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Exam Code: 300-510 Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
300-510 Implementing Cisco Service Provider Advanced Routing Solutions (SPRI)

300-510 SPRI
Certifications: CCNP Service Provider, Cisco Certified Specialist - Service Provider Advanced Routing Implementation

This test tests your knowledge of implementing service provider advanced routing technologies, including:
Routing protocols
Policy language
Segment routing

Exam Description
The Implementing Cisco Service Provider Advanced Routing Solutions v1.0 (SPRI 300-510) test is a 90-minute test associated with the CCNP Service Provider and Cisco Certified Specialist - Service Provider Advanced Routing Implementation certifications. This test tests a candidate's knowledge of implementing service provider advanced routing technologies including routing protocols, policy language, MPLS, and segment routing. The course, Implementing Cisco Service Provider Routing Solutions, helps candidates to prepare for this exam.

35% 1.0 Unicast Routing
1.1 Compare OSPF and IS-IS routing protocols
1.2 Troubleshoot OSPF multiarea operations (IPv4 and IPv6)
1.2.a Route advertisement
1.2.b Summarization
1.3 Troubleshoot IS-IS multilevel operations (IPv4 and IPv6)
1.3.a Route advertisement
1.3.b Summarization
1.4 Describe the BGP scalability and performance
1.4.a BGP confederations
1.4.b Route reflectors
1.5 Troubleshoot BGP
1.5.a Route advertisement
1.5.b Route reflectors
1.5.c Confederations
1.5.d Multihoming
1.5.e TTL security and inter-domain security
1.5.f Maximum prefix
1.5.g Route dampening
1.5.h Dynamic neighbors
1.5.i Communities
1.6 Describe IPv6 tunneling mechanisms
1.6.a Static IPv6-in-IPv4 tunnels
1.6.b Dynamic 6to4 tunnels
1.6.c IPv6 provider edge (6PE)
1.7 Implement fast convergence
1.7.a Bidirectional forwarding detection
1.7.b Nonstop Forwarding
1.7.c NSR
1.7.d Timers
1.7.e BGP pic (edge and core)
1.7.f LFA
1.7.g BGP additional and backup path
15% 2.0 Multicast Routing
2.1 Compare multicast concepts
2.1.a Multicast domains, distribution trees, and IGMP operations
2.1.b Any-Source Multicast (ASM) versus Source Specific Multicast (SSM)
2.1.c Intra-domain versus inter-domain multicast routing
2.2 Describe multicast concepts
2.2.a Mapping of multicast IP addresses to MAC addresses
2.2.b Multiprotocol BGP for IPv4 and IPv6
2.2.c Principles and operations of PIM-SM
2.2.d Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP) operations
2.2.e MLDP/P2MP
2.3 Implement PIM-SM operations
2.3.a Auto-RP, PIMv2 BSR, anycast RP
2.3.b BIDIR-PIM operations
2.3.c SSM operations
2.3.d MSDP operations
2.4 Troubleshoot multicast routing
2.4.a Single domain
2.4.b Multidomain
25% 3.0 Routing Policy and Manipulation
3.1 Compare routing policy language and route maps
3.2 Describe conditional matching
3.2.a Operations
3.2.b Semantics of policy applications and statements
3.2.c Regular expressions
3.2.d Policy sets
3.2.e Tags
3.2.f ACLs
3.2.g Prefix lists and prefix sets
3.2.h Route types
3.2.i BGP attributes and communities
3.2.j Hierarchical and parameterized structures
3.3 Troubleshoot route manipulation for IGPs
3.3.a IS-IS
3.3.b OSPF
3.4 Troubleshoot route manipulation for BGP
3.4.a Route filtering
3.4.b Traffic steering
25% 4.0 MPLS and Segment Routing
4.1 Troubleshoot MPLS
4.1.a LDP
4.1.b LSP
4.1.c Unified BGP
4.1.d BGP free core
4.1.e RSVP TE tunnels
4.2 Implement segment routing
4.2.a Routing protocol extensions (OSPF, IS-IS, BGP)
4.2.b SRGB and SRLB
4.2.c Topology-Independent Loop-Free Alternate (TI-LFA)
4.2.d Migration procedures (SR prefer and mapping server)
4.3 Describe segment routing traffic engineering
4.3.a Automated steering and coloring
4.3.b Policies (constraints, metrics, and attributes)
4.3.c PCE-based path calculation
4.4 Describe segment routing v6 (SRv6)
4.4.a Control plane operations
4.4.b Data plane operations

Implementing Cisco Service Provider Advanced Routing Solutions (SPRI)
Cisco Implementing benefits
Killexams : Cisco Implementing benefits - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/300-510 Search results Killexams : Cisco Implementing benefits - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/300-510 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Cisco Killexams : Jobless Benefits, Cisco, Oil Prices - 5 Things You Must Know Thursday No result found, try new keyword!Stock futures are lower; economists expect 2.5 million Americans to have applied for unemployment benefits in the latest week; Cisco beats ... the global pandemic by implementing changes to ... Thu, 30 Jul 2020 02:13:00 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.thestreet.com/markets/5-things-you-must-know-before-the-market-opens-thursday-051420 Killexams : Practical Advice For Organizing A Successful Open-Source Technical Certification Program

Dan is the co-founder and chief open source officer at Codefresha software delivery platform with CI/CD, GitOps, and more.

Training and certification programs have always been a popular way for people to pick up new skills and Improve their capabilities. When I was in high school, I had the opportunity to do the Cisco networking certification, which had a huge impact on my career. Famed technologist Kelsey Hightower got his start by using his wages at McDonald's to purchase an A+ certification book. Now he’s a distinguished engineer at Google.

These programs traditionally have been expensive and required learners to study physical books and take proctored in-person exams.

In my role at Codefresh, I’ve organized and hosted quite a few open source-centric labs, training and certification workshops over the years, both in-person and online, and we’ve learned a lot along the way. There are some important elements that can not only make a workshop much more successful than the typical labs that we often see available in the community today but also much more accessible.

In the spirit of open source, I’d like to freely share some of the important things we’ve learned.

Use hosted lab environments.

Whether you’re offering the certification training live in-person or virtually, it’s really difficult to account for the myriad personal computer variations you’ll see among the attendees. They’ll arrive with different equipment, different configurations and different experience levels as well. Relying on attendees’ personal machines often means that you, the workshop organizer, will waste much of the allotted training time debugging and/or reconfiguring people’s PCs.

Everything is so much smoother when you utilize a hosted online lab environment. With the help of a provider, you can create online lab environments for course participants that they access via a web browser—the virtual training environment itself is already preconfigured. So even if a course participant is connecting with a tablet, they can go through the training and exercises and never miss a beat.

In my experience, eliminating this variability has dramatically improved the percentage of people who successfully complete a training program. But there are additional benefits as well.

For Codefresh’s certification programs, we’re teaching people to build and deploy software to Kubernetes, a cloud-native orchestration platform. Generally in cloud computing, users have access to larger servers and resources. Putting all of that into a single developer’s machine basically means they get the most under-resourced cloud possible: their laptop.

Using under-equipped work or personal machines introduces a burden that many wouldn’t experience in their professional environment. Many would argue that employers should pony up for better resources (supported on the employer’s time/dime), and I don’t disagree. But while we’re waiting for a utopia, we can enable the next 100 Kelsey Hightowers with a more accessible program.

One of the really big additional advantages of the hosted online lab model is that with each step in the lab, the lab can automatically check to confirm that participants implemented a task correctly and can provide real-time feedback as needed. There’s a transparent and immediate feedback loop built into the model, whereas with conventional BYOPC labs and workshops, it’s not possible for instructors to see if their guidance is being implemented correctly by the participants—maybe they did things right, or maybe they didn’t. The hosted environment approach is a much more effective way to make sure that lab participants are successfully learning the material and implementing it properly.

Side note: If you’re going to offer a hosted environment whereby all of the coursework and interaction flows through a shared IP address, be sure to confirm that the address won’t get throttled if several hundred people try to use it at once for what may be seriously heavy lifting from a compute/bandwidth perspective. Do a dry run in advance to make sure the infrastructure scales as it should. In our case, one particular service we used would throttle us from pulling images students use in the lab.

Hosted lab environments introduce some additional cost, however, so the resources you outlay for the workshop have to make sense on a financial level relative to the anticipated benefits for the community. Some training providers may elect to charge an upfront fee for this accommodation.

Make the training "self-serve"-friendly.

Many technical certification workshops are oriented first and foremost as one-off live/virtual events that mostly benefit the attendees in the audience the day it was hosted. The (potentially large) audience of follow-on registrants will instead access a rebroadcast to follow along with the training as best as they can, but the learning impact just isn’t the same. Participants should be able to flexibly engage with the course content on their terms and timeline with no drop off in course effectiveness.

Consider making the memorizing material component of the coursework multi-functional so it can be delivered just as effectively in lecture format to live participants and for self-serve consumption post-event. You’ll find yourself designing the coursework differently—in a way that promotes learning effectiveness (and training continuity) for all course attendees and preserves the shelf life of the content for follow-on registrants.

Stay ahead of the technology.

In the open-source community, in particular, there is a high probability that eagle-eyed course attendees will notice—and not favorably—if you’re behind the times in the techniques you’re imparting. We expect and embrace this with the open-source community because innovation can move very quickly.

It behooves the training and certification course providers themselves to be as up to date as possible. And this ultimately requires a concerted and sustained effort to stay in sync with community innovation so that the coursework is directly relevant and therefore as helpful as it can be.


Embracing an excellent training and certification experience makes it easier for your users to learn and show off their certifications. This viral aspect of certification represents the best of open source: radical sharing.

Forbes Technology Council is an invitation-only community for world-class CIOs, CTOs and technology executives. Do I qualify?

Thu, 08 Dec 2022 20:30:00 -0600 Dan Garfield en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2022/12/09/practical-advice-for-organizing-a-successful-open-source-technical-certification-program/
Killexams : Cisco predicts organizations to embrace new technology and business trends in 2023 No result found, try new keyword!Bee Kheng Tay, President, ASEAN at Cisco highlights the top five business and technology trends for the upcoming year. Wed, 07 Dec 2022 09:00:00 -0600 https://techwireasia.com/2022/12/cisco-predicts-organizations-to-embrace-new-technology-and-business-trends-in-2023/ Killexams : What layoffs mean for a tech industry that already lacks diversity

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Sixty-eight percent of the demographic makeup in big tech is white, according to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). And men in the sector make up around 64% of the industry. 

Diversity, equity and inclusion are by no means new problems for the tech industry. However, new issues like the economic downturn can lead companies to take measures like layoffs — which can worsen an already glaring diversity problem across the industry. 

Even among the most diverse companies in tech — Twitter, Microsoft, Zoom and Cisco — three of the four have had to cut staff this fall. Twitter, specifically, laid off 90% of its staff abroad in India. What exactly do measures like that do to diversity? 

“Typically, in tech companies, the people that struggle to move up or get recognized are the minority, who are the people that typically get cut first,” said  Kamales Lardi, chair of the Forbes Business Council for Women Executives, digital transformation and technology expert, and author of The Human Side of Digital Business Transformation.  


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Companies like Twitter making these decisions will miss out “on the critical perspectives and innovations inherent in having a diverse workforce, undermining the importance of supporting diversity and inclusivity in tech,” she added. 

Diversity’s impact on digital transformation

Lardi’s 22 years of industry experience led her to join Valtech, a digital agency that focuses on business transformation solutions, this past June as the managing director of Switzerland. As a long-time advocate for diversity in the workplace, especially in the tech sector, Lardi has some major concerns looking ahead to 2023. 

“There are several elements that I worry about regarding the mass layoffs that is currently occurring. Loss of diversity in the tech space has significant consequences for the world. Development in major technology areas, such as AI-based solutions or the metaverse, already suffer from a lack of diversity,” she said. “If these solutions are not built by a diverse set of people, they risk being designed only for a specific homogenous subset of people.”

Mitigating-bias in technology, Lardi explains, goes beyond gender and race and expands to diversity of thought, upbringing, sexual orientation and educational backgrounds. Without that, she says, teams face the consequence of likely developing technology with bias ingrained into it. 

 “The lack of diversity in technology and developer teams have been well-documented,” Lardi said. “This lack of diversity translates directly into the technology solutions that are being developed. “

When companies move through any phase of their digital transformation strategy, they often focus on the “digital,” rather than the “transformation,” Lardi says. The “transformation” layer is the one that directly involves the people within an organization. So, lacking diversity, as a result, impacts these efforts as well. 

“The digital part opens doors to exponential possibilities,” she said, “but it is the transformation part, the journey that an organization goes through with the ecosystem of people, that creates the solid foundation to accelerate these exponential possibilities. The people element can make or break any strategy or technology implementation.”

The human factor in digital transformation is something the enterprise is still struggling to understand, she said. Engaging with the ecosystem of people within an organization that is working toward digital transformation, she believes, is key to long-term success. 

Lardi suggests decision-makers create a framework that allows for management of internal and external stakeholders as well as suppliers, and to identify and develop shared benefits throughout the process. In her book, she outlines digital maturity and transformation readiness assessments that organizations can look to as a tool while navigating this process.

No excuses for diversity issues

While the economic climate for the tech sector may not be favorable at the moment, one thing is likely to endure: Its potential for growth. This is something the U.S. EEOC has paid close attention to because it identifies the tech industry as a source of increasing numbers of jobs when the economy does not strain it. For that same reason, the EEOC is invested in the diversity, or lack thereof, in the industry as well. 

“Ensuring a sufficient supply of workers with the appropriate skills and credentials and addressing the lack of diversity among high tech workers have become central public policy concerns,” an EEOC executive summary on diversity reads.

Lardi notes that while tech companies face financial challenges in the coming months, their digital transformation and diversity strategies, have no excuse to fall behind.  

“As economic conditions shift, business leadership may decide to shift investments and conserve resources for business continuity,” she said. “Here, focusing on digital transformation solutions that support cost reduction — like cloud migrations or automation, enhancements of products or services through digital channels or technologies or optimizing operations with remote/hybrid working tools would be advantageous,”

In addition, as more individuals from Gen-Z enter the workforce, they’re also keeping companies on their toes and demanding corporate responsibility, clear diversity and inclusion strategies, sustainable practices and work that fulfills them — which is why the tech industry can’t make excuses for its laggard progress in these areas any longer, Lardi explained.

“This is translating heavily into the tech community, as people are increasing demanding for companies to be responsible and represent the values that are important to them,” Lardi said. “This will play a role in holding a mirror up to tech companies.”

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Thu, 08 Dec 2022 08:17:00 -0600 Ashleigh Hollowell en-US text/html https://venturebeat.com/ai/what-layoffs-mean-for-a-tech-industry-that-already-lacks-diversity/
Killexams : 6 things you can do right now to protect your business data No result found, try new keyword!Everyone is a target for cyberattacks. But it’s not all doom and gloom. A little bit of prevention can go a long way. Sun, 27 Nov 2022 14:00:00 -0600 text/html https://www.bizjournals.com/baltimore/news/2022/11/28/6-things-to-do-to-protect-your-business-data.html Killexams : What Founders Need to Know Before Selling Their Startup

The vast majority of startup exits occur via acquisition. And while the internet is full of advice for pre-exit founders, remarkably little content exists to help guide them through post-acquisition life — even though they and the employees they recruited will often spend two-to-three years toiling away with the acquirer. An acquisition is an exciting occasion, to be sure, but it is hardly the happily-ever-after ending that the “founder’s journey” story might suggest.

Throughout my career, I have experienced 11 different acquisitions from multiple perspectives: as a founder, an investor, and a Board member. I recently went on a listening tour to compare my experience with the post-acquisition stories of a wide range of acquired founders. While I’m not at liberty to name names or dive into specific deals (as a rule, founders do not tell bad stories about their new employer), I can aggregate the honest perspectives I heard and combine them with my own experiences to produce an overall guide to the acquisitions process.

The psychological shift from founder to employee can be difficult, and the years that follow can be deflating compared to startup life. You will have pixie dust on you for a while — “the founders that built X and sold it for $Y” — but you’ll soon be judged on how well you work with others and drive success for your new employer. You might also face resentment from your new peers, who have also worked hard for 10 years and don’t have an acquisition to show for it. You’ll be tempted to feel that everything the acquirer does differently is inferior — but resist this urge. You sold for a reason. Be graceful about the differences and learn from the experience. Find something that you can only learn or accomplish as part of this bigger company, then do it with purpose.

The most common theme for these conversations was simply: “I wish I had known then what I know now.” Knowing your leverage, the type of acquisition you’re in, and the important points to push on will help you maximize success and employee happiness in the long run. You owe it to yourself — and the employees who followed you — to be prepared.

Far more than you think.

In acquisitions, there are two types of leverage. The first is negotiating leverage, which determines who wins on deal-breaker points. The second is knowledge leverage, predicated on knowing what issues you can win on without jeopardizing the deal.

There’s little you can do to change your negotiating leverage — you either have a competitive acquisition process or you don’t. However, you can change your knowledge leverage. Contrary to what the acquirer might say, most points are not deal breakers. You just need to know what to ask for — you might be surprised at how much the acquirer will agree to, but only if you ask.

KYA: Know Your Acquirer

Assessing your acquirer will help you and your employees prepare for what lies ahead.

Incumbent vs. Startup: Obviously the bigger and older the acquirer, the more cognitive and cultural dissonance you will experience. You cannot change this, but you can lead your team with emotional intelligence. The acquirer got big for a reason. On the other hand, being acquired by a startup can feel quite natural from a cultural perspective, and you’ll find similarities on everything from tech tools to HR policies.

Handling post-acquisition integrations: When I worked at Cisco in the early 2000s, we completed 23 acquisitions in one year. Know that some acquirers are pros; some are not. Either way, make sure you know what happens “the day after.” Force the buyer to detail their plan, because it will raise numerous issues that will matter to you, your employees, and your customers.

Acquirer’s culture: You might feel that two or three years will go by quickly, but it won’t. It matters if your employees are entering a culture where they feel at home. You will get swept up in the acquisition momentum, so remember to ask yourself whether this is a company that reflects enough of your values. Talk to more than just the acquisition team and the deal sponsor — ask to speak to the CEO of a startup they’ve previously acquired.

Know Why You’re Being Acquired

There are five types of acquisitions, and understanding which model you fit with will inform your approach:

New product and new customer base: You know more than the acquirer and they could easily mess up what you have built, so you should fight for business unit independence. These acquisitions fail as often as they succeed. Examples include Goldman Sachs and GreenSky, Facebook and Oculus, Amazon and One Medical, and Mastercard and RiskRecon.

New product or service, but same customer base: Most acquisitions fall under this category. Founders should provide in to faster integration, because it ultimately leads to more success for both sides. Integration does complicate earnouts — but your first priority is to avoid earnouts. Famous examples include Adobe and Figma, Google and YouTube, and Salesforce and Slack.

New customer base, but same product category: In this category, you know the customer and the buyer does not. Maintaining a higher degree of independence in the short term is important to the success of this acquisition. Be ready to share knowledge and eventual integration. Examples include PayPal and iZettle, JPMorgan and InstaMed, and Marriott and Starwood.

Same product and same customer base: The buyer wants your customer base and possibly to eliminate you as a competitor. You will be fully integrated into the acquirer by function, and quickly lose your independent identity. Examples include Plaid and Quovo, Vantiv and Worldpay, and ICE/Ellie Mae and BlackKnight.

Acqui-hires: You’ve built a team so good that another company is willing to buy the company to hire them en masse. Be realistic — this is a graceful exit for you, and a non-essential purchase for the acquirer. In this category, there are too many examples to count.

What to Ask For

During an acquisition, it’s easy to focus on transaction points like valuation, working capital adjustments, escrow, and indemnification. You need to get those right, but your experience through the next two-to-three years will depend more on how things operate post-acquisition. In rushed transactions, acquirers will tell you not to worry about these points — but you should. Here are the key non-deal points you should consider:

Employee Compensation: You should adjust employee compensation ahead of the acquisition because it will be very hard for the acquirer to change them later. Your employees earn startup salaries, which should be higher when the equity upside is removed. Be aware that the transaction may yet fall apart, so do the compensation benchmarking work and then wait to implement until you are highly certain the transaction will close.

Employee Titles: You will need to map your employees onto the acquirer’s titles and compensation bands. As a startup, you likely focused on equity and options, but the acquirer focuses on cash compensation and other benefits. Learn the differences among the titles before mapping, as big companies often base everything from bonus ranges and benefits access to participation in leadership meetings on them. Advocate hard for your employees — you have the Knowledge Leverage about them, so use it.

Retention: Acquirers want to retain key startup employees, and you have the power to decide who is in the retention bucket. However, it’s a double-edged sword because your employees must stick around to earn the extra compensation. Strive to keep that period under two years, as three will feel way too long. Rather than expand the retention pool up front, you should negotiate for a second discretionary retention bucket which you can use to retain key employees who might want to leave soon after the acquisition.

Pre-agreed Budgets and Hiring Plans: You thought raising money from investors was tough, but just wait for corporate budgeting. Most large companies use budgets and headcount as their control mechanisms, so negotiate both for your first year. You will want the freedom to execute, and you shouldn’t spend time advocating for every new hire — most likely with new stakeholders who weren’t part of the initial acquisition.

Governance: Who will you report to? Your new manager’s seniority and authority are the most important factors. You won’t escape company-wide budget processes, but it’s better to only have one person to convince. If you’re a standalone business unit, negotiate for a Board of senior leaders from the acquirer. It’s a novel structure for buyers, but it’s a smart way for you to match form with function. Finally, avoid matrix reporting at all costs, especially if you have an earnout.

Earnouts: Buyers prefer them because they align price with performance, but your job is to avoid them. This is easier said than done, but you’ll never be as free to execute post-acquisition as you were pre-acquisition, and unanticipated forces will disrupt the best-laid plans. You could crush it on revenue and miss gross margin, or hit all your targets, 12 months late. It will be your call, but if you have the chance to earn 25% more with an earnout or settle for 10–15% more upfront, I would take the smaller amount up front.

Engaging Your Board

Most acquisitions start with an unsolicited expression of interest, and CEOs have a duty to share them with the Board. Some are easy to dismiss, but others trigger the awkward dance: Do you want to sell? Don’t you want to go long? At what price would you sell?

This is where you will see your investors’ true personalities. Everyone understands that the Series B investors at the $125 million valuation will not relish a $200 million sale. However, the real task is to find the best risk-adjusted outcome for the company, considering founders, employees, and common shareholders. This is where you will be glad that you selected genuine partners as the investors in your boardroom, and independent Board members can provide an especially valuable voice.

If you decide to engage with the acquirer, then CEOs with M&A experience can take it from there. If you’re not that CEO, get help. You don’t want the entire Board involved, so get them to appoint one or two members to an M&A Committee and put them on speed dial. You will avoid many small mistakes — and have at least a couple of Board members already convinced when you return with a Letter of Intent.

Selling your company is the tip of the iceberg, and the more you know about post-acquisition life before you start negotiating, the happier you and your employees will be for the next two-to-three years. There are enormous psychological and operational changes ahead, and you can influence many of them by using this model to know when and where to negotiate.

Tue, 22 Nov 2022 23:25:00 -0600 text/html https://hbr.org/2022/11/what-founders-need-to-know-before-selling-their-startup
Killexams : How to file for unemployment benefits if you lose your job in an economic downturn A person walks by the entrance of the New York State Department of Labor offices in Brooklyn, which is closed to the public due to the coronavirus pandemic. REUTERS/Andrew Kelly © REUTERS/Andrew Kelly A person walks by the entrance of the New York State Department of Labor offices in Brooklyn, which is closed to the public due to the coronavirus pandemic. REUTERS/Andrew Kelly
  • Major tech companies are laying off thousands of workers each. 
  • Though tech only makes up a small portion of the US economy, more layoffs could be coming in the event of a recession. 
  • Here's how to file for unemployment insurance benefits, whether you're laid off, furloughed, or your hours are severely reduced.

A wave of layoffs is sweeping the US. 

Big tech companies like Facebook parent Meta, Amazon are shedding thousands of jobs each, and even Microsoft is dropping workers, a company which analysts have considered to be "recession-proof." 

Businesses like Amazon are seeing their revenue grow at the slowest rate in decades, citing inflationary pressures and a lingering labor shortage that are keeping costs up. It's not necessarily a signal of a recession already in progress — it's closer to an economic cool down — but many economists believe a recession, at least a soft one, is likely next year

The Fed typically tackles inflation by raising interest rates, so companies are likely to jettison more workers in the next year to compensate for their higher business costs.

That's especially true for the tech industry, which finds itself compensating for years of investing in mass expansions during the early pandemic tech boom. 

"At the start of COVID-19 in early 2020, the world rapidly moved online and a surge of e-commerce led to outsized revenue growth. Many people predicted this would be a permanent acceleration that would continue even after the pandemic ended," Mark Zuckerberg wrote in a November memo to employees on why he cut 11,000 jobs at Meta.

"I did too, so I made the decision to significantly increase our investments. Unfortunately, this did not play out the way I expected," he wrote. 

To be sure, most Americans probably aren't at risk of losing their jobs, as many companies are still struggling to find workers. October alone saw over 10 million job openings. But the tech layoffs show that not every position or industry is safe, and that many workers could be losing their paychecks in the event of a recession.

Here's how to file for unemployment insurance benefits, whether you're laid off, furloughed, or have had your hours severely reduced.

How to determine whether you're eligible for unemployment insurance

Unemployment insurance is jointly run by the state and federal government, so while the application procedure can vary by state, the overall process and eligibility requirements are more or less the same.

As the US Department of Labor outlines on its website, you will typically qualify for benefits if you:

  • "Are unemployed through no fault of your own. In most states, this means you have to have separated from your last job due to a lack of available work."
  • "Meet work and wage requirements. You must meet your state's requirements for wages earned or time worked during an established period of time referred to as a 'base period.' (In most states, this is usually the first four out of the last five completed calendar quarters before the time that your claim is filed.)"
  • "Meet any additional state requirements. Find details of your own state's program."
A worker sweeps the floor after closing time at McSorley's Old Ale House, NYC's oldest Irish saloon, on March 16, 2020. REUTERS/Andrew Kelly © REUTERS/Andrew Kelly A worker sweeps the floor after closing time at McSorley's Old Ale House, NYC's oldest Irish saloon, on March 16, 2020. REUTERS/Andrew Kelly

States loosened their unemployment benefits criteria substantially at the beginning of the pandemic, but they largely expired by Labor Day last year. Congress also temporarily increased unemployment benefits for self-employed workers, gig workers, contractors, and part-time employees.

But now, it's back to the status quo: workers with wage and salary positions are typically the only ones who qualify for unemployment insurance again. And states have also generally reinstated parts of the application process and identity-verification measures that they got rid of earlier in the pandemic. 

But when in doubt, apply, Andrew Stettner, a senior fellow at The Century Foundation, told Insider. 

Many state unemployment websites include benefit rate calculators to help you estimate your weekly benefit amount.

Fill out an application through your state's unemployment website 

You should apply for unemployment insurance as soon as you're no longer working. There's usually a one-week unpaid waiting period before you can start receiving benefits, but many states, including New York, California, and Ohio, have waived it.

"Just apply. Don't wait," Heidi Shierholz, a senior economist and policy director at the Economic Policy Institute, told Insider. "There's no reason to wait a week because you can start getting those benefits a soon as possible. It's good for you, it's good for the economy."

Depending on the state, unemployment insurance claims can be filed in person, on the phone, or online. Most states encourage online applications. You should file your claim with the state where you were working. If you now live in a different state than the one where you worked, or if you worked in more than one state, the state unemployment insurance agency where you now live can provide you information about how to file claims with other states, according to the US Department of Labor.

"Start with your state's unemployment insurance benefits site. You're going to get the most accurate and accurate information there and really to learn exactly what documents you need to start gathering," Erik Josowitz, an analyst at insurance marketplace InsuranceQuotes, told Insider. 

You'll typically need:

  • your social security number
  • driver's license number of alien registration number and expiration date, if a non-citizen
  • information on all your employers in the past 18 months, including company name, supervisor's name, address (mailing and physical location), and phone number
  • the Employer Registration number or Federal Employer Identification Number (FEIN) of your most accurate employer (FEIN can be found on your W-2 forms)
  • the reason for working reduced hours or no longer working with the employer
  • wages earned and how you were paid (e.g. hourly, weekly, monthly)
  • your most accurate separation form (DD 214 form) if you served in the military

It typically takes two to three weeks of processing time after you file your claim to get your first payment, according to the Department of Labor.

Depending on the state, you can choose to receive your payment in the form of direct deposit, a check, or a debit card.

Keeping searching for work, even if getting hired seems unlikely

During an economic downturn or recession, one of the baseline requirements for unemployment benefits may seem like a roadblock: that the applicant must be actively seeking a job. For now, the job market is still hot, so it shouldn't be a problem. But in the event that companies stop hiring, it's important to continue to take active steps to look for work.

Each state has its own requirements for what counts as looking for a job. In New York, for example, claimants must keep an online or written weekly "work search record" to provide if the Department of Labor asks for it. The record should include dates, names, addresses, and numbers of employers contacted, names and/or job titles of specific people contacted, contact methods used, positions applied for, or a description of attending job fairs or workshops. 

In California, you're required to recertify online every two weeks.

Applicants should still make every effort to search for work even if the likelihood of getting hired seems nonexistent, according to Stettner.

You must be actively seeking work to keep receiving unemployment benefits. Shutterstock/wichayada suwanachun © Shutterstock/wichayada suwanachun You must be actively seeking work to keep receiving unemployment benefits. Shutterstock/wichayada suwanachun

In most states, unemployment benefits last up to six months

Most states pay benefits for 26 weeks, or about six months, Michele Evermore, a senior policy analyst for social insurance at the National Employment Law Project, told The New York Times. 

During periods of high unemployment, claimants may be eligible for extended benefits. For example, in the early days of the pandemic, the CARES Act extended unemployment benefits by an additional 13 weeks, for a total of up to 39 weeks through the end of 2020. 

The Department of Labor lists all 50 states' unemployment insurances offices with phone numbers and links to informational websites.

Mon, 05 Dec 2022 06:22:45 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/money/careersandeducation/how-to-file-for-unemployment-benefits-if-you-lose-your-job-in-an-economic-downturn/ar-AA14VW1j
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Company Logo

Global Smart Cities Market

Global Smart Cities Market

Dublin, Nov. 30, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The "Global Smart Cities Market by Focus Area, Smart Transportation, Smart Buildings, Smart Utilities, Smart Citizen Services (Public Safety, Smart Healthcare, Smart Education, Smart Street Lighting, e-Governance), and Region - Forecast to 2027" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

The smart cities market is projected to grow from USD 511.6 billion in 2022 to USD 1024.4 billion by 2027, at a CAGR of 14.9% during the forecast period. Due to increasing urbanization, governments are resorting to technological and digital solutions to Improve public safety, environmental monitoring, water treatment, transportation, and energy generation and consumption, driving the smart cities market.

By smart utilities solution, distribution management registers higher CAGR during the forecast period

The distribution management system in the utility sector is governed by efficient Demand Response Management (DRM). DRM enables the utility sector to manage and implement Demand Response (DR) programs through a single integrated system, which can be interfaced with commercial, industrial, and residential sites.

The growing rollouts of smart grids have increased the application of advanced metering infrastructure meters, enhanced customer utilities management systems, automation in the transmission and distribution system, and integration of renewable energy. Therefore, the rollout of the smart grid is the primary driver for the utility industry. The emergence of automated DR has also contributed to market growth. Moreover, the cost benefits of Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) and the cloud-based deployment of DRM provide a wholesome opportunity for market growth.

Smart building solutions, safety and security management to account for the largest market share during the forecast period. A city can face various emergency situations, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and crimes, owing to the uncertainty of events. A strong emergency management system must be in place to effectively tackle any emergency and minimize damages. Security infrastructure management mainly deals with security-related operations of buildings. Sophisticated computerized emergency management systems can help authorities/administrators to respond to emergencies quickly. The system handles every phase of the emergency response, from logging the emergency to informing the appropriate personnel about the size and severity of the incident, so that a quick and effective response can be ensured. The security and emergency management solution comprises access control systems, video surveillance systems, and safety solutions. Schneider Electric and ABB are the key global emergency response management solution vendors.

Among regions, the market in Asia Pacific registered the highest CAGR during the forecast period

The growth of the smart cities market in the Asia Pacific is highly driven by technological advancements across the region. China is anticipated to be the leading market for smart city solutions in this region. The existence of a large population and developing infrastructure and technology are major factors contributing to the growth of the smart cities market in the Asia Pacific. The smart city paradigm has changed considerably, with advanced technologies such as robotics and big data analytics becoming popular among them. In accurate years, the Asia Pacific has successfully facilitated cooperation projects under a low-carbon model and IoT-based smart cities and has gathered valuable experience in the process, which can be shared among member economies. The overall focus of the region toward smart city initiatives offers opportunities for smart city providers to grow the market correspondingly.

Report Attribute


No. of Pages


Forecast Period

2022 - 2027

Estimated Market Value (USD) in 2022

$511.6 Billion

Forecasted Market Value (USD) by 2027

$1024.4 Billion

Compound Annual Growth Rate


Regions Covered


Key syllabus Covered:

1 Introduction

2 Research Methodology

3 Executive Summary

4 Premium Insights

5 Market Overview and Industry Trends

6 Smart Cities Market, by Focus Area

7 Smart Cities Market, by Smart Transportation

8 Smart Cities Market, by Smart Buildings

9 Smart Cities Market, by Smart Utilities

10 Smart Cities Market, by Smart Citizen Services

11 Smart Cities Market, by Region

12 Competitive Landscape

13 Company Profiles

14 Appendix and Adjacent Markets

Companies Mentioned

  • ABB

  • Accenture

  • Appyway

  • AT&T

  • Aws

  • Bright Cities

  • Cisco

  • Ericsson

  • Flamencotech

  • Fujitsu

  • Gaia

  • GE

  • Google

  • Hitachi

  • Honeywell

  • Huawei

  • IBM

  • Intel

  • Itron

  • Ixden

  • Kapsch

  • Ketos

  • Microsoft

  • Motorola

  • Myadtech

  • Nec

  • Nokia

  • Oracle

  • Samsung

  • SAP

  • Schneider Electric

  • Siemens

  • Signify

  • Takadu

  • Tcs

  • Thales

  • Tomtom

  • Vodafone

  • Xenius

  • Zencity

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/q4dbsp


CONTACT: CONTACT: ResearchAndMarkets.com Laura Wood,Senior Press Manager press@researchandmarkets.com For E.S.T Office Hours Call 1-917-300-0470 For U.S./ CAN Toll Free Call 1-800-526-8630 For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900
Tue, 29 Nov 2022 20:34:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.yahoo.com/now/global-smart-cities-market-report-103400773.html
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