you’ll pay less than an employer in a higher-risk industry, such as construction.

Unemployment Insurance

Unemployment insurance provides monetary compensation to workers whose jobs have been terminated due to no fault of their own. If an employee leaves your business and files an unemployment compensation claim, you’ll receive a notification and the funds will be deducted from your unemployment account. The amount you’ll pay will be based on your state and guidelines for a base wage multiplied by a tax percentage.

Disability Insurance

If your small business is in California, Hawaii, New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico or Rhode Island, disability insurance is mandatory. It’s designed to cover employees who are unable to work because of a serious nonwork-related injury or illness. Both short-term and long-term disability will provide income to your employees while they’re away from work. Short-term disability usually covers employees for anywhere from two to six months and offers up to 70% of current income whereas long-term disability typically pays 50% to 70% of their monthly income and can last for years or even decades, depending on the plan.

Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA)

COBRA should be on your radar if you have 20 or more workers and offer group health insurance. It’s a federal law that requires you to continue to provide former employees and their families health insurance coverage for 18 or, in some cases, 36 months. To take advantage of COBRA, a terminated employee will have to pay the entire premium, including the portion you used to cover for them.

Social Security and Medicare

Social Security and Medicare are federal programs that U.S. employees must pay into through employer deductions while they work. Social Security benefits will provide them with retirement or permanent disability income. Medicare, on the other hand, will cover their health insurance once they turn 65 or are diagnosed with a certain medical condition or disability. According to the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA), both you and your employee must contribute 6.2% of the worker’s wages toward Social Security and 1.45% toward Medicare.

Family and Medical Leave

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) protects employees during certain life events, such as childbirth, adopting or fostering a child, and caring for an ill relative. No matter which state you’re in, you’ll need to abide by the FMLA if your business has 50 or more employees within 75 miles of your workplace. Even though the FMLA won’t cost you anything out of pocket, it will require you to offer up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave and health benefits to qualifying employees.

Health insurance

Under the Affordable Care Act, your business is required to offer health insurance if you have 50 or more employees. Even if you have less than 50 workers, health insurance is a common benefit that is worth exploring. Fortunately, there are many types of health insurance plans out there, such as fully insured plans, partially self-funded plans, high-deductible plans, preferred provider organization (PPO) plans and health maintenance organization (HMO) plans so you can choose the right one for your unique situation.

Tue, 15 Nov 2022 23:00:00 -0600 Anna Baluch en-US text/html
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