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Exam Code: 304-200 Practice test 2023 by Killexams.com team
304-200 LPI Level 3 test 304 Senior Level Linux Certification Virtualization & Hi

Exam Title :
LPIC-3 Virtualization and High Availability

Exam ID :

Exam Duration :
90 mins

Questions in test :

Passing Score :
500 / 800

Exam Center :
LPI Marketplace

Real Questions :
LPI LPIC-3 Real Questions

VCE practice test :
LPI 304-200 Certification VCE Practice Test

Topic 330: Virtualization

330.1 Virtualization Concepts and Theory

Weight: 8

Description: Candidates should know and understand the general concepts, theory and terminology of Virtualization. This includes Xen, KVM and libvirt terminology.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Terminology

- Pros and Cons of Virtualization

- Variations of Virtual Machine Monitors

- Migration of Physical to Virtual Machines

- Migration of Virtual Machines between Host systems

- Cloud Computing

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

- Hypervisor

- Hardware Virtual Machine (HVM)

- Paravirtualization (PV)

- Container Virtualization

- Emulation and Simulation

- CPU flags

- /proc/cpuinfo

- Migration (P2V, V2V)

- IaaS, PaaS, SaaS

330.2 Xen

Weight: 9

Description: Candidates should be able to install, configure, maintain, migrate and troubleshoot Xen installations. The focus is on Xen version 4.x.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Xen architecture, networking and storage

- Xen configuration

- Xen utilities

- Troubleshooting Xen installations

- Basic knowledge of XAPI

- Awareness of XenStore

- Awareness of Xen Boot Parameters

- Awareness of the xm utility

Terms and Utilities:

- Domain0 (Dom0), DomainU (DomU)

- PV-DomU, HVM-DomU

- /etc/xen/

- xl

- xl.cfg

- xl.conf

- xe

- xentop

330.3 KVM

Weight: 9

Description: Candidates should be able to install, configure, maintain, migrate and troubleshoot KVM installations.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- KVM architecture, networking and storage

- KVM configuration

- KVM utilities

- Troubleshooting KVM installations

Terms and Utilities:

- Kernel modules: kvm, kvm-intel and kvm-amd

- /etc/kvm/

- /dev/kvm

- kvm

- KVM monitor

- qemu

- qemu-img

330.4 Other Virtualization Solutions

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should have some basic knowledge and experience with alternatives to Xen and KVM.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Basic knowledge of OpenVZ and LXC

- Awareness of other virtualization technologies

- Basic knowledge of virtualization provisioning tools
Terms and Utilities:

- OpenVZ

- VirtualBox


- docker

- packer

- vagrant

330.5 Libvirt and Related Tools

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should have basic knowledge and experience with the libvirt library and commonly available tools.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- libvirt architecture, networking and storage

- Basic technical knowledge of libvirt and virsh

- Awareness of oVirt

Terms and Utilities:

- libvirtd

- /etc/libvirt/

- virsh

- oVirt

330.6 Cloud Management Tools

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should have basic feature knowledge of commonly available cloud management tools.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Basic feature knowledge of OpenStack and CloudStack

- Awareness of Eucalyptus and OpenNebula

Terms and Utilities:

- OpenStack

- CloudStack

- Eucalyptus

- OpenNebula

Topic 334: High Availability Cluster Management

334.1 High Availability Concepts and Theory

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should understand the properties and design approaches of high availability clusters.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Understand the most important cluster architectures

- Understand recovery and cluster reorganization mechanisms

- Design an appropriate cluster architecture for a given purpose

- Application aspects of high availability

- Operational considerations of high availability

Terms and Utilities:

- Active/Passive Cluster, Active/Active Cluster

- Failover Cluster, Load Balanced Cluster

- Shared-Nothing Cluster, Shared-Disk Cluster

- Cluster resources

- Cluster services

- Quorum

- Fencing

- Split brain

- Redundancy

- Mean Time Before Failure (MTBF)

- Mean Time To Repair (MTTR)

- Service Level Agreement (SLA)

- Disaster Recovery

- Replication

- Session handling

334.2 Load Balanced Clusters

Weight: 6

Description: Candidates should know how to install, configure, maintain and troubleshoot LVS. This includes the configuration and use of keepalived and ldirectord. Candidates should further be able to install, configure, maintain and troubleshoot HAProxy.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Understanding of LVS / IPVS

- Basic knowledge of VRRP

- Configuration of keepalived

- Configuration of ldirectord

- Backend server network configuration

- Understanding of HAProxy

- Configuration of HAProxy

Terms and Utilities:

- ipvsadm

- syncd

- LVS Forwarding (NAT, Direct Routing, Tunneling, Local Node)

- connection scheduling algorithms

- keepalived configuration file

- ldirectord configuration file

- genhash

- HAProxy configuration file

- load balancing algorithms

- ACLs

334.3 Failover Clusters

Weight: 6

Description: Candidates should have experience in the installation, configuration, maintenance and troubleshooting of a Pacemaker cluster. This includes the use of Corosync. The focus is on Pacemaker 1.1 for Corosync 2.x.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Pacemaker architecture and components (CIB, CRMd, PEngine, LRMd, DC, STONITHd)

- Pacemaker cluster configuration

- Resource classes (OCF, LSB, Systemd, Upstart, Service, STONITH, Nagios)

- Resource rules and constraints (location, order, colocation)

- Advanced resource features (templates, groups, clone resources, multi-state resources)

- Pacemaker management using pcs

- Pacemaker management using crmsh

- Configuration and Management of corosync in conjunction with Pacemaker

- Awareness of other cluster engines (OpenAIS, Heartbeat, CMAN)

Terms and Utilities:

- pcs

- crm

- crm_mon

- crm_verify

- crm_simulate

- crm_shadow

- crm_resource

- crm_attribute

- crm_node

- crm_standby

- cibadmin

- corosync.conf

- authkey

- corosync-cfgtool

- corosync-cmapctl

- corosync-quorumtool

- stonith_admin

334.4 High Availability in Enterprise Linux Distributions

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be aware of how enterprise Linux distributions integrate High Availability technologies.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Basic knowledge of Red Hat Enterprise Linux High Availability Add-On

- Basic knowledge of SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension
Terms and Utilities:

- Distribution specific configuration tools

- Integration of cluster engines, load balancers, storage technology, cluster filesystems, etc.

Topic 335: High Availability Cluster Storage

335.1 DRBD / cLVM

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates are expected to have the experience and knowledge to install, configure, maintain and troubleshoot DRBD devices. This includes integration with Pacemaker. DRBD configuration of version 8.4.x is covered. Candidates are further expected to be able to manage LVM configuration within a shared storage cluster.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Understanding of DRBD resources, states and replication modes

- Configuration of DRBD resources, networking, disks and devices

- Configuration of DRBD automatic recovery and error handling

- Management of DRBD using drbdadm

- Basic knowledge of drbdsetup and drbdmeta

- Integration of DRBD with Pacemaker

- cLVM

- Integration of cLVM with Pacemaker

Terms and Utilities:

- Protocol A, B and C

- Primary, Secondary

- Three-way replication

- drbd kernel module

- drbdadm

- drbdsetup

- drbdmeta

- /etc/drbd.conf

- /proc/drbd

- LVM2

- clvmd

- vgchange, vgs

335.2 Clustered File Systems

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should know how to install, maintain and troubleshoot installations using GFS2 and OCFS2. This includes integration with Pacemaker as well as awareness of other clustered filesystems available in a Linux environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Understand the principles of cluster file systems

- Create, maintain and troubleshoot GFS2 file systems in a cluster

- Create, maintain and troubleshoot OCFS2 file systems in a cluster

- Integration of GFS2 and OCFS2 with Pacemaker

- Awareness of the O2CB cluster stack

- Awareness of other commonly used clustered file systems

Terms and Utilities:

- Distributed Lock Manager (DLM)

- mkfs.gfs2

- mount.gfs2

- fsck.gfs2

- gfs2_grow

- gfs2_edit

- gfs2_jadd

- mkfs.ocfs2

- mount.ocfs2

- fsck.ocfs2

- tunefs.ocfs2

- mounted.ocfs2

- o2info

- o2image

- CephFS

- GlusterFS


LPI Level 3 test 304 Senior Level Linux Certification Virtualization & Hi
LPI Virtualization plan
Killexams : LPI Virtualization plan - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/304-200 Search results Killexams : LPI Virtualization plan - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/304-200 https://killexams.com/exam_list/LPI Killexams : Five Surprising Ways SMBs Benefit from Virtualization

One of the fastest-growing areas of computing, virtualization provides a big payback that until recently was restricted only to big companies. Over the past year, though, small companies have rapidly embraced virtualization as technology advances made it easier to implement.

Virtualization is simple in concept. Traditionally, companies used one physical server to house one operating system and one business software application. This one-to-one matching meant that 90 percent of a server could go unused — a costly waste. Virtualization decouples the software from the hardware, allowing the workloads to be spread more efficiently among fewer physical servers. Storage and computing devices can be virtualized as well.

Here are five ways virtualization gives small and medium businesses (SMBs) an advantage:

1. Save money no matter what your size

Jonathan Hilland, CEO and president of Mindwave Research, was tired of paying $4,000 a month to a data center to house his company’s underutilized servers. The basic business of the 35-employee Mindwave is synthesizing — it consolidates insights from focus groups, interviews and online surveys. And so Hilland wanted to consolidate the company’s IT infrastructure as well.

Implementing a virtualization plan using Dell PowerEdge R710 servers with Intel® Xeon® processors Series 5500, Mindwave consolidated its 25 physical servers down to seven. With less equipment, the company was able to move its servers from the data center into their own 2,000-square-foot office. In addition to the savings in hardware and floor space, the company was able to slash its power and cooling costs by 50 percent partly because the servers are designed to conserve power, with features like fans that speed up and slow down according to the server’s internal temperature. The 
Intel processor automatically puts servers into the lowest available power state while maintaining performance.

Many small businesses think they’re too small for virtualization, but it can make economic sense for companies with as few as three or four servers. Indeed, a study by Principled Technologies, an IT consulting firm, found that virtualizing with one PowerEdge R710 with Intel® Xeon® processors can replace up to seven PowerEdge 2850 servers, resulting in a payback in less than 17 months.

2. Free up staff and grow your business

Time and money are two of the scarcest resources at any small business. Virtualization can save both, preserving precious IT resources and freeing staff from putting out security fires so they can focus on more strategic activities like growing the business.

Hennecke, a 380-employee manufacturer of polyurethane processing equipment, runs its virtualization infrastructure from a single console, which automatically alerts IT whenever it needs to allocate additional resources to a server. “As a result, we save around 50 percent on routine maintenance, which means that we don’t have to do as much overtime and have more resources available for strategic tasks such as developing new applications and supporting end users,” says Peter Ruttka, the company’s network and server systems administrator.

With virtualization, IT staff can respond to business growth by provisioning virtual servers in minutes. For example, when Hennecke needed two new web servers for its sales and finance function, the IT team had the virtual machines ready with just a few clicks of a mouse.

New virtualization advances also help SMBs prepare for growth. For example, Intel® Virtualization Technology FlexMigration gives you the flexibility to virtualize different generations of Intel® Xeon® processor-based servers within the same virtualization pool, giving you the ability to migrate workloads to fewer servers at night to save energy. And if you’re building a data center from the ground up, next-generation virtualization with Intel® Trusted Execution Technology also provides hardware-based resistance to malicious software attacks before the virtual machine boots.

3. Respond to the ebb and flow of business needs

A key advantage SMBs have is their fleet-footedness in responding to changing business conditions. Virtualization enhances this natural agility by creating a flexible IT infrastructure that allows companies to leap on new opportunities immediately and scale back if necessary.

Such flexibility is crucial for Thinkwell Group, a company that designs “immersive entertainment experiences,” like the amusement areas of Snow Dubai, a 24-story indoor ski resort. To create fantastic projects like this, the company’s 70-employee workforce can swell threefold for a short period. Twenty new employees might join a project team for a few weeks to put the finishing touches on, say, the Ice Age Adventure dark ride for MGM’s European theme park, featuring more than 50 animatronic and static characters based on the movie.

Thinkwell relies on virtualization to provide the quick bursts of computing power that its up-and-down workforce needs to meet rigid deadlines. “We can scale to our temporary employment spikes and avoid significant capital expenditures,” says Thinkwell CEO Joe Zenas. “We don’t have to expand our server room every time we have a big project come in. We can get the server power we need by expanding with virtual machines.”

This allows Thinkwell to maintain a lean IT department — just three people — while having global capabilities. With virtualization, small companies have ready access to huge technology resources without paying for a lot of hardware that may not always be needed.

4. Better protection for your crucial data

Virtualization sharply reduces the cost and complexity of disaster recovery (DR), providing peace of mind that key applications and crucial data can be recovered quickly if the worst happens.

Consider HotSchedules, a company that provides tools that helps restaurant managers and employees check schedules, submit requests and exchange shifts using a Web interface, mobile device or toll-free phone service.

“Restaurant managers and their staffs have come to rely on our solutions on a daily basis,” says Ray Pawlikowski, HotSchedules’ president and CEO. “We need to be sure that systems are available 24 hours a day, seven days a week.”

HotSchedules used Dell PowerEdge servers with Intel® Xeon® processors to consolidate its IT 
infrastructure from 50 physical servers to just three. The IT group replicates “snapshot” data (copies of data from a particular point in time) from its virtualized applications and databases and sends it to a secondary site. This helps to ensure customers have continued access to schedule 
information even in the event of a disaster.

With backup happening more frequently and in smaller portions, recovery time can be reduced from hours and days to minutes. Another benefit: HotSchedules can now commit to the stringent service level agreements necessary for attracting and retaining large-scale businesses.

High availability is another key benefit of a virtualized environment that leads to greater customer satisfaction. “Three times in the past month I have had to do maintenance on physical machines. I was able to do it with zero software downtime just by moving a virtual machine over to a host that was running live, and users were never aware of it,” says Jason Snook, vice president of IT for Mindwave. “In the past that was never a possibility.”

5. Untether your business

SMBs whose staff includes road warriors, contract employees and field personnel understand the costs and challenges of a highly mobile workforce. Software updates are a chore to manage across a diverse range of mobile devices. Lost laptops could put critical company data at risk.

Virtualization offers numerous benefits over other forms of remote computing. With software called client hypervisors, which is placed on a tablet or other mobile device, workers can access their desktops and use the same programs on the road as in the office. Meanwhile, IT can control the data and apply patches and other maintenance faster from a centrally managed console.

A major productivity plus: Hypervisor software running on a mobile device captures and stores work locally, which means an employee who loses connectivity can still access his data up to the point that connection was lost. This can be a boon for those who travel to areas with iffy wireless access.

And with more employees carrying crucial data on their mobile devices, virtualization also provides heightened security. Because hypervisor software “encases” data in a protective barrier, people without proper authorization would have difficulty gaining access to the customer files and other important information if a device is lost or stolen.

In turbulent economic times, SMBs need to be ready for anything — from embracing emerging technology that gives you an edge to jumping on new business opportunities. Virtualization allows your IT department to be as flexible and responsive as your business needs to be.

Joe Mullich has received more than two dozen awards for writing about business, technology and other topics.

Mon, 22 Aug 2011 21:45:00 -0500 text/html https://www.wsj.com/ad/article/technologysolutions-virtualization
Killexams : The Live-To-100 Retirement Plan

Recently, I was surprised, pleased, and sobered that a few online calculators estimated I could live to age 100. I’m currently age 70, so that would mean I’d be retired for 30 years!

While it was nice to think I still had 30 years to live, it was also a wake-up call that I should plan to live that long. Please bear in mind, I’m not really counting on living to age 100. However, since there’s a good chance it could happen, it’s the responsible thing to both plan and act as if I could live that long.

MORE FROM FORBESYou Should Plan For A Long Retirement

What does that really mean? The Stanford Center on Longevity expresses well the overall goal for living a long time—to be physically fit, mentally sharp, functionally independent, and financially secure throughout your life. Let me add that you’ll also want compelling reasons to live that long – “ya gotta wanna” to quote a few authors and singers. It’ll take time and effort to live long and live well, so you‘ll need to be motivated and inspired to stick with it.

For this post, let’s take a 30,000-foot view of the Live-to-100 Retirement Plan, addressing the goals summarized above.

Physically fit

As you continue aging, you’ll want to be sufficiently healthy to go about your daily activities and be able to do what gives you joy and fulfillment, all the way to age 100. Of course, it’s inevitable your abilities will change as you age, as will your daily activities. But for each age, you’ll want to be as healthy and vigorous as possible.

To achieve these goals, lots of research suggests adopting the following steps which you’ve probably heard before:

  • Exercise regularly
  • Eat nutritious food
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Get sufficient sleep
  • Manage your stress
  • Avoid smoking and abusing alcohol and other substances

For many people, the challenge is to actually adopt and Improve on many of the above steps.

You’ll also want to build your team of health care professionals, since your medical issues will inevitably be more complex as you age. One important aspect of your plan is to develop a series of health metrics that will alert you if you’re possibly developing vulnerabilities to a serious medical condition, so that you can take proactive and protective actions. Examples include regular testing of your cholesterol levels and blood pressure.

Mentally sharp

Americans fear Alzheimer’s disease more than cancer, stroke, and heart disease combined, according to a survey conducted by the Milken Institute. While there are no known cures or vaccines for Alzheimer’s, most forms of dementia, and mild cognitive impairment, there are lifestyle choices you can make that have the potential to delay, mitigate, or even prevent some forms of dementia and cognitive impairment.

Top of the list of these lifestyle choices is keeping physically fit with the steps outlined above, most importantly focusing on regular exercise. Building and enjoying a rich social life is also an important part of your Live-to-100 Retirement Plan.

Financially secure

You’ll want to address both the narrow view and broad view of longevity risk. The narrow view involves developing a portfolio of retirement income that lasts the rest of your life, no matter how long you live, one that will cover your living expenses throughout your long life. To do this, you’ll want to manage both sides of the common-sense formula for retirement security:

I > E, or income greater than living expenses

The broad view of longevity risk involves considering everything that can go wrong during a long retirement. It includes managing your health care expenses, preparing for a period of frailty near the end of your life, and planning for unexpected house and car repairs that are inevitable over the course of a few decades.

MORE FROM FORBESThe Most Serious Financial Risk Facing Retirees

Functionally independent

As a practical matter, functional independence is the ability to live without needing much help from others to carry out your daily activities. As such, the foundation for functional independence is physical fitness, mental acuity, and financial security, which we’ve already covered.

However, here are a few more ideas that can help. You’ll want to consciously build a “convoy of support” of relatives, friends, and paid helpers and professionals who can help you navigate the inevitable bumps along the road to age 100. Another important aspect is to carefully select the home and community that can support you in your later years, which may not be the same home and community that served you best during your working years.

Compelling reasons to live to 100

As you can see, it’s going to take a lot of work to carry out your Live-to-100 Retirement Plan. To help you stay on task, you’ll want to reflect on the reasons why you might want to make this effort. For me, it’s a combination of positive and negative motivations.

On the positive side, my wife and I have potentially many years to enjoy our bucket list, so we’re happily working on it! We also want to help our grandchildren grow up and launch their lives, and make a positive impact on our extended family, community, and the world at large.

On the negative side, we want to minimize the odds of incurring debilitating and painful illnesses, and we don’t want to be poor in our old age. We don’t want to be a burden on our families or society at large.

Admittedly the strategies outlined here can seem daunting and intimidating. And of course, there are a lot of details to consider. Fortunately, we don’t need to do everything at once—we can take some time to work on our longevity “to-do” list, step by step.

Wed, 26 Jul 2023 12:00:00 -0500 Steve Vernon en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevevernon/2023/07/27/the-live-to-100-retirement-plan/
Killexams : Coverage Plan

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Killexams : 457 Plan

What Is a 457 Plan?

A 457 plan is a tax-advantaged retirement savings plan offered to employees of many state and local governments and some nonprofit organizations. Like the better-known 401(k) plan in the private sector, the 457 plan allows employees to deposit a portion of their pre-tax earnings in an account, reducing their income taxes for the year while postponing the taxes due until the money is withdrawn after they retire.

A Roth version of the 457 plan, which allows after-tax contributions, may be allowed at the employer's discretion.

There are two main types of 457 plans:

  • The 457(b): This is the most common 457 plan and is offered to state and local government employees and nonprofits. It is a retirement savings plan that offers tax advantages to participants.
  • The 457(f): This plan is offered only to highly compensated executives in tax-exempt organizations. It is a supplement to the 457(b) and it is, essentially, a deferred salary plan.

Key Takeaways

  • The 457 plan is an IRS-sanctioned, tax-advantaged employee retirement plan.
  • The plan is offered only to public service employees and employees at tax-exempt organizations.
  • Participants are allowed to contribute up to 100% of their salaries up to a dollar limit for the year.
  • The interest and earnings in the account are not taxed until the funds are withdrawn. The exception is the Roth option, if available, in which only post-tax money is deposited.

Watch Now: What Is a 457 Plan?

Types of 457 Plans

As noted, the 457 plan comes in two flavors, the 457(b) and the 457(f).

The 457(b) Plan

The 457(b) plan is most often offered to civil servants, police personnel, and other employees of government agencies, public services, and nonprofit organizations such as hospitals, churches, and charitable organizations.

It is similar to a 401(k). Participants set aside a percentage of their salary into a retirement account. The employees choose how their money is invested from a list of options, mostly mutual funds and annuities.

The account grows in value without being taxed over the years. When the employee retires, taxes will be due on the amount withdrawn.

Employees are allowed to contribute up to 100% of their salary, provided it does not exceed the dollar limit set for the year.

If the 457 plan does not meet statutory requirements, the assets may be subject to different rules.

457(b) Contribution Limits

As of 2022, employees can contribute up to $20,500 per year to 457 plans. This limit increases to $22,500 for 2023.

In some cases, workers are allowed to contribute even more. For example, if an employer permits catch-up contributions, workers over the age of 50 may pay in an additional $6,500 a year, making their maximum contribution limit $27,000 ($20,500 + $6,500) in 2022. The catch-up contribution increases to $7,500 for tax year 2023, making the maximum contribution limit $30,000 ($22,500 + $7,500).

Also, 457(b) plans feature a "double limit catch-up" provision. This is designed to allow participants who are nearing retirement to compensate for years in which they did not contribute to the plan but were eligible to do so.

In this case, employees who are within three years of retirement age may contribute up to $41,000 in 2022 and up to $45,000 in 2023. 

Advantages and Disadvantages of a 457(b) Plan

The 457(b) plan has all of the advantages of a 401(k), although there are some differences.

Advantages of a 457(b)

Tax Benefits

If a traditional rather than a Roth plan is chosen, the contributions are deducted from an employee's paycheck on a pre-tax basis. That amount is subtracted from the employee's gross income, effectively lowering the person's taxes paid for that year. For example, if Alex earns $4,000 per month and contributes $700 to a 457(b) plan, Alex's taxable income for the month is $3,300.

Employees invest their contributions in their choice or choices from a selection of annuities and mutual funds.

All interest and earnings generated from year to year remain untaxed until the funds are withdrawn.

Withdrawals Without Penalty

There is one big difference between the 457(b) and other tax-advantaged retirement plans: no penalty for early withdrawals in some circumstances.

If an employee retires early or resigns from the job for any reason, the funds can be withdrawn without incurring a 10% penalty from the IRS. Early withdrawals from most retirement plans are subject to the penalty except for certain hardship reasons. (The penalty was waived for two years during the COVID-19 pandemic.) 

A 457(b) account holder can take a penalty-free withdrawal without changing jobs, like a 401(k) account holder. The list of acceptable reasons, however, is limited to "unforeseeable emergencies."

Exceptions to the Rules

Early withdrawals from a 457(b) are subject to the 10% penalty if the account holder rolls the funds over from a 457 to any other tax-advantaged retirement account, such as a 401(k). This would happen if, for example, a government employee quit to take a job in the private sector.

In addition, anyone who takes money out of a retirement account early must keep in mind that any income taxes due on that money will be owed in the year that the withdrawal is taken.

Disadvantages of a 457(b) Plan

One potential advantage of most tax-advantaged retirement savings plans is the employer match. An employer may choose to match some portion of an employee's contribution to the plan. An employer who matches the first 3% of the employee's contribution, for example, is presenting the employee with a 3% raise.

Employer Match Is Rare

Employers can match their employees' contributions to a 457(b) but, in practice, most don't.

If they do, the employer contribution counts toward the maximum contribution limit. This is not the case for 401(k) plans.

For instance, in 2022, if an employer contributes $10,000 to a 457(b) plan, the employee can add only $10,500 for the year until the $20,500 contribution limit is reached (except for those eligible to use the catch-up option).

457(b) Advantages
  • Looser rules for early withdrawals without a penalty.

  • Early distributions allowed for participants who leave a job.

  • As with other retirement plans, no taxes are due until money is withdrawn.

457(b) Disadvantages
  • Employer contributions count toward contribution limit the year they vest.

  • Employer contributions subject to vesting schedule. If the employee quits, non-vested funds are forfeited.

  • Limited investment choices compared to private sector plans.

457(b) vs. 403(b)

The 403(b) plan, like the 457(b), is mostly available to public service employees. They are a particularly common benefit offered to public school teachers.

The 403(b) has its origins in the 1950s when it exclusively offered an annuity to participants. Participants still have the option of creating an annuity but they also can choose to invest in mutual funds.

In fact, the 403(b) has changed over the years until it closely resembles the private sector's 401(k) plan, although the investment choices offered to participants are relatively limited.

The annual contribution limits are identical to those of the 457(b) and 401(k) plans.

If you're a public employee, your employer may well offer a 457(b) or a 403(b).

Advisor Insight

Dan Stewart, CFA®
Revere Asset Management, Dallas, TX

457 plans are taxed as income similar to a 401(k) or 403(b) when distributions are taken. The only difference is there are no withdrawal penalties and that they are the only plans without early withdrawal penalties. But you also have the option of rolling the assets in an IRA rollover. This way, you can better control distributions and only take them when needed.

So if you take the entire amount as a lump sum, the entire amount is added to your income and may push you into a higher tax bracket.

With the rollover route, you could take out a little this year, and so on as needed, thus controlling your taxes better. And while it remains inside the IRA, it continues to grow tax-deferred and is protected from creditors.

What Is the Difference Between a 457(b) Plan and a 457(f) Plan?

The 457(b) plan is a version of the 401(k) plan that is designed for public and nonprofit workers. It helps employees save for retirement while deferring the tax bill until they retire and start withdrawing the money. (The Roth version, which is available only at the employer's discretion, takes the taxes upfront, so no taxes are usually due on withdrawals.)

The 457(f) plan is also known as a SERP for Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan. It is a retirement savings plan for only the highest-paid executives in the tax-exempt sector. They are mostly employed in hospitals, universities, and credit unions.

A 457(f) is a supplement to a 457(b). Employers make additional contributions to the employee's account, beyond the usual limits. These are negotiated by contract and amount to a deferred salary adjustment.

If the executive resigns before an established vesting period, the 457(f) contribution disappears. The plan is intended as an executive retention strategy, commonly known as "golden handcuffs."

Is a 457(b) Plan Better Than a 401(k) Plan?

For all intents and purposes, a 457(b) is just as good as a 401(k) plan. If you're employer is a public agency or a nonprofit, it's probably your best option for retirement savings.

Assuming you opt for a traditional plan rather than a Roth plan, you'll be lowering your taxable income from year to year while plunking that money into a long-term investment account. The money won't be taxed until you retire and start taking withdrawals.

(If it's a Roth, you'll pay the taxes up front and usually will owe no taxes on the money you deposited or the profits it earns over the years.)

On the downside, your contributions will probably not be matched by your employer. But that's just reality in the nonprofit sector, not a rule of the plan.

How and When Can I Make Withdrawals From My 457(b) Account?

One advantage of a 457(b) is that you can take early withdrawals without paying a tax penalty for any "unforeseeable emergency." This isn't a good idea, since you're plundering your retirement savings, but unforeseeable emergencies do happen. And, you'll owe income tax for that year on the amount you withdraw.

The required minimum distribution (RMD) you must take is determined by an IRS worksheet. An RMD is a minimum amount that must be withdrawn from certain retirement plans, like a 457(b), each year once you reach a certain age. If you were born between 1951 and 1959, the age is 73. If you were born in 1960 or after, the age is 75. This is an increase from the previous age of 72.

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 02:30:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.investopedia.com/terms/1/457plan.asp
Killexams : Welcome to Span Plan

Come Visit Us, and Learn More About Span Plan

Span Plan Nontraditional Student Services offers a variety of services for all kinds of nontraditional students. Our current office hours are Monday - Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. To learn more, feel free to explore our website or contact us directly by calling, emailing, or visiting our office.

Tue, 18 Aug 2020 04:23:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.purdue.edu/spanplan/
Killexams : Strategic Plan

The University of Delaware Board of Trustees approved a refreshed institutional strategic plan on Wednesday, March 16, 2022. The current plan represents a year-long process of discussion and planning that involved Trustees, senior leaders and working groups comprised of more than 150 faculty, staff and students from throughout the University, as well as a series of public forums in 2021.


Strategic Planning Committees

The Forward and Forever strategic plan is the work of a steering committee and five working groups.

Strategic Planning Steering Committee

  • Dennis Assanis, President (Chair)

  • Robin Morgan, Provost

  • John Long, Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

  • Charlie Riordan, Vice President, Research, Scholarship and Innovation

  • Mary Remmler, Vice President, Strategic Planning and Analysis

  • Beth Brand, Vice President and University Secretary

  • Chris Williams, Professor, Entomology and Wildlife Ecology, Chair of University of Delaware Sustainability Council

  • Debra Hess Norris, Trustee, Unidel Henry Francis du Pont Chair of Art Conservation

  • Rodney Morrison, Vice President, Enrollment Management

  • Levi Thompson, Dean, College of Engineering

  • Mia Carbone, President, Student Government Association, 2020-21

  • Samantha Bingaman, President, Graduate Student Government, 2020-21

  • Glenn Carter, Vice President, Communications and Marketing

  • John Pelesko, Dean, College of Arts and Sciences

  • José-Luis Riera, Vice President, Student Life

  • Fatimah Conley, Vice President of Equity and Chief Diversity Officer

  • Michael Vaughan, Vice Provost for Equity

  • Lou Rossi, Dean, Graduate College

  • Bahira Trask, Chair, Department of Human Development and Family Sciences

  • Carlos Asarta, Professor, Economics, and James B. O’Neill Director of Center for Economic Education and Entrepreneurship

  • Kim Isett, Associate Dean of Research, Biden School of Public Policy and Administration

  • Sharon Pitt, Vice President, Information Technologies

  • Norman Wagner, Unidel Robert L. Pigford Chair in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

Expanding Student Access and Success

Co-chaired by John Pelesko, dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, and José-Luis Riera, vice president of the Office of Student Life. 


Watch a video of the May 11 forum



Committee members

Student success sub-committees:


Student Pipeline





  • Rodney Morrison (Lead),
    VP for Enrollment Management
  • Lynn Okagaki (Lead),
    Deputy Provost
  • Heather Kovanic (Lead), Director, Student Orientation & Transition Programs
  • Mike Chalmers, Senior Director Leadership Communications, OCM
  • Kasiyah Tatem,
    undergraduate student
  • Karen Freed, Associate Athletic Director, Recreation Services
  • Joe Trainor, Professor,
    Biden School
  • Dawn Berk, Associate Professor , Mathematical Sciences
  • Trevor Dawes, Vice Provost, Libraries/Museums
  • LaRuth McAfee, Senior Assistant Dean, Graduate & Professional Education
  • Art Trembanis, Professor, 
    School of Marine Science & Policy
  • Stephanie Chang, Director, Student Diversity & Inclusion
  • Donna Woulfe, Associate Professor, Biological Sciences
  • Kim Yackoski, Senior Assistant Dean, Agriculture & Natural Resources
  • Lucas Attia,
    undergraduate student








Post-grad success

  • Iain Crawford (Lead),
    Director, Undergrad Research
  • Nathan Elton (Lead), Director, Career Center
  • David Satran, Director, Associate in Arts Program
  • Brenda Shaffer, instructor, Fashion & Apparel Studies
  • Jenni Buckley, Associate Prof., Mechanical Engineering
  • Carol Wong, Associate Professor, Education 
  • Catherine Stoner, Assistant Dean, Health Sciences
  • Elias Kourpas, Assistant Professor, Lerner 
  • Michael Chajes,
    Dean, Honors
  • Siena Ferrick, undergraduate student
  • Haritha Malladi, Assistant Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering


  • Ioannis Chremos, Doctoral student, Engineering 
Hide committee members

Building a Social Justice Foundation to Support a Diverse, Inclusive and Intercultural Campus

Co-chaired by Fatimah Conley, Vice President of Equity and Chief Diversity Officer, and Michael Vaughan, Vice Provost for Equity. 


Watch a video of the May 12 forum


Committee members

Diversity, Equity & Inclusion sub-committees:


Student Recruitment/


Faculty and Staff



  • Latoya Watson (Lead), Assistant Dean, Associate in Arts Program 
  • Lori Koval (Lead), Associate Director,
    Talent Acquisition 
  • Christy Mannering (Lead), Digital Specialist, Agriculture & Natural Resources
  • Adam Cantley,
    Dean of Students
  • Gary Henry, Dean,
    Education & Human Development
  • Pat Ogden, Associate Vice President
    & Chief of Police
  • George Class-Peters,
    undergraduate student  
  • Emerald Christopher-Byrd, Assistant Professor, Woman & Gender Studies
  • Marissa McClenton,
    undergraduate student
  • Lynn Sydnor-Epps, Senior Associate Director, Career Center  
  • Stephanie Del Tufo, Assistant Professor, Education
  • Beth Mineo, Director,
    Center for Disabilities Studies 
  • Regina Wright, Associate Dean, Health Sciences
  • Lindsay Naylor, Assistant Professor, Geography & Spatial Sciences 

Non-traditional Social/Racial Justice Curriculum/Anti-Racism


and Engagement

  • Rachel Garcia (Lead), Assistant Director, Student Diversity
  • Lynnette Overby (Lead), Professor, Theatre 
  • Yasser Payne, Associate Professor, Sociology
  • Cathy McLaughlin, Executive Director, Biden Institute
  • McKay Jenkins,
    Professor, English 
  • Kate Long, Assistant Vice President, Development 
  • Rachel Davidson, Associate Dean, Engineering
  • Donna Schwartz, Clerk, Student Centers
  • Wendy Smith, Professor, Business Administration
  • Peter Bothum, Media Relations Manager, OCM
Hide members

Expanding Interdisciplinary and Global Opportunities


Co-chaired by Lou Rossi, dean of the Graduate College, and Bahira Trask, chair of the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences.


Watch a video of the May 13 forum


Committee members

Committee members:

  • Saleem Ali, Professor, Geography
    & Spatial Sciences
  • Heiddy DiGregorio,
    Assistant Professor, Nursing 
  • Lashanda Korley,
    Professor, Materials Science
  • Ravi Ammigan, Associate Deputy Provost, International Programs
  •  Logan Gerber-Chavez,
    graduate student
  • Sheng Lu, Associate Professor, Fashion & Apparel Studies
  • Gonzalo Arce, Professor, Electrical & Computer Engineering
  • Oyku Girmen,
    undergraduate student
  • Stacey Muzzi, Assistant Vice President, Development & Alumni Relations
  • Maria Aristigueta, Dean,
    Biden School 
  • Jennifer Gregan, Senior Assistant Dean, Lerner Business & Economics
  • Katy O'Connell, Senior Director, Office of Communications & Marketing
  • Estella Atekwana, Dean, College of Earth, Ocean & Environment 
  • Amy Hagstrom,
    Professor, Nursing
  • Thomas Powers, Associate Professor, Philosophy
  • Alice Ba, Professor, Political Science & International Relations
  • George Irvine, Associate Vice Provost, Professional & Continuing Studies 
  • Georgina Ramsay, Assistant Professor, Anthropology
  • Wendy Bellion, Professor,
    Art History
  • Kyle Jenkins,
    undergraduate students
  • Scott Stevens, Director,
    English Language Institute
  • Kim Bothi, Executive Director, CRiSP, Materials Science
  • Kathleen Kerr, Associate Vice President,
    Student Life
  • Milli Sullivan, Professor, Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
  • Bintong Chen, Professor, Business Administration


  • Jenn Volk, Associate
    Director of Cooperative Extension 
Hide members

Redefining Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship


Co-chaired by Carlos Asarta, professor of economics, and Kim Isett, associate dean of research in the Biden School of Public Policy and Administration. 


Watch a video of the May 6 forum


Committee members

Committee members:

  • Ryan Arsenault, Assistant Professor,
    Animal Science
  • Catherine Grimes, Professor, Biological Sciences, Chemistry and Biochemistry
  • Ashley Pigford, Associate Professor,
    Art & Design
  • Anish Adhikari,
    graduate student
  • Michael (Sean) Holly,
    undergraduate student
  • Bill Provine, Administrative Supervisor, Research Office
  • Amy Bleakley,
    Professor, Communication
  • Fouad Kiamilev, Professor, Electrical & computer Engineering
  • Stephanie Raible, Assistant Professor, Human Development & Family Science 
  • Tracey Bryant, Senior Director Research Communications, OCM
  • Katya Roelse, Instructor, Fashion & Apparel Studies
  • Abhigna Rao,
    undergraduate student
  • Matthew Cooper,
    undergraduate student
  • Dan Freeman, Director,
    Venture Development Center
  • Teomara Rutherford,Assistant Professor, Learning Sciences
  • Rachel Coppola, Senior Associate Director, Career Center
  • Sheryl Kline,
    Deputy Dean, Lerner Business & Economics
  • Tracy Shickel,
    Director, Economic Development
  • Tobin Driscoll, Professor, Mathematical Sciences
  • Julius Korley, Director, Entrepreneurship,
  • Levi Thompson,
    Dean, Engineering
  • Cole Galloway, Professor, Physical Therapy and Psychological & Brain Sciences
  • Kelvin Lee,
    Director, NIMBL
  • Eric Wommack, Deputy Dean, Agriculture & Natural Resources
  • Jason Gleghorn, Associate Professor, Biological Sciences
  • Kathy Matt,
    Dean, Health Sciences
  • Yushan Yan, Professor, Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
Hide members

Reimagining Intellectual and Physical Capital for a Sustainable and Boundless Campus


Co-chaired by Sharon Pitt, vice president of Information Technologies, and Norman Wagner, Unidel Robert L. Pigford Chair in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. 


Watch a video of the May 10 forum


Committee members

Intellectual and Physical Capital sub-committees:


 Intellectual Capital


Technology/Physical Capital


Operational/Financial Capital

  • Kali Kniel (Lead), Professor,
    Animal and Food Sciences
  • Jim Tweedy (Lead),
    Director, Residence Life & Housing
  • Bruce Weber (Lead), Dean, Lerner Business & Economics
  • Jared Aupperle, Interim Vice President, Human Resources 
  • Karen Aniunas,
    Associate Provost/Chief of Staff
  • Paige Aldred,
    undergraduate student
  • Mary Dozier, Professor, Psychological & Brain Sciences
  • John Cohill,
    undergraduate student
  • John Brennan,
    Assistant Vice President, OCM
  • Laure Ergin, Vice President
    & General Counsel
  • Tony Doody, Director,
    University Student Centers
  • Jim Dicker, Vice President,  Development & Alumni Relations
  • Matt Kinservik,
    Vice Provost
  • Rachel Karchmer-Klein, Associate Professor, Education
  • Rita Landgraf, Director,
    Partnership for Health Communities
  • Salil Lachke, Professor,
    Biological Sciences
  • Peter Krawchyk, Vice President, Facilities, Real Estate, Auxiliary Services
  • Greg Oler,
    Vice President, Finance
  • Dave Redlawsk, Professor, Political Science & International Relations
  • Michael Michaud,
    PhD student
  • Dan Smith, Associate Professor,
    Biden School
  • Lynn Roberts,
    undergraduate student
  • Jordan Skolnick,
    Deputy Athletics Director
  • Nick Russell,
    graduate student
  • Mike Smith, Director, Strategic Intiatives, Health Sciences 
  • Dustin Sleesman, Associate Professor, Business Management 
  • Seth Turner, Director, College Computing Operations, Engineering 

Sustainability Capital

  • Michael Chajes (Lead), Dean, Honors College
  • Cara Clase, Research Assistant
  • Juan Viera, College Facilities Planning Director
Hide members
Tue, 25 Jan 2022 02:03:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.udel.edu/about/leadership/strategic-plan/
Killexams : What Is A Project Management Plan And How To Create One

To create a project management plan, first put together a high overview of the basics of your project, including the project’s scope, schedule and budget. Next, build on those basics to write an executive summary. Then, add a project timeline, risk assessment, stakeholder chart, communication plan and resource management plan to your executive summary. Lastly, gather and incorporate stakeholders’ insights to perfect and create buy-in for your plan.

1. Identify Baselines for Your Project

Your project’s baselines should first focus on the project’s scope, then the project’s schedule and, finally, its budget. The result should be a high overview that will inform the rest of your planning process. To complete this step, answer the following questions:

  • What is a summary of the project’s deliverables, including the expected features in order of priority?
  • What important milestones will help us complete this project?
  • What should the project not focus on? (set some scope boundaries)
  • When is the project scheduled to begin?
  • When should the project be complete?
  • How much do we have to spend on this project? If it is a project that needs to be completed for a client, what budget do we have to spend on it while still making a set profit margin?

2. Write an Executive Summary

An executive summary should include a definition of your project, your project’s value proposition, including the problem your project addresses and its solution, milestones and their deliverables, scope limits―and the consequences for changing these limits―goals and financial breakdown. Use the answers to the questions posed in step one to put together your executive summary.

As the face of your project before stakeholders, your executive summary should be visually appealing and succinct. Columns and visuals should break it up to make it easy to read quickly. One great tool for creating an attractive and succinct summary is a Canva executive summary template. You can customize a template to match your brand and add your content, then either download your executive summary or share it in link form.

To begin, sign up for Canva for free, then use the search box titled “What will you design?” for “executive summary” and press “enter.” Click the appropriate template for your purposes and brand, then use the tools on the left-hand side of the enlarged template to customize its colors, text and images. Add pages by clicking the plus sign at the top right-hand corner of the template and proceed to add text and customizations to complete your summary.

3. Plot Your Project’s Timeline

The best way to plot your project’s timeline is with a Gantt chart. A Gantt chart is a visual representation of what activities you plan to begin and complete and when. These activities are usually small chunks or milestones of your completed project. They also formulate the scope of your project, helping to reduce scope creep later on. Gantt charts are often the easiest to use to plot your timeline.

It is important to note expected dependencies on your Gantt chart. A dependency happens when one activity on a timeline must be completed before team members can go on to the next one. For example, a prototype needs to be completed before a focus group analysis of the prototype can take place. Thus, these two activities are dependent. Also note independent activities that can be completed even as other activities are underway, thereby saving time.

Pro tip: An easy way to note dependencies and independent activities is via color-coding. Arrows drawn on your Gantt chart can also help to pinpoint dependencies.

While Canva does offer Gantt charts to plot your project’s timeline, there are also platforms that specialize in producing Gantt chart software. Not only can this software help you put together your Gantt chart, but it can then help you stay on track with its timeline and avoid scope creep once your project begins via task descriptions and automations. If paying for such a service isn’t in your project’s budget, you can also create a Gantt chart in Excel or Google Sheets.

Gantt chart from monday.com

Gantt chart from monday.com

4. Define Stakeholder Roles

With your project activities recorded on your timeline, define who will be responsible for each activity. Your plan serves as a guiding star to all stakeholders involved in your project, so it’s best to record responsible parties in an intuitive chart. Create a project team chart to show who will be involved in completing the project and for which activities each is responsible. For collaboration ease, also note who each person is accountable to and their contact information.

Canva offers organizational or team chart templates you can use to customize for the needs of your project. Search “organizational chart” using the search bar in your Canva account. Click the chart that best suits your project and brand needs. Then, use the design menu to upload pictures of your team members, customize colors and replace template text to offer the data your stakeholders need for easy collaboration during the life of your project.

An example of a Canva organizational chart template to be adapted to create a project team chart.

An example of a Canva organizational chart template to be adapted to create a project team chart.

5. Perform a Risk Assessment

Your risk assessment should begin with a list of obstacles that could impact your team’s ability to complete the project on time negatively at all and with the desired quality. It should then create a plan for each risk by addressing what might trigger the risk, steps that lend to risk prevention and how to mitigate a risk should it happen. Finally, it should assign stakeholders to manage risk triggers, prevention and mitigation. Some teams use a SWOT analysis to help identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in this stage.

To dive into each risk, answer the following questions:

  • What could happen that would negatively impact the project?
  • At what point in the project timeline is this risk most likely to happen?
  • How likely is the risk to happen?
  • What events or factors would trigger this risk?
  • What steps can be taken to reduce the chances of this risk taking place? How can we avoid this trigger or these triggers?
  • What would be the expected outcome should the risk happen anyway?
  • How could we mitigate a negative outcome should the risk take place?
  • Who would be the best person to manage each risk’s triggers, prevention or mitigation?

As you assigned responsible parties for each project activity, you likely selected people who had expertise in the areas in which their assigned activities fall. For example, if you assigned the graphic design of a marketing project to a team member, that person is likely a graphic designer. Their expertise is invaluable in assessing graphic design risks and their prevention and mitigation steps. Lean on your team for this expertise, and then implement their suggestions.

6. Create Key Subplans

Two key subplans you should include in your project management plan are a resource and communications management plan. Your resource sub plan should list what resources are needed to complete your project and their availability. Your communications plan should include how your team will communicate one-on-one and team-wide.

Resource Management Plan

A resource subplan can be completed in project management software. You can create columns for estimated expenses and other needed resources broken down by milestones, such as raw products and talent. Other customizable resource reports are available within the software and automatically kept up to date. Wrike, for example, offers customizable reports where you can track resource availability and export reports to include in your plan.

An example of Wrike's customizable resource reports

An example of Wrike’s customizable resource reports

Communications Management Plan

While it may seem inconsequential compared to your risk assessment and resource plan, poor communication is the primary reason most projects experience scope gaps and project failure, according to a PMI study. Poor communication can, therefore, derail all your other planning efforts.

As such, your communications management plan should be detailed and address what, when and how information will be shared during your project. Details should focus on what needs to be communicated and at what intervals during the project execution, stakeholders’ communication preferences, a communication schedule for virtual meetings or phone calls that occur at planned intervals, who will review tasks, to whom task completions should be reported and what platforms or tools should be used for communication purposes.

Pro tip: For best results, look at the communication tools available in your project management software. Alternatively, consider what communication-tool integrations it offers. For example, most project management software offer integrations with Slack. Using available tools within your software will allow ease of collaboration and the communication visibility your team needs to stay on the same page and on track.

7. Gather and Incorporate Feedback From Stakeholders

The team you have chosen to own the activities on your project timeline are uniquely capable of doing so. As such, they are likely to have recommendations you might not think about to make your project more successful. Moreover, if their insights are incorporated into the plan, they are more likely to enthusiastically follow it. So, get your team together and go over the details of your plan. Learn from them and incorporate their insights.

In addition, present your plan to the end-user or client for whom you are executing the project. Make sure they agree to the project scope and its deliverables. Make their preferred changes now so you don’t have to make them later. Discuss what will happen if they change their minds later―extra fees, for example―so that scope creep does not impact your project’s successful execution, on-time completion or quality final deliverable negatively.

Mon, 06 Feb 2023 17:17:00 -0600 Alana Rudder en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/advisor/business/project-management-plan/
Killexams : application virtualization

Application virtualization refers to several techniques that make running applications protected, flexible and easy to manage.

Modern operating systems keep programs isolated from each other. If one program crashes, the remaining programs generally keep running. However, bugs in the operating system or apps can cause the entire system to come to a screeching halt or, at the least, impede ongoing operations, which is why virtualization became desirable. Following are several application virtualization methods. See virtualization, network virtualization and storage virtualization.

Terminals to a Central Computer

The oldest network architecture, all applications and data are stored in a centralized mainframe or server cluster. The user's PC functions like an input/output terminal to the central machine. See thin client.

Application Streaming

Rather than installing all applications in every user's machine, applications are delivered to each user as needed. This enables apps to be updated centrally and also provides a way to measure each person's genuine usage. See application streaming.

Write Once, Run Everywhere

An interpreted programming language enables the same program to run on different hardware, with Java being the major example (see Java Virtual Machine). The applications are said to be "virtualized" because they run on any platform that has a runtime engine for that language.

Dynamic Application Assignment

This approach treats servers in the datacenter as a pool of operating system resources and assigns those resources to applications based on demand in real time. The pioneer in this area is Data Synapse Inc. (see FabricServer). The applications are said to be "virtualized" because they can run in any server.

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 21:06:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/application-virtualization
Killexams : Why your retirement plan should include a gold IRA
Gold IRAs are specifically designed for retirement and offer attractive tax benefits other investments don't. /Getty Images

When it comes to retirement planning, diversification is key. By spreading your investments across different asset classes, you can minimize risk and maximize returns. But while most people focus on stocks, bonds and mutual funds, there's another investment worth considering for your retirement strategy: gold.

Gold IRAs, in particular, are specifically designed for retirement investing, with attractive tax benefits not offered by other gold investments. By opening a gold IRA, you can enjoy these benefits and gain exposure to gold's many perks as an investment.

Learn how you can incorporate a gold IRA into your retirement plan with a free information kit.

Why your retirement plan should include a gold IRA

Here's why a gold IRA can be a valuable part of your retirement plan.

You'll get tax benefits

There are many ways to invest in gold. Arguably one of the biggest advantages of opting for a gold IRA is the tax benefits it provides.

Depending on the type of gold IRA you choose, you can enjoy tax benefits either now or in the future. A traditional gold IRA allows you to contribute pre-tax dollars, and your money is taxed when you withdraw it. A Roth gold IRA taxes your contributions when you make them, and your withdrawals are tax-free.

By considering your current and future financial needs, you can select the IRA type that will allow you to keep the most money in your pocket.

It protects your portfolio from market volatility

High-growth assets like stocks can be extremely unpredictable. When the markets dip, investors with a lot of money in these assets can lose significant amounts of money. 

Gold, on the other hand, is not correlated to the stock market. In fact, when stocks are down, gold usually performs well, which can help offset any losses you may experience in other investments. By keeping about 5% to 10% of your portfolio in gold, you can safeguard your retirement savings from risk while allocating room to higher-risk, higher-reward assets.

It's a hedge against inflation

Inflation can rapidly erode the value of your retirement savings. Gold is a proven hedge against inflation because, unlike paper currency, it can't be devalued by overproduction. It's an asset, currency and material and is used in everything from jewelry to electronics, so it's always in demand. And when investors seek to preserve their purchasing power from inflation, the increased demand drives prices up, making gold investments more valuable.

If you're concerned about the long-term impact of inflation on your retirement savings, a gold IRA can offer some protection and peace of mind.

Request your free investors kit today to find out if a gold IRA is right for you.

It's a safe-haven asset

Gold has historically performed well in times of economic turmoil and geopolitical uncertainty, delivering steady, reliable returns as other investments falter. In fact, central banks hold gold specifically because they trust its stability and safety.

In a world where there's always worrisome news of some type, gold can help your portfolio weather the storms that will inevitably arise between now and your retirement date.

The bottom line

Adding gold to your retirement plan is a wise move for many reasons. It delivers unique tax benefits, protects your money from market volatility and inflation and provides a safe haven from economic ups and downs. These things are crucial when it comes to an investment as important as your retirement.

Of course, as with any investment, you should do your own research and speak with a financial advisor to determine the best way to incorporate a gold IRA into your portfolio. Done right, you can reap the full rewards of this valuable retirement account.

Thu, 03 Aug 2023 02:27:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.cbsnews.com/news/why-your-retirement-plan-should-include-gold-ira/
Killexams : What Is a Financial Plan? No result found, try new keyword!While this sounds fairly straightforward, a solid financial plan is highly individualized to reflect the unique circumstances each person brings to the table – including their personal desires ... Tue, 19 Jul 2022 07:56:00 -0500 text/html https://money.usnews.com/investing/articles/what-is-a-financial-plan
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