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Exam Code: 300-100 LPIC-3 test 300: Mixed Environments, version 1.0 benefits November 2023 by team

300-100 LPIC-3 test 300: Mixed Environments, version 1.0

Exam Title :
LPIC-3 Mixed Environment

Exam ID :

Exam Duration :
90 mins

Questions in test :

Passing Score :
500 / 800

Exam Center :
LPI Marketplace

Real Questions :
LPI LPIC-3 Real Questions

VCE practice questions :
LPI 300-100 Certification VCE Practice Test

Topic 390: OpenLDAP Configuration

390.1 OpenLDAP Replication

Description: Candidates should be familiar with the server replication available with OpenLDAP.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Replication concepts

- Configure OpenLDAP replication

- Analyze replication log files

- Understand replica hubs

- LDAP referrals

- LDAP sync replication

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

- master / slave server

- multi-master replication

- consumer

- replica hub

- one-shot mode

- referral

- syncrepl

- pull-based / push-based synchronization

- refreshOnly and refreshAndPersist

- replog

390.2 Securing the Directory

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure encrypted access to the LDAP directory, and restrict access at the firewall level.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Securing the directory with SSL and TLS

- Firewall considerations

- Unauthenticated access methods

- User / password authentication methods

- Maintanence of SASL user DB

- Client / server certificates

Terms and Utilities:


- Security Strength Factors (SSF)


- proxy authorization

- StartTLS

- iptables

390.3 OpenLDAP Server Performance Tuning

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be capable of measuring the performance of an LDAP server, and tuning configuration directives.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Measure OpenLDAP performance

- Tune software configuration to increase performance

- Understand indexes

Terms and Utilities:

- index


Topic 391: OpenLDAP as an Authentication Backend

391.1 LDAP Integration with PAM and NSS

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure PAM and NSS to retrieve information from an LDAP directory.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Configure PAM to use LDAP for authentication

- Configure NSS to retrieve information from LDAP

- Configure PAM modules in various Unix environments

Terms and Utilities:



- /etc/pam.d/

- /etc/nsswitch.conf

391.2 Integrating LDAP with Active Directory and Kerberos

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to integrate LDAP with Active Directory Services.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Kerberos integration with LDAP

- Cross platform authentication

- Single sign-on concepts

- Integration and compatibility limitations between OpenLDAP and Active Directory

Terms and Utilities:

- Kerberos

- Active Directory

- single sign-on


Topic 392: Samba Basics

392.1 Samba Concepts and Architecture

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should understand the essential concepts of Samba. As well, the major differences between Samba3 and Samba4 should be known.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Understand the roles of the Samba daemons and components

- Understand key issues regarding heterogeneous networks

- Identify key TCP/UDP ports used with SMB/CIFS

- Knowledge of Samba3 and Samba4 differences

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

- /etc/services

- Samba daemons: smbd, nmbd, samba, winbindd

392.2 Configure Samba

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to configure the Samba daemons for a wide variety of purposes.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Knowledge of Samba server configuration file structure

- Knowledge of Samba variables and configuration parameters

- Troubleshoot and debug configuration problems with Samba

Terms and Utilities:

- smb.conf

- smb.conf parameters

- smb.conf variables

- testparm

- secrets.tdb

392.3 Regular Samba Maintenance

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should know about the various tools and utilities that are part of a Samba installation.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Monitor and interact with running Samba daemons

- Perform regular backups of Samba configuration and state data
Terms and Utilities:

- smbcontrol

- smbstatus

- tdbbackup

392.4 Troubleshooting Samba

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should understand the structure of trivial database files and know how troubleshoot problems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Configure Samba logging

- Backup TDB files

- Restore TDB files

- Identify TDB file corruption

- Edit / list TDB file content

Terms and Utilities:

- /var/log/samba/

- log level

- debuglevel

- smbpasswd

- pdbedit

- secrets.tdb

- tdbbackup

- tdbdump

- tdbrestore

- tdbtool

392.5 Internationalization

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to work with internationalization character codes and code pages.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Understand internationalization character codes and code pages

- Understand the difference in the name space between Windows and Linux/Unix with respect to share, file and directory names in a non-English environment

- Understand the difference in the name space between Windows and Linux/Unix with respect to user and group naming in a non-English environment

- Understand the difference in the name space between Windows and Linux/Unix with respect to computer naming in a non-English environment

Terms and Utilities:

- internationalization

- character codes

- code pages

- smb.conf

- dos charset, display charset and unix charset

Topic 393: Samba Share Configuration

393.1 File Services

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to create and configure file shares in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Create and configure file sharing

- Plan file service migration

- Limit access to IPC$

- Create scripts for user and group handling of file shares

- Samba share access configuration parameters

Terms and Utilities:

- smb.conf

- [homes]

- smbcquotas

- smbsh

- browseable, writeable, valid users, write list, read list, read only and guest ok

- IPC$

- mount, smbmount

393.2 Linux File System and Share/Service Permissions

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should understand file permissions on a Linux file system in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Knowledge of file / directory permission control

- Understand how Samba interacts with Linux file system permissions and ACLs

- Use Samba VFS to store Windows ACLs

Terms and Utilities:

- smb.conf

- chmod, chown

- create mask, directory mask, force create mode, force directory mode

- smbcacls

- getfacl, setfacl

- vfs_acl_xattr, vfs_acl_tdb and vfs objects

393.3 Print Services

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to create and manage print shares in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Create and configure printer sharing

- Configure integration between Samba and CUPS

- Manage Windows print drivers and configure downloading of print drivers

- Configure [print$]

- Understand security concerns with printer sharing

- Uploading printer drivers for Point’n’Print driver installation using ‘Add Print Driver Wizard’ in Windows

Terms and Utilities:

- smb.conf

- [print$]


- cupsd.conf

- /var/spool/samba/.

- smbspool

- rpcclient

- net

Topic 394: Samba User and Group Management

394.1 Managing User Accounts and Groups

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to manage user and group accounts in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Manager user and group accounts

- Understand user and group mapping

- Knowledge of user account management tools

- Use of the smbpasswd program

- Force ownership of file and directory objects

Terms and Utilities:

- pdbedit

- smb.conf

- samba-tool user (with subcommands)

- samba-tool group (with subcommands)

- smbpasswd

- /etc/passwd

- /etc/group

- force user, force group.

- idmap

394.2 Authentication, Authorization and Winbind

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should understand the various authentication mechanisms and configure access control. Candidates should be able to install and configure the Winbind service.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Setup a local password database

- Perform password synchronization

- Knowledge of different passdb backends

- Convert between Samba passdb backends

- Integrate Samba with LDAP

- Configure Winbind service

- Configure PAM and NSS

Terms and Utilities:

- smb.conf

- smbpasswd, tdbsam, ldapsam

- passdb backend

- libnss_winbind

- libpam_winbind

- libpam_smbpass

- wbinfo

- getent

- SID and foreign SID

- /etc/passwd

- /etc/group

Topic 395: Samba Domain Integration

395.1 Samba as a PDC and BDC

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to setup and maintain primary and backup domain controllers. Candidates should be able to manage Windows/Linux client access to the NT-Style domains.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Understand and configure domain membership and trust relationships

- Create and maintain a primary domain controller with Samba3 and Samba4

- Create and maintain a backup domain controller with Samba3 and Samba4

- Add computers to an existing domain

- Configure logon scripts

- Configure roaming profiles

- Configure system policies

Terms and Utilities:

- smb.conf

- security mode

- server role

- domain logons

- domain master

- logon script

- logon path

- NTConfig.pol

- net

- profiles

- add machine script

- profile acls

395.2 Samba4 as an AD compatible Domain Controller

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure Samba 4 as an AD Domain Controller.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Configure and test Samba 4 as an AD DC

- Using smbclient to confirm AD operation

- Understand how Samba integrates with AD services: DNS, Kerberos, NTP, LDAP

Terms and Utilities:

- smb.conf

- server role

- samba-tool domain (with subcommands)

- samba

395.3 Configure Samba as a Domain Member Server

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to integrate Linux servers into an environment where Active Directory is present.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Joining Samba to an existing NT4 domain

- Joining Samba to an existing AD domain

- Ability to obtain a TGT from a KDC

Terms and Utilities:

- smb.conf

- server role

- server security

- net command

- kinit, TGT and REALM

Topic 396: Samba Name Services

396.1 NetBIOS and WINS

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be familiar with NetBIOS/WINS concepts and understand network browsing.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Understand WINS concepts

- Understand NetBIOS concepts

- Understand the role of a local master browser

- Understand the role of a domain master browser

- Understand the role of Samba as a WINS server

- Understand name resolution

- Configure Samba as a WINS server

- Configure WINS replication

- Understand NetBIOS browsing and browser elections

- Understand NETBIOS name types

Terms and Utilities:

- smb.conf

- nmblookup

- smbclient

- name resolve order

- lmhosts

- wins support, wins server, wins proxy, dns proxy

- domain master, os level, preferred master

396.2 Active Directory Name Resolution

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be familiar with the internal DNS server with Samba4.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Understand and manage DNS for Samba4 as an AD Domain Controller

- DNS forwarding with the internal DNS server of Samba4

Terms and Utilities:

- samba-tool dns (with subcommands)

- smb.conf

- dns forwarder

- /etc/resolv.conf

- dig, host

Topic 397: Working with Linux and Windows Clients

397.1 CIFS Integration

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be comfortable working with CIFS in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Understand SMB/CIFS concepts

- Access and mount remote CIFS shares from a Linux client

- Securely storing CIFS credentials

- Understand features and benefits of CIFS

- Understand permissions and file ownership of remote CIFS shares

Terms and Utilities:


- mount, mount.cifs

- smbclient

- smbget

- smbtar

- smbtree

- findsmb

- smb.conf

- smbcquotas

- /etc/fstab

397.2 Working with Windows Clients

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to interact with remote Windows clients, and configure Windows workstations to access file and print services from Linux servers.

Key Knowledge Areas:

- Knowledge of Windows clients

- Explore browse lists and SMB clients from Windows

- Share file / print resources from Windows

- Use of the smbclient program

- Use of the Windows net utility

Terms and Utilities:

- Windows net command

- smbclient

- control panel

- rdesktop

- workgroup
LPIC-3 test 300: Mixed Environments, version 1.0
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LPIC-3 test 300: Mixed Environments, version 1.0
Question: 109
Which of the following procedures will test the TLS configuration of an OpenLDAP
A. Run the ldapsearch command with the -ZZ option, while watching network traffic
with a packet analyzer.
B. Run the ldapsearch command with the -x option, while watching network traffic with
a packet analyzer.
C. Run the slapcat command, while watching network traffic with a packet analyzer.
D. Verify the TLS negotiation process in the /var/log/ldap_auth.log file.
E. Verify the TLS negotiation process in the /var/log/auth.log file.
Answer: A
Question: 110
The ________ command, included with OpenLDAP, will generate password hashes
suitable for use in slapd.conf. (Enter the command with no options or parameters)
Answer: slappasswd
Question: 111
How is the user user01 from DOMA granted the right to manage printers on a Samba
print server?
A. net ads rights 'DOMA\user01' +SePrintOperatorPrivilege
B. net -S server -U domadmin rpc rights grant 'DOMA\user01' SePrintOperatorPrivilege
C. pdbedit --user=user01 -I=DOMA --policies=SePrintOperatorPrivilege
D. pdbedit DOMA\user01 +PrintOperator
E. cupsaddsmb DOMA\user01 +PrintOperator
Answer: B
Question: 112
Which of the following commands are required to join an Active Directory Domain?
(Select TWO correct answers)
A. kinit
B. wbinfo -u
C. net ads join
D. winbind join domain
Answer: A, C
Question: 113
Select which groups must map to UNIX GIDs on a Samba server operating as a PDC.
(Select TWO correct answers.)
A. Domain Root
B. Domain Users
C. Domain Guests
D. Domain Controllers
E. Domain Operators
Answer: B, C
Question: 114
Which command displays the Unix access control list of the file Company.qbd?
A. facl list Company.qdb
B. ADfacl Company.qdb
C. getfacl Company.qdb
D. smbfacl Company.qdb
Answer: C
Question: 115
Which of the following are correct values for boolean parameters in smb.conf? (Select
THREE correct answers.)
A. 1
B. true
C. not
D. no
E. y
Answer: A, B, D
Question: 116
When configuring an OpenLDAP system for integration with PAM and NSS the
/etc/nsswitch.conf file needs to be modified. Which of the following parameters
completes this line from the /etc/nsswitch.conf file? passwD. files
A. pam
B. ldap
C. pam_nss
D. pam_ldap
E. none
Answer: B
Question: 117
The _____________ parameter in the smb.conf file will set hidden files in Linux to also
be hidden in windows. (Please specify ONLY the parameter with no value assignment.)
Answer: hide dot files
Question: 118
Which of the following are true for CIFS? (Choose TWO correct answers.)
A. Filenames can be in any character set.
B. Filenames can have a maximum length characters.
C. Unlike SMB, CIFS is not optimized for slow network connections.
D. Opportunistic Locks are supported.
Answer: A, D
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LPI Environments, benefits - BingNews Search results LPI Environments, benefits - BingNews Environmental Benefits of Organic Agriculture

Organic farming is not simply the substitution of approved input materials. It is the replacement of a treatment approach with a process approach to create a balanced system of plant and animal interactions.”
—Rodale Institute

Climate - the challenges ahead for farming and the organic contribution
Carbon sequestration - no-till organic and soil carbon sequestration, plus the problem with chemical-based no-till
Ecology - the ecological dangers of chemical use and the hope for organic agriculture


Climate change presents challenges for farmers in all parts of the world. Conventional agricultural practices have contributed to climate change through heavy use of fossil fuels--both directly on the farm and in the manufacturing of pesticides and fertilizers--and through degradation of the soil, which releases carbon. The depletion of soil organic carbon (SOC) through conventional farming has not only released carbon into the atmosphere, it has also limited the fertility and water holding capacity of soils worldwide.

The adoption of organic methods, particularly no-till organic, is an opportunity for farming both to mitigate agriculture's contributions to climate change and to cope with the effects climate change has had and will have on agriculture.Good organic practices can both reduce fossil fuel use and provide carbon sequestration in the soil through increased soil organic carbon (SOC). Higher SOC levels then increase fertility and the soil's ability to endure extreme weather years. Organic agriculture relies on non-chemical ways of maintaining fertility, managing pests and controlling weeds, thus eliminating the need for synthetic fertilizers and toxic pesticides.

Climate Resources

Carbon sequestration and no-till organic

Research from the Rodale Institute’s Farming Systems Trial® (FST) has revealed that organic, regenerative agriculture actually has the potential to lessen the impacts of climate change. This occurs through the drastic reduction in fossil fuel usage to produce the crops (approximately 75% less than conventional agriculture) and the significant increase in carbon sequestration in the soil.

The no-till organic methods they have developed produce comparable yields to conventional systems on average, and higher yields in drought years because of the greater water holding capacity of the organic soils.

The Problem with Chemical-Based No-Till

Much of agriculture relies on tillage, or the turning of soil. This process has the benefits of aerating the soil, reducing weeds, incorporating crop matter, and warming the soil. However, tillage can hurt soil aggregation properties, and lead to erosion by wind and water. No-till agriculture is becoming more and more prevalent in conventional agriculture, but while it has been heralded by some as more environmentally friendly, it relies on the use of toxic herbicides. Chemical-based agricultural practices have contributed to climate change through heavy use of fossil fuels–both directly on the farm and in the manufacturing of pesticides and fertilizers–and through degradation of the soil, which releases carbon. The herbicide use that conventional no-till depends on, is no exception.

Furthermore, USDA research shows that chemical-based no-till just isn't that effective at sequestering carbon. A 2006 study, “Tillage and soil carbon sequestration what do we really know?,” led by a USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) soil scientist, concludes, “Though there are other good reasons to use conservation tillage, evidence that it promotes carbon sequestration is not compelling.” On the other hand, a long-term ARS study, "No Shortcuts in Checking Soil Health," finds that organic farming practices build soil better than chemical no-till and have more soil carbon, as well as better crop yields.

Organic No-Till

The adoption of organic methods, particularly no-till organic, is an opportunity for farming both to mitigate agriculture’s contributions to climate change and cope with the effects climate change has had and will have on agriculture.

Organic no-till agriculture incorporates cover cropping as a critical component to the system that adds both nutrients and a weed barrier in the form of mulch. In a no-till organic system, a cover crop such as hairy vetch is planted in the early fall on a field. In late spring, as soon as this vetch has flowered, a single tractor equipped with both an implement to knock down the vetch (photograph above) and an implement to seed another crop (corn, for example), passes through the field. Bacteria associated with the vetch, because it is a legume, add nitrogen to the soil, providing the corn with enough to grow and eliminating the “need” for nitrogen fertilizer. The vetch provides a mulch (side photo) so weeds cannot compete with the corn, and the “need” for herbicides is nonexistent. This is particularly important in light of the predictions that increased CO2 in the atmosphere will lead to faster weed growth.

At Rodale, experiments with this no-till organic system are revealing the immense benefits of combining the no-till approach with cover cropping. Both the water holding capacity and the water drainage capacity increase with this system because of the greater soil aggregation and organic matter content. The increased humus (organic matter [carbon] that is in a very stable form) in the soil provides carbon sequestration. A crop’s ability to deal with weather extremes is increasingly important in this era of climate change and this ability is directly related to the soil health. Solutions to dealing with changing weather patterns should focus on soil health as this does, not on the development of genetically modified “drought-resistant” plant varieties. This system holds promise not only for grains, but for transplanted vegetables as well.

For a more thorough discussion of the experiments at Rodale, please read Dr. Paul Hepperly’s article, "The Organic Farming Response to Climate Change" in Pesticides and You and the Rodale Institute’s "Regenerative 21st Century Farming: A Solution to Global Warming", which elaborates on the amount of carbon sequestration possible with organic, no-till agriculture.

For a thorough discussion of the environmental and economic impacts of conventional vs. organic agriculture, please read Dr. David Pimentel et al.’s article “Organic and Conventional Farming Systems: Environmental and Economic Issues”

For more on the Rodale Institute’s work on climate change, visit their global warming page.

The Rodale Institute also offers a free online course for farmers wanting to transition to organic available here.

Return to top


It is impossible to discuss the ecological benefits of organic agriculture without discussing the devastating effects of conventional agriculture. Conventional agriculture relies on toxic pesticides that contaminate air, water, soil, and living things; organic agriculture does not allow the use of toxic pesticides. Conventional agriculture relies on chemical fertilizers that have been shown to reduce soil organic matter and contaminate waterways leading to eutrophication and “dead zones”; organic agriculture does not permit the use of chemical fertilizers and relies instead on nutrient sources that tend to be less soluble and more stable in the soil.

Pesticides, by their very nature, kill things. One of the problems with the widespread use of toxic, synthetic pesticides is that they often kill not only the desired target of the application, but other species as well. This threatens species diversity, particularly endangered species.

Besides killing non-target organisms, many of these synthetic pesticides have deleterious effects on long-term species survival because they impair their reproductive abilities. Endocrine disrupting pesticides affect the hormonal balance of wildlife and humans, often at very low doses (for more information on endocrine disruption, please read the spring 2008 volume of Pesticides and You, and for information on low dose effect please read an excerpt from Dr. Warren Porter's presentation from 2007). One very common herbicide, atrazine, has been linked to serious deleterious effects on the reproduction of frogs (for more information, read Dr. Tyrone Hayes's 2004 article in Pesticides and You). There are numerous examples of the ecological devastation caused by pesticide use. Organic agriculture does not use these chemicals, and therefore eliminates a significant source of toxic chemical contamination in our environment.

Given that we have to eat, and in order to feed over 6 billion people on the planet we have to have agriculture, it is imperative that agriculture be ecologically sensitive. Good organic practices work to build the soil and maintain an ecological balance so that chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides are proven unnecessary. Claims that organic agriculture cannot feed the world because of lower yields are contested by scientific studies showing that organic yields are comparable to conventional yields (read abstract) and require significantly lower inputs. Therefore, organic agriculture is not only necessary in order to eliminate the use of toxic chemicals, it is necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of food production.

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Sat, 20 Nov 2021 21:05:00 -0600 en text/html
Employee Benefits

Open Enrollment 2024

Open Enrollment for 2024 is now open! Don't delay, review the Open Enrollment webpage for more details, and make any needed changes for the 2024 calendar year. Don't forget to attend the Employee Benefit Fair in the Union Ballroom, Thursday 11/2/23 from 9:00 am - 3:00 pm.

Employee Benefits Summary

This page is intended for current UW employees, new employees please review the New Employee - Information and Onboarding webpage.

Your benefits are an important part of your overall compensation package, and the University of Wyoming is pleased to offer benefits-eligible employees a comprehensive array of benefits. These benefits are designed to help protect and enhance the overall well-being and way of life for you and all eligible family members. Your robust benefits package can include medical, dental and vision insurance, retirement accounts, life insurance, short and long term disability insurance, wellness programs, and mental health support, among others. Some benefits are provided automatically and at no cost to you, while others will require your enrollment. Take time to familiarize yourself with what’s available and the coverage options. When it comes to your health and wellbeing, we understand “one size” does not fit all. That’s why the University of Wyoming offers a variety of coverage levels and rates, providing employees the flexibility to choose the plan(s) that are best suited for their needs and the needs of their eligible family members. Questions? Contact our Benefits Team using the information outlined below.

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires that the University of Wyoming provide its employees who are eligible for health insurance with the following information: New Health Insurance Marketplace Coverage Options and Your Health Coverage Notice. You may not be eligible for a subsidy as described in this Notice because the State of Wyoming plan meets the standards set by the ACA.

Meet our Benefits Staff

Kira Poulson, Manager, Benefits
(307) 766-4220
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), Unemployment, Leave Without Pay, Sick Leave Donations

Cherise Laud, Benefits and Retirement Specialist, Sr.
(307) 766-2437
Retirement, Insurance (Life, Health, Dental), Flexible Spending Plan, Open Enrollment, Tuition Waivers, Cooperating Agency List, New Employee Orientation

Dave Heath, Benefits and Leave Specialist, Sr.
(307) 766-5693
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accommodation, Workers' Compensation, Military Leave

Christian Carter, Benefits Specialist
(307) 766-2290
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), Leave Without Pay

Sun, 12 Nov 2023 06:40:00 -0600 en text/html
Military and Veteran Benefits 2023 Military Pay Charts

Military pay will see a 4.6% increase for 2023 compared to 2022 levels, after President Joe Biden signs the new rate into law. These military pay tables apply to active members of the Navy, Marine Corps, Army, Air Force, Coast Guard and Space Force.

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The Employee Benefits You Should Use—but Probably Don’t

Journal Reports: Wealth Management

Sell Your Loser Stocks—and Other Year-End Tax Moves to Consider

By Tom Herman

October 26, 2023 at 9:30 AM ET

There are ways to lower your taxable income for the year. But not if you don’t do them.

Fri, 27 Oct 2023 03:30:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Examining the challenges and benefits of the new work environment

Working remotely is a preference for lots of working professionals, especially women, but could the choice to be away from the office end up costing them raises, promotions, influence?

On Friday, Nov. 3, the Rutgers Center for Women in Business will host a conference (accessible virtually) that brings together academics, executives, and innovative thinkers to discuss the challenges and experiences of remote and hybrid work, especially for women and caregivers, and to share ideas for how both individuals and organizations can continue to navigate the challenges of this evolving work world.

In a short Q&A, Lisa Kaplowitz, the center’s director, explains the strategy of combining academic researchers with industry executives in a discussion about overcoming work challenges and gives us a sense of some of the syllabus that will be addressed during the conference.

What is the goal of the Conference for Women in Hybrid and Remote Work? How does it fit into the objectives of the Center for Women in Business?

“Our goal is to bring together scholars and industry executives to explore the benefits and challenges women face under different hybrid and remote work models. We are looking forward to discussing how company culture impacts the practice of hybrid and remote policies, and which companies seem to be doing it well.  We also hope the conference will spur additional research that needs to be done to ensure women are not disadvantaged even more in hybrid and remote work environments. The Rutgers Center for Women in Business works to remove barriers, build community, and empower women. While we’re hopeful that remote work removes a barrier many women, especially caregivers, face, we are concerned that if only women take advantage of the flexibility, it will hurt women’s career advancement in the long run.” 

Why is it important to connect academic researchers with industry?

“We’ve found that academia and industry often operate in silos, and we believe there is power in the collaboration. Scholars are looking for participants in their studies. Industry executives are looking for data-based solutions. By bringing them together, we can use industry experiences and challenges to help inspire the research questions that the scholars can explore and bring back to industry as best practices.”

Can you provide a sense of the research that will be presented at the conference? What type of effect could some of it have for working women or future women in the workforce?

“We are diving into it all. From reimagining inclusion with Mita Mallik, to exploring how remote work can simultaneously enhance and reduce job opportunities for women. We are going to hear from scholars and industry experts on how remote and hybrid work makes it easier to “show up” to work, while at the same time, it can create more isolation. We are also going to explore how remote and hybrid work experiences are not all the same, and how there are additional complexities for women of color, LGBTQ+, veterans, women with disability, caregivers, and women of different ages/life stages. Finally, we are also going to discuss how this is not just a “women’s” issue and the role of men in leading and working in hybrid and remote environments.

What do you hope will result from the conference?

“We hope the conference will produce new research collaborations and highlight the need for additional work on the syllabu of women in hybrid and remote work. The COVID 19 pandemic saw women’s labor force participation drop to 1980s levels, but the trend toward more workplace flexibility has enabled women to return to the workforce at higher levels than pre-pandemic. Companies are struggling to create the optimal in-person/remote work environment, and we hope the collaborations coming out of the conference will produce data and research findings that can guide companies in their decision making.”

To attend the Women in Remote and Hybrid Work: Registration is required in order to receive a Zoom link for virtual attendance. Register here.

Tue, 24 Oct 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
5 big benefits of a 5-year CD to know now No result found, try new keyword!There are lots of good savings options to choose from right now, but a 5-year CD offers some unique perks to savers. Thu, 26 Oct 2023 04:51:56 -0500 en-us text/html Health Benefits of Sea Moss

Sea moss, also known as Irish moss or red seaweed, is a type of seaweed that grows year-round in tidepools and inlets. It's found along the coastlines of Europe, North America, and the British Isles.

Sea moss is commonly harvested to extract carrageenan, a jelly-like substance often used by the food industry as a thickener. You'll find it in ice cream, nondairy milk, cottage cheese, jelly, and even toothpaste, shoe polish, and infant formula. Carrageenan is also used to cure leather.

Sea moss is tufted and has thin fanlike fronds. It comes in many colors, from greenish-yellow to dark purple, and is alleged to have many health benefits, though most have not been studied scientifically. The algae can be made into a drink by boiling and adding milk and honey. In some countries, it's considered to be an aphrodisiac for men.

Sea moss gel

Sea moss gel is a natural, nutrient-rich product derived from sea moss. Some people mix it with water to make a puree that they take by the spoonful or add to a smoothie. The gel has a texture similar to aloe vera, and it tastes like clams or oysters. Like all seaweeds, sea moss is high in minerals such as iodine, potassium, calcium, as well as vitamins and protein.

Ever since Kim Kardashian posted about drinking a sea moss smoothie, the healthy eating community has been bursting with information about this superfood, claiming that sea moss can help with everything from your skin to your immune system. But how many of the benefits of sea moss are based on science and how many are just hearsay? 

The truth is that while people have eaten this algae for years, scientists are only now beginning to research its medical benefits. Here’s what we know so far. 

May prevent Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common degenerative disease in older adults. It causes tremors, stiffness, and slowness of movement, and there is no cure. But early research shows that sea moss may be able to slow the worsening of the disease.

In a study done with worms, extract from sea moss was shown to reduce stiffness and slowness of movement. This could mean promising things for people with Parkinson’s. But more research is needed to see if sea moss has the same effect on humans that it has on worms. 

May Improve the immune system

Early studies suggest that sea moss can boost the immune system and may even protect the body from contracting salmonella. 

One study showed that sea moss can stop the growth of S. enteritidis, the bacteria that causes salmonella in humans. But this is a very early study, and the effect has not been reproduced in animals or humans. More research is needed to determine whether sea moss could help prevent or treat salmonella in humans. 

May support thyroid health

Sea moss is full of iodine, so it should help people with hypothyroidism, a condition where your body doesn't make enough thyroid hormones, which regulate your body's metabolism. Metabolism is how the food you take into your body is transformed into energy and also regulates processes like your heart rate and your breathing. But talk to your doctor before deciding to use sea moss to manage your hypothyroidism, especially if you're already taking medication for it.

One of the reasons sea moss has been touted as a superfood recently is that it’s a vegan, gluten-free source of many nutrients. Some of the nutrients in sea moss are:

  • Vitamin B2
  • Calcium
  • Iodine
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Magnesium
  • Zinc

Nutrients per serving

2 tablespoons of sea moss contain: 

  • Calories: 5
  • Fat: 0 grams
  • Cholesterol: 0 milligrams
  • Sodium: 7 milligrams
  • Carbohydrates: 1 gram
  • Fiber: 0 grams
  • Sugar: 0 grams
  • Protein: 0 grams

Although Irish moss offers many health benefits and can Improve your body’s overall function, some studies have shown that carrageenan may have negative effects.

Under certain circumstances, carrageenan can be converted into “degraded carrageenan,” or poligeenan, which is known to be toxic and may cause several health problems. There is no scientific evidence to show that your body can convert carrageenan to poligeenan. But some seaweed can contain poligeenan naturally.

May cause intestinal inflammation

Poligeenan can lead to inflammation of the intestines, causing problems with your body's ability to absorb nutrition. This can also lead to discomfort and bloating over time. It may also be linked with colitis and symptoms of Crohn’s disease.

May cause stomach ulcers

In large amounts, poligeenan has also been shown to cause stomach lesions and ulcers in animal studies. More poligeenan is generally connected to larger ulcers. 

May lead to stomach and bowel cancer

Finally, poligeenan has also been linked to polyps that may become cancerous. Poligeenan appears to cause problems in the digestive tract that lead to cell mutations commonly found in cancers, particularly in cases where ulcers are found. 

It’s important to note that carrageenan has none of these effects. The FDA has determined that carrageenan is safe to use as a food additive, and the human body cannot produce conditions to convert carrageenan to poligeenan.

Eating too much sea moss can also cause stomach upset, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. 

Can cause thyroid problems

High levels of iodine found in sea moss can cause thyroid issues and even cancer. Having too much iodine in your diet can lead to a goiter, or an enlarged thyroid gland, which may require surgery. In general, experts advise against taking iodine supplements, as it's unclear how they will react with your thyroid.

Risk of heavy metal consumption

Seaweed that grows in waters near industrial pollution or raw sewage may contain toxic metals like arsenic, mercury, and lead, which can be dangerous to consume. The levels of these metals is generally low, but it's another reason to be careful about how much sea moss you take in.

Finally, Irish moss may have blood-thinning properties, so people taking blood-thinning medication should avoid it. Pregnant and breastfeeding people should also avoid sea moss because there is not enough research on its effects on these populations.

Sea moss supplements are sold in many formulas, including gels, powders, capsules, and gummies. The formula doesn't matter, as long as you don't take too much of it. Although raw sea moss has a "fishy" taste, the supplements are usually tasteless. Before adding sea moss to your diet, talk to a health care professional.

Portion sizes

A serving of sea moss is just 2 tablespoons, so you don't need much to get health benefits.

Many brands have begun selling sea moss pills and powders. But you can prepare sea moss yourself to use in recipes or to take as a health supplement. 

First, wash the sea moss and then soak it in cold water for a full day, changing the water frequently and removing any dirt you see. You can leave this on your kitchen counter to soak, as you don't need to refrigerate it.

You’ll know your sea moss is ready to use when it's doubled in size and become white and jelly-like. 

Once it’s ready, put the sea moss, along with some water, into a blender and blend until smooth. Start with 1 cup of water and add more if the mixture is too thick. Then refrigerate for at least 2 hours, which will thicken it some more.

Once you have your prepared sea moss, you can store it in the fridge for up to 2 weeks and use it in recipes. For instance:

  • Smoothies
  • Soups
  • Stews
  • Baked goods

You can also make sea moss gel from sea moss powder by blending 1/4 cup of powder with 2 cups of hot (not boiling) water in your blender. Cool the mixture and store it in your refrigerator.

Tue, 31 Oct 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
How Social Security Survivor Benefits Work

Although best known for its monthly payouts to retirees, Social Security actually pays several different types of benefits, as its official name, Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI), implies. If you are eligible to collect Social Security benefits upon retirement, your spouse or dependents may be eligible for survivor benefits in the event of your death. But as with many federal programs, the rules can be complicated.

Key Takeaways

  • If you have qualified to collect Social Security when you retire, your family members may be eligible for survivor benefits after you die.
  • Survivor benefits are available to widows and widowers, minor children, older disabled children, and dependent parents of the deceased.
  • Stepchildren, grandchildren, step-grandchildren, or adopted children can sometimes collect benefits as well.
  • Benefit amounts are based on the survivor's relationship to the deceased and other factors.
  • On average, it takes 10 years of work and payments to the Social Security fund to accumulate survivor benefit credits.

Who Qualifies for Social Security Survivor Benefits?

Monthly survivor benefits are available to certain family members, including:

  • A widow(er) age 60 or older (age 50 or older if they are disabled)
  • A widow(er) of any age who has not remarried and is caring for the deceased's child (or children) under age 16 or disabled
  • An unmarried child of the deceased who is younger than age 18 (or up to age 19 if a full-time student in an elementary or secondary school), or 18 or older with a disability that began before age 22
  • A stepchild, grandchild, step-grandchild, or adopted child, under certain circumstances
  • Parents, age 62 or older, who were dependent on the deceased for at least half of their income and whose own Social Security benefit would not be larger than that of the deceased offspring
  • A surviving divorced spouse, if they meet other eligibility requirements

First of all, you have to work a certain number of years and amass the requisite number of credits each year for your loved ones to be eligible for benefits—which you have to do to be eligible yourself. For 2023, you receive one credit for every $1,640 you earn, up to $6,560, for a total of four credits a year. In 2024, it rises to every $1,730 you earn, up to $6,920.

How Are Social Security Survivor Benefits Calculated?

A one-time death benefit payment of $255 can be paid to your surviving spouse if they were living with you or if you were living apart and your spouse was receiving certain Social Security benefits on your record. In cases where there is no surviving spouse, the one-time payment can be made to a child who is eligible for benefits on the deceased's record in the month of death.

The exact number of credits you need for family members to be eligible for survivor benefits depends on your age when you die. The younger you are, the fewer credits you need, but the maximum you will ever need is 40 credits. For most people, it is necessary to work and pay Social Security taxes for at least 10 years to accrue the required amount.

However, if your death leaves a spouse with dependent children, a special provision allows benefits to be paid to them if you have earned six credits (which takes about 1.5 years) or more within the three calendar years before your death.

As with regular retirement benefits, the amount of survivor benefits that your family would receive is based on your average lifetime earnings. The more you earned, the higher the benefit, up to a certain maximum.

Benefit amounts are based on how much the deceased would have collected at full retirement age if still living. But if you have begun collecting benefits earlier than your full or normal retirement age, resulting in a decreased payout, any benefits paid to your surviving family members will be based on that reduced amount. In addition, the age at which your spouse or dependents begin collecting will affect the size of their benefit.

If you begin to collect Social Security benefits before you reach normal retirement age, not only will you receive a reduced benefit, but after your death, your surviving spouse will, too.

How Big Are the Benefits?

Benefits also vary according to the survivor's relationship to the deceased and the age at which they begin receiving benefits.

Benefits for Spouses

A widow or widower who has reached their full retirement age can receive 100% of the deceased's benefit. A widow or widower who is between 60 and full retirement age can receive 71.5% to 99% of that benefit. A disabled widow or widower, aged 50 through 59, can receive 71.5%. A widow or widower of any age who's caring for a child under age 16 can receive 75%. Divorced spouses, if they qualify, can receive the same percentages as widows and widowers.

Benefits for Children and Others

Children under age 18 (or 19, if still attending primary or secondary school) and disabled dependent children can receive 75% of the deceased's benefit. A surviving dependent parent can receive 82.5% of the benefit; if two dependent parents survive, they are eligible to collect 75% each.

How Can Surviving Spouses Maximize Their Benefits?

As noted above, surviving spouses (except for those with disabilities or who are caring for a qualifying child) are eligible to collect a reduced benefit as early as age 60. Still, they must wait until their full retirement age to collect the maximum 100% benefit.

If You're Already Receiving Retirement Benefits

Those already being paid retirement benefits can only apply for benefits as a widow or widower if the current retirement benefit being received is less than the survivor benefit. In other words, they'll pay you the higher of the two benefits. However, both benefits cannot be combined and taken at the same time.

If You Haven't Applied for Retirement Benefits Yet

Spouses who are eligible for both the survivor benefit and the retirement benefit based on their own work record can maximize their total benefits by taking them in the most advantageous order. The Social Security Administration (SSA) explains how this works:

If you are also eligible for retirement benefits but haven't applied yet, you have an additional option. You can apply for retirement or survivor benefits now and switch to the other (higher) benefit later.

The right order for you will depend on the size of each benefit. If both payouts currently are about the same, it may be best to take the survivor benefit at age 60. It's going to be reduced because you're taking it early, but you can collect that benefit from age 60 to age 70 while your own retirement benefit continues to grow. Then you can collect your own benefit starting at age 70 when it maxes out.

Conversely, if your own benefit is small compared to the survivor benefit (and will be even at age 70), you could take your own (reduced) benefit at age 62, which is the earliest age at which you're eligible. Then, at age 66, you could switch over to the survivor benefit. However, the survivor benefit would be reduced since it was taken early or before full retirement age.

Please contact the Social Security Administration to discuss which benefit to take first before applying for either benefit. Ideally, you want to be sure you're choosing the option that best fits your financial circumstances by considering all of the variables, which could include your age, your deceased spouse's age, and your eligible benefits—including both the survivor's and your own retirement benefits.

Eligible for Benefits in the Last 12 Months

There's an exception for those who recently applied for retirement benefits. If you became entitled to retirement benefits less than 12 months ago, you might be allowed to withdraw your retirement application and apply for survivor benefits only. You can then reapply for your retirement benefits later when the benefits will be a higher amount.

Beware the Blackout Period

As noted earlier, a widow or widower generally doesn't qualify for their benefits until age 60. However, that person (regardless of age) can collect payouts as the caregiver for the deceased's children until they turn 16.

Children qualify for benefits (paid to the surviving parent) until they turn 18 (or 19 if they are still in school). But between the child's 18th birthday (when their survivor benefits cease) and the spouse's 60th birthday (when their benefits resume), no one in the family is eligible to collect. That's what's known as a blackout period.

For example, a woman is left widowed at the age of 30 with a two-year-old son. As her son's caregiver, she is entitled to collect Social Security benefits for 14 years, until his 16th birthday. After that, her son continues to receive his survivor benefits for two more years, until he's 18. His mom will be 46 at that point, leaving the family ineligible for any payments until her widow's benefits become available when she's 60. In this case, the Social Security blackout period lasts 14 years.

One possible solution is for families to make sure they have adequate life insurance to support a surviving spouse during any blackout period. Take, for instance, a couple, both 31 years old, who recently had a child. If either parent dies, the surviving spouse is eligible to collect benefits until they are 47 years old (when the child is 16). If they both buy 30-year term life insurance policies and keep up with the premiums, they'll be assured of coverage until age 61—one year after Social Security eligibility is reinstated—in case one of them dies.

If three or more family members receive survivor benefits, they may be subject to Social Security's rules that limit the maximum family benefit.

How Do You Apply for Survivor Benefits?

Because individual circumstances can vary widely, it is not possible to apply for survivor benefits online. However, you can apply over the phone or by appointment at your local Social Security office. Current requirements and contact information are always available on the Social Security Administration website.

Applying for survivor benefits may require you to submit specific documents, such as a death certificate, marriage certificate, proof of citizenship, or a divorce decree, so rounding them up beforehand will help expedite the process.

Who Is Entitled to Social Security Death Benefits?

Social Security death benefits are available to surviving spouses and dependents of workers who paid into the Social Security fund and worked long enough to earn benefits.

How Long Do You Have to Be Married to Get Social Security Survivor Benefits?

A surviving spouse must have been married for at least one year to be eligible to receive their spouse's Social Security death benefits. However, if the surviving spouse is the parent of the spouse's child, the one-year rule is waived. A divorced spouse may be eligible to receive benefits if they were married to their former spouse for at least 10 years.

What Percentage of Social Security Benefits Does a Widow or Widower Receive?

The surviving spouse can receive 100% of the benefits at full retirement age. If the surviving spouse is between 60 and their full retirement age, they can receive reduced benefits—usually 71.5% to 99%. If the surviving spouse is disabled, they can begin receiving 71.5% of the benefits at age 50. Surviving spouses with children under 16 receive 75% of the benefits.

How Long Do You Receive Social Security Survivor Benefits?

Social Security survivor benefits are payable to the surviving spouse for the remainder of their life. Restrictions apply for divorced spouses eligible to receive benefits.

Benefits for surviving children end at age 18 or age 19 if they are still pursuing their elementary or secondary education. For surviving children who became disabled before age 22, their benefits continue for life.

The Bottom Line

Social Security doesn't only pay out benefits to retirees, it also pays out benefits to the disabled and to the spouses and dependents of those who were eligible or receiving benefits before they passed away. The rules can be complicated, so if you are a spouse or dependent of someone who was entitled to Social Security benefits, check to see if you can start receiving those benefits and how much. It could make a difference to families that have lost a provider of income.

Thu, 06 Nov 2014 01:05:00 -0600 en text/html
Climate and Environment

America Is Using Up Its Groundwater Like There’s No Tomorrow

Unchecked overuse is draining and damaging aquifers nationwide, a data investigation by the New York Times revealed, threatening millions of people and America’s status as a food superpower.

 By Mira RojanasakulChristopher FlavelleBlacki Migliozzi and

Mon, 13 Nov 2023 20:32:00 -0600 en text/html
Veteran Benefits No result found, try new keyword!Veteran benefits aren't just a nice perk -- they are something you earned through service in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Space Force, Air Force or Coast Guard. But knowing what your benefits are ... Tue, 18 Aug 2020 12:28:00 -0500 en text/html

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