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300-420 Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks (ENSLD)

The Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks v1.0 (ENSLD 300-420) test is a 90-minute test associated with the CCNP Enterprise and Cisco Certified Specialist - Enterprise Design certifications. This test certifies a candidate's knowledge of enterprise design including advanced addressing and routing solutions, advanced enterprise campus networks, WAN, security services, network services, and SDA. The course, Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks, helps candidates to prepare for this exam.

25% 1.0 Advanced Addressing and Routing Solutions

1.1 Create structured addressing plans for IPv4 and IPv6

1.2 Create stable, secure, and scalable routing designs for IS-IS

1.3 Create stable, secure, and scalable routing designs for EIGRP

1.4 Create stable, secure, and scalable routing designs for OSPF

1.5 Create stable, secure, and scalable routing designs for BGP

1.5.a Address families

1.5.b Basic route filtering

1.5.c Attributes for path preference

1.5.d Route reflectors

1.5.e Load sharing

1.6 Determine IPv6 migration strategies

1.6.a Overlay (tunneling)

1.6.b Native (dual-stacking)

1.6.c Boundaries (IPv4/IPv6 translations)

25% 2.0 Advanced Enterprise Campus Networks

2.1 Design campus networks for high availability

2.1.a First Hop Redundancy Protocols

2.1.b Platform abstraction techniques

2.1.c Graceful restart

2.1.d BFD

2.2 Design campus Layer 2 infrastructures

2.2.a STP scalability

2.2.b Fast convergence

2.2.c Loop-free technologies

2.2.d PoE and WoL

2.3 Design multicampus Layer 3 infrastructures

2.3.a Convergence

2.3.b Load sharing

2.3.c Route summarization

2.3.d Route filtering

2.3.e VRFs

2.3.f Optimal topologies

2.3.g Redistribution

2.4 Describe SD-Access Architecture (underlay, overlay, control and data plane, automation, wireless, and security)

2.5 Describe SD-Access fabric design considerations for wired and wireless access (overlay, fabric design, control plan design, border design, segmentation, virtual networks, scalability, over the top and fabric for wireless, multicast)

20% 3.0 WAN for Enterprise Networks

3.1 Compare WAN connectivity options

3.1.a Layer 2 VPN

3.1.b MPLS Layer 3 VPN

3.1.c Metro Ethernet

3.1.d DWDM

3.1.e 4G/5G

3.1.f SD-WAN customer edge

3.2 Design site-to-site VPN

3.2.a Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN)

3.2.b Layer 2 VPN

3.2.c MPLS Layer 3 VPN

3.2.d IPsec

3.2.e Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)

3.2.f Group Encrypted Transport VPN (GET VPN)

3.3 Design high availability for enterprise WAN

3.3.a Single-homed

3.3.b Multihomed

3.3.c Backup connectivity

3.3.d Failover

3.4 Describe Cisco SD-WAN Architecture (orchestration plane, management plane, control plane, data plane, on-boarding and provisioning, security)

3.5 Describe Cisco SD-WAN design considerations (control plane design, overlay design, LAN design, high availability, redundancy, scalability, security design, QoS and multicast over SD-WAN fabric)

20% 4.0 Network Services

4.1 Select appropriate QoS strategies to meet customer requirements (DiffServ, IntServ)

4.2 Design end-to-end QoS policies

4.2.a Classification and marking

4.2.b Shaping

4.2.c Policing

4.2.d Queuing

4.3 Design network management techniques

4.3.a In-band vs. out-of-band

4.3.b Segmented management networks

4.3.c Prioritizing network management traffic

4.4 Describe multicast routing concepts (source trees, shared trees, RPF, rendezvous points)

4.5 Design multicast services (SSM, PIM bidirectional, MSDP)

10% 5.0 Automation

5.1 Choose the correct YANG data model set based on requirements

5.2 Differentiate between IETF, Openconfig, and Cisco native YANG models

5.3 Differentiate between NETCONF and RESTCONF

5.4 Describe the impact of model-driven telemetry on the network

5.4.a Periodic publication

5.4.b On-change publication

5.5 Compare dial-in and dial-out approaches to model-driven telemetry
Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks (ENSLD)
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Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks (ENSLD)
Question: 149
What are two benefits of designing an SD-WAN network fabric with direct Internet access implemented at every site?
(Choose two.)
A. It decreases latency to applications hosted by public cloud service provider.
B. It decreases latency on Internet circuits.
C. It increases the speed of delivery of site deployments through zero-touch provisioning.
D. It increases the total available bandwidth on Internet circuits.
E. It alleviates network traffic on MPLS circuits.
Answer: AE
Question: 150
Which design consideration should be observed when EIGRP is configured on Data Center switches?
A. Perform manual summarization on all Layer 3 interfaces to minimize the size of the routing table.
B. Prevent unnecessary EIGRP neighborships from forming across switch virtual interfaces.
C. Lower EIGRP hello and hold timers to their minimum settings to ensure rapid route reconvergence.
D. Configure multiple EIGRP autonomous systems to segment Data Center services and applications.
Answer: A
Question: 151
Which solution allows overlay VNs to communicate with each other in an SD-WAN Architecture?
A. External fusion routers can be used to map VNs to VRFs and selectively route traffic between VRFs.
B. GRE tunneling can be configured between fabric edges to connect one VN to another.
C. SGTs can be used to permit traffic from one VN to another.
D. Route leaking can be used on the fabric border nodes to inject routes from one VN to another.
Answer: B
Question: 152
Which NETCONF operation creates filtering that is specific to the session notifications?
Answer: A
Question: 153
Which nonproprietary mechanism can be used to automate rendezvous point distribution in a large PIM domain?
A. Embedded RP
C. Auto-RP
D. Static RP
Answer: B
Question: 154
Which QoS feature responds to network congestion by dropping lower priority packets?
B. tail drop
D. strict priority
Answer: C
Question: 155
What is an advantage of designing an out-of-band network management solution?
A. In the event of a production network outage, network devices can still be managed.
B. There is no separation between the production network and the management network.
C. In the event of a production network outage, it can be used as a backup network path.
D. It is less expensive than an in-band management solution
Answer: A
Question: 156
A customer is discussing QoS requirements with a network consultant. The customer has specified that end-to-end
path verification is a requirement.
Which QoS solution meets this requirement?
A. IntServ model with RSVP to support the traffic flows
B. DiffServ model with PHB to support the traffic flows
C. marking traffic at the access layer with DSCP to support the traffic flows
D. marking traffic at the access layer with CoS to support the traffic flows
Answer: A
Question: 157
Which function are fabric intermediate nodes responsible for in an SD-Access Architecture?
A. mapping EIDs to RLOCs
B. encapsulating user traffic in a VXLAN header including the SGT
C. registering new endpoints in the HTDB
D. transporting IP packets between edge nodes and border nodes
Answer: D
Question: 158
A company is running BGP on a single router, which has two connections to the same ISP.
Which BGP feature ensures traffic is load balanced across the two links to the ISP?
A. Multihop
B. Multipath Load Sharing
C. Next-Hop Address Tracking
D. AS-Path Prepending
Answer: B
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Cisco Enterprise PDF obtain - BingNews Search results Cisco Enterprise PDF obtain - BingNews Download PDF instead of Previewing in Chrome and Firefox on Windows PC

Both Chrome and Firefox have this default setting where they preview PDFs instead of downloading them. This can be a bit annoying, especially if you want to save them but are in a hurry. Therefore, in this article, we are going to see how to obtain PDFs instead of previewing them in Chrome and Firefox.

Download PDF instead of Previewing in Chrome

Google Chrome has its own PDF Viewer, so, when you click on a PDF, it will be opened with Chrome’s PDF on the browser itself. Therefore, we need to disable Chrome’s PDF viewer to obtain PFDs instead of previewing them.

  1. To do that, launch Chrome
  2. Click on the three vertical dots from the top-right corner of the window
  3. Cick Settings.
  4. Now, you need to click Privacy & Security from the left panel
  5. SelectSite Settings from the right panel
  6. Scroll down a bit, and click Additional content settings.
  7. Click PDF documents and enable the toggle of Download PDF files instead of automatically opening them in Chrome.

This way you will be able to obtain PDFs instead of previewing them in Chrome.

Download PDFs Instead of Previewing Them In Firefox

Download PDFs Instead of Previewing Them in Chrome and Firefox

If you don’t use Chrome but Mozilla Firefox, you can still obtain PDF instead of opening them. Firefox also has a built-in PDF Viewer, just like Chrome, so, when you click on a PDF, the document will open with Firefox PDF viewer. To obtain PDF instead of previewing them in Firefox, you can follow the given steps:

  1. Launch Firefox, click on the three horizontal lines, and select Options.
  2. Make sure you are on the General tab and scroll down a bit to reach Applications.
  3. From the “Portable Document Format (PDF)” section, change Open in Firefox to Save File.

This way you will be able to obtain PDFs instead of previewing them in Firefox.

If you use Microsoft Edge, and you want to obtain PDFs instead of previewing them, check out our guide.

Download PDFs Instead of Previewing Them in Chrome and Firefox
Sun, 02 May 2021 01:49:00 -0500 en-us text/html
Best IT Certifications for 2024

Earning specialized certifications is a surefire way to advance your career in the IT field, regardless of industry or current career level. The right certification validates your skills and knowledge, which makes you more desirable to future employers who want to attract and retain the best employees. Below, we’ll explore the top IT certifications and share how to examine your goals to choose the right path forward. 

We’ve narrowed IT certifications into specific categories to help IT professionals assess what’s available and pursue the best certifications to show their willingness to learn and develop the in-demand career skills employers want.

Best database certifications 

Database platforms have changed greatly over the years, but database technology remains important for various applications and computing tasks. Available certifications for IT professionals include those for database administrators (DBAs), database developers, data analysts and architects, business intelligence, and data warehousing specialists, and other data professionals.

Obtaining database certifications demonstrates an understanding of database concepts, design, implementation, administration and security. This can boost your credibility in the job market and show potential employers that you have the skills needed to work with databases. The best database certifications include the following:

Best SAS certifications 

SAS is one of the world’s leading firms for business analytics, data warehousing and data mining. Today, the SAS Global Certification Program offers 23 credentials across categories including foundation tools, advanced analytics, business intelligence, data management and administration.

SAS programmers remain in high demand, with a quick search of job boards showing thousands of open positions. Obtaining SAS certification shows employers that you are proficient in the company’s popular suite of tools. Some of SAS’s certification programs include the following: 

Many professionals earn certifications to help navigate their career paths. According to the IT Salary Report, 92 percent of information technology professionals have at least one certification.

Best Cisco certifications 

Cisco Systems is a market leader not only in networking and communications products, but also storage networking and solutions for data centers. Cisco offers a variety of certifications for IT professionals, ranging from entry level credentials to expert-level exams. 

These certifications prepare professionals for Cisco-related careers. A search of job boards reveals thousands of open positions for Cisco experts, underscoring the continued relevance of these skills. Some of Cisco’s certifications include the following:

Best Dell certifications 

Dell Technologies remains one of the world’s leading computing companies. In addition to its well-known hardware lineup, Dell also offers solutions for networks, storage, servers, gateways and embedded computing, as well as a broad range of IT and business services.

Becoming certified in Dell products can help make IT professionals competitive in engineering roles for server, virtualization, networking, systems, integration and data security. Additional roles include consultants, account executives, system administrators, IT managers and deployment managers.

Best mobility certifications 

In the mobile era, it has become increasingly important for network engineers to support local, remote and mobile users, as well as provide proper infrastructure. The focus on application and app development now leans more toward mobile environments, requiring security professionals to thoroughly address mobility from all perspectives.

Due to the fast-changing nature of mobile technology, not many mobility certifications have become widely adopted. However, a few of the top mobility certifications can help IT professionals stand out in this rapidly evolving field. 

If part of your job includes selling and implementing an IT solution, you may want to pursue the best sales certifications. You’ll show your organization that you’re willing to go above and beyond to reach sales targets.

Best computer hardware certifications 

As remote and computer-based work has become more common, it’s more important than ever that businesses and individuals be able to maintain their hardware. While discussions about potential computer-related jobs often revolve around software work and coding, jumping into the IT field by becoming a computer technician is an excellent starting point.

Today, thousands of hardware technician jobs are available across the country. Entering this industry becomes more accessible for those who acquire computer hardware certifications. These certifications can showcase your expertise and proficiency in the upkeep of computers, mobile devices, printers and other hardware components.

Best Google Cloud certifications 

IT pros with solid cloud computing skills continue to be in high demand as more companies adopt cloud technologies. Today, Google Cloud is one of the market leaders in the cloud computing space. 

Regardless of where you are in your IT career, engaging with certification programs can demonstrate your willingness to keep on top of rapidly evolving cloud technologies. To that end, Google has introduced a host of certifications for its cloud platform, including the following: 

Best evergreen IT certifications

In the fast-changing world of technology, it can help to focus on certifications that have stood the test of time. “Evergreen” refers to certifications that remain popular year after year. 

The top evergreen certifications are based on recent pay surveys in IT, reports from IT professionals about certifications they want or pursue the most, and those that appear most frequently in online job postings. Obtaining these credentials is one step toward ensuring that your skills remain relevant for a long time: 

Best IT governance certifications 

IT governance provides structure for aligning a company’s IT with its business strategies. Organizations faced with compliance rigors always need experienced IT pros who can see the big picture and understand technology risks. This means certified IT governance professionals are likely to remain in high demand.

Earning one of the following certifications proves a commitment to understanding the role of IT governance and its position in a company’s current and future success. Getting certified can validate your expert knowledge and lead to advanced career opportunities.

Best system administrator certifications 

An IT system administrator is responsible for managing and maintaining the information technology infrastructure within an organization. The position demands sought-after career skills, ranging from configuring and maintaining servers and clients to managing access controls, network services, and addressing application resource requirements.

If you’re in charge of managing modern servers, there’s a long list of tools and technologies that system administrators must master. Obtaining some of the most prominent system administrator certifications can demonstrate your mastery to potential employers. 

Best ITIL certifications 

ITIL, or Information Technology Infrastructure Library, was developed to establish standardized best practices for IT services within government agencies. Over the ensuing four decades, businesses of all types embraced, modified, and extended ITIL, shaping it into a comprehensive framework for managing IT service delivery. 

The ITIL framework remains the benchmark for best practices in IT service and delivery management, offering certification programs that cater to IT professionals at all levels. These training and certification courses ensure that IT professionals stay well-prepared for the ongoing evolution in IT service delivery management. There are four certifications in the ITIL certification program:

Best enterprise architect certifications 

An IT enterprise architect is responsible for designing and managing the overall structure and framework of an organization’s information technology system. Enterprise architect certifications are among the highest that an IT professional can achieve; fewer than 1 percent ultimately reach this level. 

Enterprise architects are among the highest-paid employees and consultants in the tech industry. These certifications can put IT professionals on a path to many lucrative positions. The average worker earns over six figures annually. Some top enterprise architect certifications are listed below:

To become an enterprise IT architect, you’ll need knowledge of systems deployment, design and architecture, as well as a strong business foundation.

Best CompTIA certifications

CompTIA is a nonprofit trade association made up of more than 2,000 member organizations and 3,000 business partners. The organization’s vendor-neutral certification program is one of the best recognized in the IT industry. Since CompTIA developed its A+ credential in 1993, it has issued more than two million certifications.

CompTIA certifications are grouped by skill set and focus on the real-world skills IT professionals need. Armed with these credentials, you can demonstrate that you know how to manage and support IT infrastructure. 

Best Oracle certifications 

A longtime leader in database software, Oracle also offers cloud solutions, servers, engineered systems, storage, and more. The company has more than 430,000 customers in 175 countries. 

Today, Oracle’s training program offers six certification levels that span 16 product categories with more than 200 individual credentials. Considering the depth and breadth of this program — and the number of Oracle customers — it’s no surprise that Oracle certifications are highly sought after. 

Vendor-specific certifications address a particular vendor’s hardware and software. For example, you can pursue Oracle certifications and Dell certifications to become an expert in those companies’ environments.

Best business continuity and disaster recovery certifications

Business continuity and disaster recovery keep systems running and data available in the event of interruptions or faults. These programs bring systems back to normal operation after a disaster has occurred.

Business continuity and disaster recovery certifications are seeing a healthy uptrend as new cloud-based tools grow in popularity. While business continuity planning and disaster recovery planning have always been essential, they’re becoming more critical than ever — and IT certifications are following suit.

Tue, 02 Jan 2024 09:59:00 -0600 en text/html
Cisco uncorks AI-based security assistant to streamline enterprise protection

With Cisco AI Assistant for Security, enterprises can use natural language to discover policies and get rule recommendations, identify misconfigured policies, and simplify complex workflows.

Cisco has unveiled its natural language-based AI Assistant for Security aimed at helping enterprise customers better assess security situations, eliminate configuration errors and automate complex tasks.

The Cisco AI Assistant for Security will first be implemented as part of the vendor's cloud-based Firewall Management Center and Cisco Defense Orchestrator services. Cisco’s Firewall Management Center is a centralized platform for configuring, monitoring, troubleshooting and controlling Cisco Firepower Next-Generation Firewalls. The orchestrator platform lets customers centrally manage, control and automate security policies across multiple cloud-native security systems.

Among the goals of the AI Assistant are to reduce the time it takes for customers to respond to potential threats and simplify the entire security process.

"Using natural language, an administrator can iterate with the AI Assistant to do things like discover and identify all the policies that control access to an application, define a new policy or rule for the administrator, and implement the policy," said Jeetu Patel, executive vice president and general manager of security and collaboration at Cisco, in a blog about the news.

"The AI Assistant can also identify duplicate or misconfigured security policies from amongst thousands of existing policies and make recommendations for resolving them. To me, this is mind-blowing, because this is a level of intelligence that just isn't possible without AI," Patel stated.

In addition, Patel said the security assistant will let customers describe and contextualize events across email, the web, endpoints, and the network to tell security operation center analysts exactly what happened, the impact, and best next steps to take to remediate problems and set new policies.

Cisco first talked about the security assistant at its Live event in June, saying an AI-based assistant will provide easy-to-use situation analysis for network and security teams, correlating intelligence across the Cisco Security Cloud and relaying potential impacts; going forward, customers "won't need to have a Ph.D. to manage a firewall policy," Cisco stated.

In addition to the Assistant, Cisco added a new security feature across its firewall family that lets security teams see into traffic to look for malware without having to decrypt it first. 

"Decrypting traffic for inspection is resource-intensive and fraught with operational, privacy, and compliance issues," Patel stated. With the 7.4.1 Operating System, which is now available, the system can analyze encrypted traffic to identify indicators of malicious behavior that humans can't, and it does so without decrypting, Patel stated.

"For instance, an insulin pump that's running certain operating systems cannot run an end-point client. If it gets attacked by malware that communicates with the outside world via encrypted traffic, you can lose control of the insulin pump," Patel wrote. "With Encrypted Visibility Engine, you can now block this at the firewall."

Tue, 05 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
The changing economics of open-source software

The world of open-source software is about to go through another tectonic change.

But unlike earlier changes brought about by corporate acquisitions, this time it’s thanks to the growing series of tech layoffs. These could lead to many projects being crippled because their principals are now unemployed or will get new jobs in less open-favorable companies. The layoffs will certainly change the balance of power between large and small software vendors, and between free and commercial software versions, and the role played by OSS in enterprise software applications could change.

Most analysts agree that open source has become firmly planted into commercial software development, both from the perspective of the vendors who contribute their code back to the world as well as for those end-users who develop applications built around open-source projects.

This position has further solidified thanks to the major boost from generative artificial intelligence. That’s because of numerous AI-related projects that grew exponentially in the past year as developers rushed to implement its routines into their code. AI has brought hundreds of developers into the OSS fold because so much of its code uses various OSS projects, such as PyTorch which began under Meta Platforms Inc. and became its own OSS juggernaut with more than 600,000 code repositories.

Three tectonic shifts

Back in 2009 to 2010, the first major series of changes to OSS came about thanks to Oracle acquiring Sun Microsystems for $7.4 billion. At the time there was much pearl-clutching about the anticompetitive underpinnings, with the European approval held up. Thousands of Sun employees were terminated along the way.

At the time, Sun was home to several significant OSS projects, since it was the home to the principals behind Java, XML, JRuby and other tools. (They all eventually left Oracle, along with Sun’s chief executive, who was one of the first people to resign via a haiku in a tweet.)

The second shift happened almost 10 years later when IBM Corp. acquired Red Hat for $34 billion. The move set in motion a major role for containers and other hybrid cloud technologies.

But now 2023 has brought layoffs into the tech scene. cites more than 220,000 total for the year, including 11% of the workforce at Etsy, 15% at, 7% at Domo, 10% at Informatica, 6% of FreshBooks, 16% at Nokia, 18% at Rapid7, 16% at Dropbox, 5% at Atlassian, 5% at VMware, 5% at Dell and 8% at NetApp. Add to that several rounds of layoffs at Spotify, TikTok owner ByteDance,, Twilio, LinkedIn, SecureWorks, Microsoft, Meta and Twitter, which collectively added tens of thousands to the unemployment lines.

The role of the Linux Foundation

Perhaps the biggest center of gravity for open source is the Linux Foundation, which operates a multimillion-dollar, multimodal organization that is focused on open-source support. There are close to 1,000 different software projects under its umbrella. It depends on hundreds of company members that make annual contributions, along with dozens of other providers that donate at higher funding levels, such as Microsoft, Google and Facebook.

But money is only one point of view. The foundation has had a rocky year itself, laying off numerous employees. Part of that was in anticipation of reduced support from the tech companies that shed staff, many of which were high-level foundation supporters. For example, VMware, a platinum member, has pulled its support entirely, along with several other gold-level sponsors.

“This was a shock to the system,” Linux Foundation Senior Vice President Mike Dolan told SiliconANGLE. “We have had to make some adjustments because so many open-systems engineers were let go.” Dolan said there are more than 80 funding initiatives that operate independently under the foundation’s umbrella, such as the Cloud Native Computing Foundation, the PyTorch Foundation, the Hyperledger Foundation and the Overture Maps Foundation.

“The problem now is that especially in the operating system and financial services markets, there is a large uptake in consumption of open-source code, but the contributions back to the community and commitments to fixing code is lacking,” said Jason Perlow, a longtime OSS advocate who was one of those laid off this month at the foundation. He told SiliconANGLE that what is missing is what’s called an “open source program office, which is used to cultivate and track an organization’s OSS code and coordinate changes.”

Red Hat, long a poster child for OSS, has lately seen a reduced effort with contributing its code, according to Perlow. Much of this could be caused by funding pressures to operate these offices, especially as the software industry shrinks.

It’s all about collaboration

Dolan mentioned one oft-cited benefit of OSS, which is collaboration. “True innovation can’t happen without collaboration,” the foundation’s year-end report says. Several of its events and efforts brought together a variety of legal, engineering and other technologists to further OSS goals. Dolan mentioned a HyperLedger project called Circulor that brought together different  battery vendors to work on a common set of standards.

But it isn’t all singing kumbaya around the campfire. In 2023, there were two other events that shook the OSS foundational tenets, both involving conflicts over licensing. Meta released the latest version of its Llama large language model as OSS, as long as it wasn’t heavily used by an enterprise, in which case companies would have to pay a fee to license its use. And HashiCorp Inc. changed its licensing terms for Terraform from OSS to fee-based.

Despite or perhaps as a result of its own layoffs, Microsoft has moved into a more critical role for OSS in the past year. It continues to extend its Azure cloud footprint using a wide variety of OSS technologies, including Linux.

“Microsoft has become the best OSS citizen in terms of engineering talent and funding,” Perlow said. “More than 40% of Azure are running Linux and OSS workloads, and most of its infrastructure doesn’t have anything to do with Microsoft software at all.”

It is too soon to tell whether OSS is too deeply entrenched or will suffer these staffing setbacks in 2024 and beyond. But clearly it will have some major changes ahead.

Image: Alpha Stock Images

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IGNOU Previous Year Question Papers: obtain PDF

IGNOU TEE Previous Year Question Paper is one of the best resources to prepare effectively for the exam. Candidates aspiring for the upcoming test must obtain and solve the IGNOU TEE Previous Year Question Paper regularly. It provides valuable details about the test structure, maximum marks, and Topics asked in the exam. 

There are various advantages of practicing IGNOU TEE previous year question papers during the preparation of the term-end examination of different courses. It helps them to establish a strategy based on the latest trends and test requirements. The IGNOU TEE previous year's question paper is announced within a few weeks after successfully conducting the exam. 

The test prep team of Jagran Josh has compiled the IGNOU TEE previous year question papers for on this page. This will assist them to recognize their mistakes and boost their preparation level accordingly.

IGNOU TEE Previous Year Question Papers PDF

Candidates should practice the IGNOU TEE previous year's question paper pdf to get insights into the type of questions along with the weightage asked in the test over the past year of different courses. Also, they should practice IGNOU TEE previous year question paper to know the areas that require improvements and prepare accordingly.

IGNOU TEE test Previous Year Question Paper PDF

Candidates should obtain and solve the IGNOU TEE previous year's question papers PDF to gauge their preparation. By analyzing their performance in the previous papers, they can Strengthen their speed, accuracy, and overall time management. Get the direct obtain link of IGNOU TEE previous year question papers PDF for  2010, to 2022 given below:

Benefits of Solving IGNOU Previous Year Question Papers

There are numerous benefits of practicing IGNOU TEE previous year question papers as listed below:

  • Candidates should solve IGNOU TEE previous year question paper regularly to maximize their passing chances in the exam.
  • Practicing previous year papers will boost their speed of solving questions and accuracy in the exam.
  • Solving IGNOU TEE question papers will help them to cover all the aspects of the exam.
  • Attempting IGNOU TEE previous year question papers with solutions PDF will help them know the nature of questions along with the weightage in the exam.

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Candidates must solve IGNOU TEE previous year question paper correctly to understand the genuine test pressure and prepare in the right direction:

  • Go through the IGNOU TEE previous year question paper carefully and then start solving questions.
  • Place a countdown clock to attempt the test papers in a real-time environment.
  • Attempt easy and less time-consuming questions first, then solve the lengthy ones in the IGNOU TEE previous year's question papers.
  • Once the countdown stops, one must not solve any questions and tally their answers with the provisional key to get an idea of their performance and rectify their errors.

IGNOU TEE December 2023 Hall Ticket

IGNOU 2023 June TEE hall ticket has been released on their official website. Candidates can enter their enrollment number and choose the relevant programme to obtain their IGNOU hall ticket. It is required candidates bring their IGNOU hall ticket 2023 and other identification with them on test day.

Thu, 09 Nov 2023 20:13:00 -0600 en text/html
MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023, PDF Download

MPPSC Syllabus 2023: The Madhya Pradesh Public Service Commission (MPPSC) syllabus consists of the History of MP & India, the Geography of MP & India, the constitutional system, science & technology and general aptitude. obtain the MPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF and test Pattern here. All interested and eligible aspirants for MPPSC should obtain the latest MPPSC syllabus and test pattern and align their preparation accordingly.

Apart from the MPPSC syllabus, candidates should be well-acquainted with the MPPSC test pattern to understand the test format, number of sections, total marks, and marking scheme prescribed by the commission. As per the test expert analysis, it is reported that the questions asked in the MPPSC prelims test are usually moderate in nature. Hence, aspirants must be familiar with the MPPSC State Service test Syllabus and create a list of Topics based on their marks weightage and difficulty level.

In this blog, a detailed MPPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF is compiled, including the MPPSC Prelims test pattern, preparation strategy, and list of important books.

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023

Here is the major overview of the MPPSC Prelims syllabus and test pattern tabulated below for the reference of the candidates aspiring for the upcoming civil service exam.

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023

Exam Conducting Body

Madhya Pradesh Public Service Commission

Exam Name

State Service test 2023


MPPSC Prelims Syllabus and test Pattern 2023

Selection Process

Prelims, Mains, and Interview

Maximum Marks



2 hours for each paper

Negative Marking

No negative marking

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023 PDF

Candidates must obtain the MPPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF from the links shared below to learn about the Topics that need priority in the preparation. Get the direct link to obtain the MPPSC Syllabus 2023 PDF for the preliminary exam.

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023-Important Topics

The MPPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF is divided into two papers, i.e., General Studies and General Aptitude Test. Both papers comprise objective-type questions, each carrying 200 marks. Check the topic-wise MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023 for all the sections below.

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023 for General Studies

The MPPSC General Studies Syllabus PDF is divided into various sections, such as the history of MP & India, the Geography of MP, India, and the World, the constitutional system, science & technology, information and communication technology, etc. Check the detailed MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023 for General Studies below.

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023 for General Studies



History, Culture, and Literature of Madhya Pradesh

Contribution of Madhya Pradesh to the freedom movement.

Major-arts and Sculpture of Madhya Pradesh.

Major Tribes and Dialect of Madhya Pradesh.

Major festivals, Polk music, Folk arts and folk literature of Madhya Pradesh.

Important Literator of Madhya Pradesh and their literature.

Religious and tourist places of Madhya Pradesh.

History of India

Major features, Events, and administrative, Social, and Economic Systems of Ancient and Medieval India.

Social and Religious reform movements in the 19th and 20th century.

Independence Struggle and Indian National Movement for Freedom

Integration and Reorganization of India after Independence.

Geography of Madhya Pradesh

Forest, Forest Produce, Wildlife. Rivers, Mountains and Mountain ranges of Madhya Pradesh.

Climate of Madhya Pradesh.

Natural and Mineral Resources of Madhya Pradesh.

Transports in Madhya Pradesh.

Major Irrigation and Electrical Projects in Madhya Pradesh.

Agriculture, Animal husbandry, and Agriculture based industries in Madhya Pradesh.

Geography of World and India

Physical Geography Physical features and Natural regions.

Natural Resources: Forest, Mineral resources, Water, Agriculture, Wildlife, National Parks/Sanctuaries/Safari.

Social Geography:- Population related, demography (Population growth, Sex Ratio, Literacy, and Economic activities)

Economic Geography: Natural and Human resources (Industry; Modes of Transport)

Continents/Countries/Oceans/Rivers/Mountains of the world.

Conventional and Non-Conventional Energy Resources.

Constitutional System of Madhya Pradesh

Constitutional System of Madhya Pradesh (Governor, Council of Ministers, Legislative Assembly, High Court)

Three Tier System of Panchayati Raj and Urban Administration in Madhya Pradesh

Economy of Madhya Pradesh

Demography and Census of Madhya Pradesh

Economic Development of Madhya Pradesh

Major Industries of Madhya Pradesh, etc.

Constitution, Government, and Economy of India

Government India Act 1919 and 1935.

Constituent Assembly.

Union Executive, President and Parliament.

Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Citizens and Directive Principles of State Policy.

Constitutional Amendments.

Supreme Court and Judicial System.

Indian Economy, Industrial Development and Foreign Trade, Import and Export.

Financial Institutions- Reserve Bank of India, Nationalised Banks, Security and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), National Stock Exchange (NSE), Non-Banking Financial Institutions.

Science and Technology

Basic Principles of Science.

Important Indian Scientific Research Institutions and their Achievements, Satellite and Space Technology.

Environment and Biodiversity.

Ecological System.

Nutrition, Food and Nutrient.

Human Body.

Agricultural Product Technology.

Food Processing.

Health Policy and Programmes.

Pollution, Natural Disasters and Management.

Current International and National Affairs

Important Personalities and Places.

Major Events.

Important Sports Institutes, Sports Competitions and Awards of India and Madhya Pradesh.

Information and Communication Technology

Electronics, Information and Communication Technology.

Robotics, Artificial Intelligence and Cyber Security.


Internet and Social Networking Sites.


National and Regional Constitutional/Statutory Bodies

Election Commission of India.

State Election Commission.

Union Public Service Commission.

Madhya Pradesh Public Service Commission.

Comptroller and Auditor General.

NITI Aayog.

Human Rights Commission.

Women Commission.

Child Protection Commission.

Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Commission.

Backward class Commission.

Information Commission.

Vigilance Commission.

National Green Tribunal.

Food Preservation Commission etc.

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023 for General Aptitude Test

The MPPSC General Aptitude Test Syllabus PDF is divided into various sections, such as comprehension, logical reasoning & analytical ability, general mental ability, basic numeracy, decision making, etc. Check the detailed MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023 for the General Aptitude Test below.

  • Comprehension.
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills.
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability.
  • Decision-making and problem-solving.
  • General mental ability.
  • Basic numeracy (number and their relations, order of magnitude, etc-Class X level). Data Interpretation (charts, graphs, table, data, sufficiency, etc-Class X level).
  • Hindi Language Comprehension Skill (Class X level).

MPPSC Prelims test Pattern 2023

The MPPSC prelims examination consists of two papers i.e. General Studies and General Aptitude test and each paper will be of 2 hours of duration. Check the details below for the MPPSC prelims test pattern 

  • The MPPSC Prelims test comprises objective-type multiple-choice questions.
  • There are two papers in the MPPSC state service prelims test pattern i.e., General Studies and General Aptitude Test.
  • The test duration for each paper shall be 2 hours.
  • There shall be no negative marking for incorrect answers in the MPPSC Prelims exam.

MPPSC Prelims test Pattern 2023


Maximum Marks


General Studies


2 hours

General Aptitude Test


2 hours

How to Cover MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023?

MPPSC State Service Examination is one of the most popular competitive exams in Madhya Pradesh. Many candidates apply for this prelims exam, but only a few can ace it with a well-planned strategy and the use of the right study material. Hence, analyzing the MPPSC syllabus is crucial to cover all the Topics and their sub-topics. Here are the expert-recommended tips and tricks to crack the MPPSC State Service test 2023.

  • Check the MPPSC Prelims syllabus and test pattern carefully and prioritize higher-weightage Topics in the study plan.
  • Get your hands on the best MPPSC prelims books and study materials to build conceptual clarity and learn core Topics in a clear and defined manner.
  • Attempt mock tests and MPPSC previous year's question papers to get insights into the nature and difficulty level of Topics asked in the exam.
  • Revise all the Topics regularly to avoid forgetting any important concept on the test day.

Best Books to Cover MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023

Candidates should pick the finest MPPSC prelims books based on the revised test requirements, trends, and format. This will help them to build a strong grip on the Topics specified in the MPPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF. Check the expert-recommended MPPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF below.

  • Indian Polity (4 & 5edition) by M. Laxmikant
  • Madhya Pradesh Ek Parichaya by McGraw Hill Publication
  • Fast track objective Arithmetic by Rajesh Verma
  • Spectrum for Modern Indian History by Rajiv Ahir
  • Quantitative Aptitude for competitive test by RS Agarwal
  • A new approach to reasoning verbal, non-verbal & Analytical by Arihant Publication
  • Indian Yearbook by GOI Publication
  • An Introduction to Madhya Pradesh General Knowledge by Sonali Bansal

Also Read,

Thu, 21 Sep 2023 19:47:00 -0500 en text/html
Can You See Me Now? Why Cisco Thinks Video Is Set To Soar In The Enterprise

Video Gains New Ground

If the explosion of social media in the business world has told us anything, it's that younger generations can certainly shake things up in the workplace.

And just as it did with Facebook and Twitter, a new generation of managers is about to make videoconferencing in the enterprise more prevalent than ever.

According to Cisco's 2013 Global Young Executives' Video Attitudes Survey -- which surveyed more than 1,300 global executives under the age of 34 -- business-class video solutions are poised to take off big time over the course of the next five years. Here are a few of the study's most telling, and most shocking, findings.

Executives Are Planning For Video Now

If Cisco's findings prove anything, it's that the number of young executives planning to use video over the next five to 10 years is far from insignificant.

The survey found that three out of five executives under the age of 34, or roughly 61 percent of the survey-takers, have plans to leverage business-class video more heavily in the future. That number was even greater among workers who aspire to manage large teams -- meaning those with 51 or more members -- with 70 percent of those respondents saying they plan to adopt video in five to 10 years.

Video's 'Significant And Positive' Impacts

According to Cisco's findings, young executives are embracing video for a number of reasons, with 87 percent of overall respondents believing the technology will have a "significant and positive impact" on their organization.

The most common benefits of video cited by respondents were memorizing visual cues, to "be there" with colleagues and clients without travelling, and to share content in realtime. Other common benefits included reducing travel costs and enhancing the experience for telecommuters.

In addition, nearly nine out of 10 young executives said a company's investment in video is taken into consideration when they are looking at job offers. According to Cisco, respondents said that enterprisewide commitment to video technology makes them "feel like the company cares about using technology to fuel business growth."

Video Critical For Global Businesses

Besides reduced travel costs and more "face time" with clients, Cisco's survey-takers said a major benefit of video is helping global organizations overcome language barriers.

In fact, of those respondents who said they've been challenged by language differences in their organizations, 94 percent of them said video could help. According to these executives, video helps overcome language differences by giving conference attendees visual cues, and allowing them to notice when others don't understand a concept. Video, versus voice solutions, tend to provide conference-goers a better feel of how the conversation is going, and if everyone is on the same page, survey-takers said.

Video In The Future

While Cisco's survey proved young executives have big plans for video, it also showed there are capabilities those executives would like to see in video solutions that they don't see today.

Fifty-four percent of respondents, for example, expressed an interest in being able to customize their video experience to a greater extent. Types of customization they're interested in include cutting a video recording from a meeting to share via social media tools, or being able to privately watch or scan content from earlier in a meeting to catch up after joining the meeting late.

Twenty-one percent of respondents said they are interested in realtime language translations -- i.e., closed captioning for telepresence -- or pop-up bubbles that pull up background information on participants' LinkedIn.

Keeping It Simple

The majority of young executives surveyed plan to use video over the next five to 10 years. But many of them also said they would use it more today if it were as simple to use, and as a pervasive, as other enterprise communication tools, like desk phones, mobile devices or email.

According to Cisco, 84 percent of survey-takers said they'd leverage video today for at least one out of every four interactions if it were easier to use and more readily available. Meanwhile, 53 percent considered themselves "would-be power users," who would use video for 50 to 100 percent of their non-face-to-face interactions if the technology were more pervasive.

Quality Counts

As much as young executives value video, they also get fed up when its quality is low, Cisco's study found.

The majority of respondents, in fact, said they would rather not use video solutions at all than use them when performance seemed sub-par. According to the study, only 25 percent of respondents said low-quality video would be acceptable for internal meetings, 12 percent said it would be acceptable for customer meetings, and even a slimmer 10 percent said they would use a low-quality video solution for "critical communications," meaning conferences with board members or C-level executives.

Camera Shy

While video may be the enterprise communication tool of the future, there are some instances, Cisco's study found, when employees shy away from the technology.

According to Cisco, the top five reasons for a young executive to opt out of a video call were having a messy office, personal appearance concerns, wanting to multitask, needing to eat, or just being generally uncomfortable on video.

Thu, 08 Aug 2013 01:05:00 -0500 text/html
McAfee Nabs Ex-Cisco Exec To Run Enterprise Sales, Marketing

Lynne Doherty will oversee McAfee’s sales, pre-sales, channel and marketing efforts in the enterprise business, and will count new global channel chief Kathleen Curry among her direct reports.


McAfee has hired the head of Cisco’s massive U.S. Commercial Sales organization to lead global sales and marketing efforts for the platform security giant’s Enterprise business.

The Santa Clara, Calif.-based vendor has tasked Lynne Doherty (pictured above) with running all sales, pre-sales, channel and marketing groups that support McAfee’s enterprise business, and will count new global channel chief Kathleen Curry among her direct reports. Doherty started at McAfee Monday, and will report directly to CEO Peter Leav, who joined McAfee in January after leading BMC Software and Polycom.

Doherty will take over some of the responsibilities previously held by John Giamatteo, who became McAfee’s president and chief revenue officer in July 2018 and oversaw the company’s sales, marketing and customer success organizations. Giamatteo’s biography page and listing on the McAfee executive team website were taken down in early 2020 around the time Leav started as McAfee’s CEO.

[Related: McAfee Snags Ex-Apple Sales Exec To Be Global Channel Chief]

Doherty wasn’t available for additional comment, and McAfee didn’t immediately respond to questions about how Doherty’s role at the company compares to Giamatteo’s. Doherty will work alongside Ash Kulkarni, who has been responsible for product strategy and execution in McAfee’s enterprise business group since October 2018. Kulkarni joined McAfee after three years at Akamai.

McAfee’s $1.5 billion consumer business, meanwhile, has been led by Terry Hicks since November 2018. Prior to Hicks’ arrival at McAfee from Infusionsoft, Giamatteo spent four-and-a-year years leading the company’s global consumer business.

McAfee said Doherty’s immediate focus will be ensuring McAfee’s Enterprise team continues to deliver a premium experience and strong security outcomes to customers as the business landscape changes due to the coronavirus pandemic. With cloud and security highlighted as key areas for crisis response spending, McAfee said Doherty will focus on supporting the evolving needs of firms around the world.

Doherty spent nearly 15 years at San Jose, Calif.-based networking giant Cisco, rising up the ranks to become senior vice president of U.S. Commercial Sales in August 2018. In that role, Doherty oversaw a team of more than 2,000 employees and was responsible for driving $8 billion in revenue annually though the sale of products and services to more than 400,000 accounts.

Prior to that, Doherty spent nearly two years leading Cisco’s Security Sales for the Americas, overseeing a $2 billion portfolio of products across the United States, Canada and Latin America. Doherty played a key role in the integration and strategy efforts following Cisco’s $2.35 billion acquisition of Duo Security, $635 million acquisition of OpenDNS (now Umbrella), and $293 million acquisition of CloudLock.

Doherty spent her first 11 years at Cisco as an area vice president, operations director and regional sales manager in the company’s U.S. Commercial Sales organization, according to LinkedIn. Prior to joining Cisco, Doherty spent one-and-a-half years as director of sales at Blackbaud and nearly six years in sales and engineering management roles at Sun Microsystems.

McAfee faces an uncertain ownership future, with reports swirling for more than a year that TPG Capital was looking to cede its ownership stake. The Wall Street Journal reported in January that McAfee was looking at combining its own consumer business with the $2.41 billion pure consumer operation of NortonLifeLock. In that scenario, McAfee’s enterprise operation could end up with a different buyer.

Tue, 05 May 2020 08:55:00 -0500 text/html
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