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Exam Code: 2V0-01-19 VMware vSphere 6.7 Foundations exam 2019 (2V0-01.19) learn January 2024 by team

2V0-01-19 VMware vSphere 6.7 Foundations exam 2019 (2V0-01.19)

Exam ID : 2V0-01.19

Exam Title : VMware vSphere 6.7 Foundations exam 2019

Questions : 65

Pass Marks : 300

Duration : 105 minutes

Exam Type : Multiple Choice

The vSphere 6.7 Foundations exam (2V0-01.19) is a prerequisite exam for the VCP-DCV, VCP-CMA, and VCP-DTM certifications. This is a 65 item exam, with a passing score of 300 using a scaled method. Candidates are given an appointment time of 105 minutes, which includes five-minute seating time and adequate time to complete the exam for non-native English speakers. genuine exam
time is 100 minutes.

Exam Sections

Section 1 - install and Configure vCenter Server 6.x and ESXi 6.x Hosts

Objective 1.1 - Identify vSphere Architecture and Solutions for a Given Use Case

Objective 1.2 - Install and Configure vCenter Server 6.x

Objective 1.3 - Install and Configure ESXi 6.x Hosts

Section 2 - Configure and Manage vSphere 6.x Networking

Objective 2.1 - Configure vSphere Standard Switches (vSS)

Objective 2.2 - Configure vSphere Distributed Switches (vDS)

Objective 2.3 - Configure vSS and vDS Features Based on Given Requirements

Section 3 - Configure and Manage vSphere 6.x Storage

Objective 3.1 - Connect Shared Storage Devices to ESXi Hosts

Objective 3.2 - Configure and Manage Software Defined Storage

Objective 3.3 - Create and Configure VMFS and NFS Datastores

Section 4 - Deploy and Administer Virtual Machines and vApps

Objective 4.1 - Create and Deploy Virtual Machines

Objective 4.2 - Create and Deploy vApps

Objective 4.3 - Manage Virtual Machine Clones and Templates

Objective 4.4 -Administer Virtual Machines and vApps

Section 5 - Establish and Maintain Availability and Resource Management Features

Objective 5.1 - Create and Configure VMware Clusters

Objective 5.2 - Plan and Implement VMware Fault Tolerance

Objective 5.3 - Create and Administer Resource Pools

Objective 5.4 - Migrate Virtual Machines

Objective 5.5 - Backup and Restore Virtual Machines

Objective 5.6 - Update ESXi and Virtual Machines

Section 6 - Perform Basic Troubleshooting of a vSphere 6.x Implementation

Objective 6.1 - Perform Basic Troubleshooting of ESXi and vCenter Installation Issues

Objective 6.2 - Perform Basic Troubleshooting of ESXi and vCenter Operational Issues

Objective 6.3 - Perform Basic Troubleshooting of Virtual Machine Operational Issues

Objective 6.4 - Identify and Troubleshoot Basic Misconfigurations

Section 7 - Perform Basic Monitoring of vSphere Implementation

Objective 7.1 - Monitor ESXi, vCenter Server, and Virtual Machines

Objective 7.2 - Create and Administer vCenter Server Alarms

Objective 7.3 - Install and Configure vRealize Log Insight

Recommended Courses

VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage [6.7]

VMware vSphere: Optimize and Scale [6.7]

VMware vSphere: Fast Track [6.7]

VMware vSphere 6.7 Foundations exam 2019 (2V0-01.19)
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VMware vSphere 6.7 Foundations exam 2019
Question: 58
What are two prerequisites for adding RDM disks to a VM? (Choose two.)
A. LUN used a RDM must be visible to the underlying hosts in the cluster.
B. LUN used as a RDM cannot be visible to any other underlying hosts in the cluster.
C. VM resides on a VMFS datastore.
D. LUN used as a RDM must be hidden to the ESXi host.
Answer: A, C
Question: 59
What load balancing appliance does VMware recommended for deploying a vRealize
Log Insight cluster?
A. F5 Big-IP
B. Citrix NetScaler
C. VMware NSX Load Balancer
D. Integrated Load Balancer
Answer: D
Question: 60
What are the two minimum configurations of a disk group in a vSAN host?
A. 1 SSD drive for the caching tier and 1 or more SSDs for the capacity tier
B. 1 SSD drive for the caching tier and 1 or more HDDs for the capacity tier
C. 2 or more SSD drives for the caching tier and 2 or more HDDs for the capacity tier
D. 2 or more SSD drives for the caching tier and 2 or more SSDs for the capacity tier
Answer: A
Question: 61
Which statement describes a vApp?
A. It is a container, like a resource pool which can contain one or more virtual machines.
B. It is a software computer that, like a physical computer, runs an operating system and
C. It is a file format that supports the exchange of virtual appliances across products and
D. It is a master copy of virtual machines that allows creation of ready-for use virtual
Answer: A
Question: 62
Which two statements are correct when licensing an ESXi 6.x host? (Choose two.)
A. ESXi licenses can only applied to ESXi hosts connected to a vCenter Server.
B. Bulk licensing requires vSphere Auto Deploy to be enabled.
C. ESXi licenses can be assigned utilizing the ESXi host client.
D. Bulk licensing requires vSphere PowerCLI.
Answer: C, D
Question: 63
A vSphere administrator cannot mount an NFS datastore. Which three actions can be
performed to troubleshoot the issue? (Choose three.)
A. Verify that the CHAP authentication settings are correct.
B. Run esxcli storage nfs list and ensure that the NFS filesystem is etx44 or reiserFS.
C. Run the nc z array-IP 2049 command in the ESXi Shell to see whether the ESHi
host can reach the NFS server nfsd TCP/UDP port (default 2049) on the storage array.
D. Ensure that the ESXi host can vmkping the NFS server address.
E. Ensure that the access on the NFS server is set to Anonymous user, Root Access
(no_root_squash), and Read/Write.
Answer: C, D, E
Question: 64
A vSphere administrator wants to export the log files from a vCenter Server Appliance
for troubleshooting. Which three are supported methods to export the log files? (Choose
A. Leveraging vRealize Operations Manager.
B. Using the Managed Object Browser to explore the DiagnosticManager.
C. Using the URL displayed on the VCSA DCUI home screen
D. Logging on to the vCenter Server Appliance Bash shell and running the
Answer: A, C, D
Question: 65
Which two statements are true about LACP support with the vSphere Distributed
Switch? (Choose two.)
A. LACP works with MAC hash load balancing.
B. LACP works with software iSCSI multipathing.
C. LACP does not work with host profiles.
D. LACP does not work with port mirroring.
Answer: C, D
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Vmware Foundations learn - BingNews Search results Vmware Foundations learn - BingNews Broadcom VMware acquisition and the current situation of services

Broadcom VMware acquisition and the current situation of services

In a bold move that has sent ripples through the tech sector, Broadcom has finalized its acquisition of VMware for $60 billion, a development that promises to reshape the landscape of virtualization and cloud services. As a user of VMware’s products, you may be wondering how this change will affect your business.

The acquisition, which began in May 2022, has brought about a strategic shift within VMware, with Broadcom now steering the company towards a subscription-based model. This change reflects a broader industry trend, but it also presents potential challenges, especially for smaller businesses that have relied on VMware’s perpetual licenses.

Broadcom is known for restructuring its acquisitions, a practice that has caused some concern among VMware’s customer base. The company has recently discontinued several VMware divisions, including the Carbon Black and End-User Compute product lines. While this move streamlines VMware’s portfolio, it may force some users to seek out alternative solutions. Despite these changes, VMware’s core technologies, such as ESXi, vCenter, and vSphere, will continue under the new vSphere Foundation brand. This rebranding effort seems to be an attempt to address the needs of mid-sized and smaller customers, ensuring they still have access to essential virtualization tools.

Broadcom VMware

The restructured VMware Cloud Foundation has become more affordable and now includes enhanced support services. This appears to be a strategic move to keep hybrid cloud customers on board during the shift to subscription services. As you navigate these changes, it’s important to weigh the new subscription costs against your business needs.

VMware Alternatives

You might find that alternatives like XCP-ng, Proxmox, Kubernetes, or Docker offer the functionality you require at a cost that aligns better with your budget. These options could be particularly appealing if you’re aiming to maintain operational efficiency without overextending your financial resources.

Interview with Broadcom CEO


  • Broadcom’s acquisition of VMware, which began in May 2022, has been completed after 546 days, with significant implications for VMware’s future and its customers.
  • Concerns were initially raised about Broadcom’s history of acquiring and dismantling companies, which has now manifested in changes to VMware’s business model and product offerings.
  • Key changes following the acquisition include:
  • The end of perpetual licensing for VMware products, transitioning to a subscription-based model.
  • A strategic shift in focus towards serving global enterprises, potentially sidelining smaller businesses.
  • The discontinuation of certain VMware divisions, such as Carbon Black (EDR software) and the entire End-User Compute product offering, including VMware Horizon VDI.
  • The continuation of core technologies like ESXi, vCenter, and vSphere, rebranded as vSphere Foundation, aimed at mid-sized to smaller customers.
  • A price reduction for VMware Cloud Foundation and enhanced support service levels to retain hybrid cloud customers and promote the new subscription model.
  • For home lab users, ESXi free version is expected to remain free, and VMUG Advantage memberships are not anticipated to change.

For those who are passionate about VMware and run home labs, the free version of ESXi is expected to remain available at no cost. Additionally, VMUG Advantage memberships, which offer personal use benefits such as discounts and licenses, are anticipated to continue as they are.

The industry has had a mixed response to Broadcom’s new direction for VMware. As the virtualization and cloud services sector evolves, staying informed about the latest developments and considering a range of alternatives will be crucial for successfully navigating these changes. Your ability to adapt and make informed decisions will be vital as you adjust to this new chapter for VMware under Broadcom’s ownership.

Filed Under: Technology News, Top News

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Mon, 01 Jan 2024 19:47:00 -0600 Julian Horsey en-US text/html
VMware Cloud Foundation Gets Security Breakthrough At RSA

‘There must be a new approach to cybersecurity – one that is built-in, unified and context-centric,” says VMware’s Chief Operating Officer Sanjay Poonen.


VMware’s popular VMware Cloud Foundation is receiving a major shot in the arm with new security capabilities from Carbon Black and NSX as the virtualization star continues its march to make security intrinsic in all its products.

At RSA 2020 conference on Tuesday, VMware unveiled that VMware Advanced Security for Cloud Foundation – which is the basis for offers such as VMware Cloud on AWS and VMware Cloud on Dell EMC – will inject Carbon Black’s workload protection Real-time Workload Audit/Remediation technology as well as its Next-Generation Antivirus (NGAV) and Endpoint Detection & Response (EDR) solutions.

Additionally, VMware’s NSX Advanced Load Balancer with Web Application Firewall capabilities and NSX Distributed IDS/IPS can be added to VMware Cloud Foundation deployments. The NSX and Carbon Black technology will integrate with VMware vSphere.

[Related: VMware Licensing VP: CPU Pricing Change Has ‘Zero Impact’]

For more than a year, VMware has had its sights set on disrupting the security industry by tightly integrating security into every product, a strategy it dubs as intrinsic security.

Sanjay Poonen, chief operating officer, customer operations for VMware, said there has never been a more challenging time in security.

“Attacker sophistication, security threats, breaches, and exploits are becoming more prevalent with no end in sight. And with cloud, new applications, pervasive mobility, IoT, and data at the edge, the problem is only getting harder to solve. There must be a new approach to cybersecurity – one that is built-in, unified and context-centric,” Poonen said in a statement. “We believe the best strategy and approach is to make security intrinsic enabling organizations to leverage their infrastructure and its unique capabilities across any app, any cloud and any device to better secure the world’s digital infrastructure – from networks, to endpoints, to workloads, to identities, to clouds.”

VMware Carbon Black will be tightly integrated with VMware vSphere to create an agentless solution which eliminates the need to insert antivirus and other agents. VMware says endpoint telemetry will be managed and gathered via built-in sensors protected by the hypervisor.

Adding the scale-out software architecture of NSX Web Application Firewall to VMware Cloud Foundation will help confirm that web servers have enough compute capacity for maximum security filtering even under peak loads. VMware’s web application firewalls leverages its understanding of application, automated learning and app-specific rules to provide strong security with lower false positives.

Adding NSX Distributed IDS/IPS to Cloud Foundation environments will provide intrusion detection on many difference services to offer deeper visibility as well as enable advanced filtering to be applied to every hop of the application to reduce any blind spots.

In an interview with CRN last year, VMware CEO Pat Gelsinger said VMware has the ability to take the security market by storm.

“We have two assets that nobody else on the planet has. We have the VM. We’re building this intrinsically into the VM. A lot of problem with a lot of security today is they end up being agents that you add into the guest environment. If you’re an attacker, the first thing you do is turn off the agents. Right? Those techniques of turning off the agents or spoofing the agents, there’s probably 100 free kits you can get to do that. The VM can’t be turned off. This sits as a capability inside of the VM,” said Genslinger.

“[Then] with our NSX, I now have an enforcer point, where you can see the network traffic and see all of it from an application-centric [point of view]. So the VM is handing traffic into NSX and then to the microsegments -- there’s nothing else sitting in-between that. You don’t have to hairpin to some remote firewall or some other service. You have that explicit point right at connectivity into the networking layer that either gives you visibility of all traffic coming in or enforcement of traffic going out,” said Gelsinger. “Those are two very powerful points that we don’t think anybody else is anywhere close to us in being able to do those two things for very fundamental, technical and market-based reasons.”

VMware made a huge splash in the security market in October with the acquisition of endpoint security leader Carbon Black for a value of $2.1 billion.

In addition to the new security features on VMware Cloud Foundation announced at the RSA 2020 conference, the Palo Alto, Calif.-based company launched new capabilities for the VMware Carbon Black Cloud.

VMware introduced automated correlation with MITRE ATT&CK framework Technique IDs -- a which is a list of common tactics, techniques, and procedures -- built into the VMware Carbon Black Cloud, allowing customers to discover potential threats and identify areas of improvements. Additionally, VMware Carbon Black will be adding malware prevention capabilities for Linux machines to enable customers to migrate away from other endpoint prevention solutions specific to Linux.

The RSA 2020 conference in San Francisco runs Feb. 24-28.

Tue, 25 Feb 2020 05:12:00 -0600 text/html
Broadcom’s VMware alterations include layoffs, changes to partner programs

Policies around remote work could add to the tension as Broadcom begins to integrate VMware.

Broadcom finally closed its acquisition of VMware in November after 18 months of various governments slow-walking the approval process. Now it's making a series of changes, including layoffs, that may prove painful.

Layoffs aren't a surprise, as Broadcom wasn't quiet about plans to cut headcount. Broadcom management said in a mid-2022 town hall meeting that they wanted VMware to become "lean and flat." Broadcom hasn't said how many people will be affected, but so far, the cuts include 1,267 VMware employees referenced in a December filing with the California Employment Development Department.

A former VMware employee who is among those let go spoke to me on the condition of anonymity and said it is mostly senior salespeople who have left or are leaving. The former staffer also expects that the corporate cultures of the two firms will clash.

One potential issue is Broadcom's stance on remote work: VMware allowed employees to work from home, but Broadcom is all about getting employees back to the office. Broadcom CEO Hock Tan reportedly said to VMware employees that only salespeople and employees who live more than 60 miles from a VMware office could work remotely. “Any other exception, you better learn how to walk on water, I’m serious,” Tan said, according to an article in that cites the Silicon Valley Business Journal.

Steve Tuck, CEO of cloud systems vendor Oxide Computing, didn't believe the quote at first. "That’s not something you would say if your objective is to kind of quell fears," Tuck said. "But that is what he said, and [it's] really pretty surprising."

Expect VMware layoffs, product cuts

Steven Elliot, group vice president of infrastructure software at IDC, says the layoffs and consolidation are a good and necessary thing. He notes that Broadcom is not only cutting staff but also cutting products to focus on core competency.

"As companies grow larger and larger, they create a lot of complexity internally, across different business functions. What Hock brings to the table is not only a lot of experience and understanding of how to drive efficient operations, but also a lot of clarity with regards to the financial objectives and what customers should expect down the road. There’s a level of simplification and focus," Elliot said.

Changes to partner programs and licensing models

Broadcom is transitioning VMware's licensing model from perpetual software licenses to annual subscriptions, although this process began about a year before the acquisition. It ended VMware's partner program and is moving customers to an invite-only Broadcom Advantage Partner Program, effective February 5, 2024. All VMware partner incentive programs will end on or before February 4, 2024, according to a letter sent to partners and posted on a Reddit board for VMware users.

A Broadcom spokesperson issued the following statement: "Broadcom remains committed to creating value within our combined ecosystem, which has been made stronger with the addition of VMware partners. Effective February 5, 2024, Broadcom will be transitioning VMware's partner programs to the invitation-only Broadcom Advantage Partner Program. Based on latest discussions with hundreds of partners globally, this transition will help our partners achieve even greater opportunities for profitability through simplified bundled offerings and more opportunities for service revenues."

Will customer defections come to fruition?

Before the deal even closed, Forrester Research estimated that up to 20% of VMware’s enterprise customers were planning to at least look into switching to a new virtual machine stack in the coming year.

While the confusion around VMware has been good for Oxide's business, Tuck said most VMware customers are under long-term contracts and likely couldn't get out of them too soon. He added: "I think every VMware customer is evaluating what’s the right strategy. And I think their findings of what the alternatives are, what the path to those alternatives are, are going to result in what percentage of those customers end up actually moving. But I think that feels like a conservative estimate," he said.

IDC's Elliott, meanwhile, said the opposite is happening. "There are customers that have actually already renewed [contracts]. They renewed after the deal was announced. And they’re renewing their license agreements after it has closed. So there are a lot of customers that are moving forward," Elliott said. 

Tuck said VMware has raised prices a lot over the years, while the innovation that VMware has delivered has plateaued. "There’s a lot of latent frustration out there with VMware," he said.

Tuck declined to predict what would happen in the future as a result of senior talent defections and talent rebuilding efforts within the company, but he said all these actions are part of the Silicon Valley lifecycle. "This is the kind of forest fire that is productive and necessary for the healthy forest of innovation in Silicon Valley."

Fri, 05 Jan 2024 03:53:00 -0600 en text/html
Machine Learning: Foundations

When you want a person to do something, you train them. When you want a computer to do something, you program it. However, there are ways to make computers learn, at least in some situations. One technique that makes this possible is the perceptron learning algorithm. A perceptron is a computer simulation of a nerve, and there are various ways to change the perceptron’s behavior based on either example data or a method to determine how good (or bad) some outcome is.

What’s a Perceptron?

I’m no biologist, but apparently a neuron has a bunch of inputs and if the level of those inputs gets to a certain level, the neuron “fires” which means it stimulates the input of another neuron further down the line. Not all inputs are created equally: in the mathematical model of them, they have different weighting. Input A might be on a hair trigger, while it might take inputs B and C on together to wake up the neuron in question.

It is simple enough to model such a thing mathematically and implement it using a computer program. Let’s consider a perceptron that works like a two-input AND gate. The two inputs can be either 0 or 1. The perceptron will have two weights, one for each input, called W0 and W1. Let’s consider the inputs as X0 and X1. The value of the perceptron (V) is then V=X0*W0+X1*W1 (edit: there was a typo in this equation, now fixed). Simple, right? There is also a threshold value. If the output value meets or exceeds the threshold, the output is true (corresponding to a neuron firing).

How can this model an AND gate? Suppose you set the threshold value to 1. Then set W0 and W1 both to 0.6. Your truth table now looks like this:

X1 X0 V Result
0 0 0*.6+0*.6=0 0
0 1 0*.6+1*.6=.6 0
1 0 1*.6+0*.6=.6 0
1 1 1*.6+1*.6=1.2 1

If you prefer an OR gate, that’s easy. Just set the weights high enough that it always fires, say 1.1. The value will either be 0, 1.1, or 2.2 and the result is an OR gate.

When It Doesn’t Work

There are two interesting cases where this simple strategy won’t work; we can adopt more complex strategies to fix these cases. First, consider if you wanted a NAND gate. Of course, you could just flip the sense of the threshold. However, if we have any hope of making a system that could learn to be an AND gate, or an OR gate, or a NAND gate, we can’t have special cases like that where we don’t just change the data, we change the algorithm.

So unless you cheat like that, you can’t pick weights that cause 00, 01, and 10 to produce a number over the threshold and then expect 11 to produce a lower number. One simple way to do this is to add a bias to the perceptron’s output. For example, suppose you add 4 to the output of the perceptron (and, remember, adding zero would be the same case as before, so that’s not cheating). Now the weights could be -2 and -2. Then, 00, 01, or 10 will supply a value of 4 or 2, both of which exceed the threshold of 1. However, 11 gives a value of zero which is below the threshold.

An easy way to accomplish this is to simply add an input to the perceptron and have it always be a 1. Then you can assign a weight to that input (for example, 0 for the AND gate and 4 for the NAND gate). You don’t have to do it that way, of course, but it makes the code nice and neat since it is just another input.

andThe other problem is that a single perceptrons can only deal with things that are linearly separable. That’s a fancy term, but it is easy to understand. If you plotted the AND gate on a graph, it would look like this.

The white circles are zeros and the black one is the true output. See the straight line that separates the white from the black? The fact that it is possible to draw that line means the AND gate is linearly separable. Setting the weights effectively defines that line and anything on one side of the line is a zero and on the other side is a one.

What about an exclusive OR (XOR)?xor There’s no line on that diagram. Try drawing one. You can’t. That means you can’t create an XOR with a single perceptron. You can, however, use multiple layers of perceptrons to get the desired result.

When you have more than two inputs, you don’t have a simple 2D chart like you see above. Instead of defining a line, you are defining a plane or hyperplane that cuts everything cleanly. The principle is the same, but it is a lot harder to draw.


For a simple binary output like a logic gate, you really only need one perceptron. However, it is common to use perceptrons to determine multiple outputs. For example, you might feed ten perceptrons image data and use each one to recognize a numeral from 0 to 9. Adding more inputs is trivial and — in the example of the number reader — each output corresponds to a separate perceptron.

Even the logic gate perceptrons could use two separate outputs. One output could be for the zero output and the other could be for the one output. That means the zero output would definitely need the bias because it is essentially a NAND gate.

For example, here’s an AND gate with two parallel perceptrons (assuming a threshold of 1):

Input Weight for 0 output Weight for 1 output
X0 -2 0.6
X1 -2 0.6
BIAS (1) 4 0

Granted, this is less efficient than the first example, but it is more representative of more complex systems. It is easy enough to select the weights for this by hand, but for something complex, it probably won’t be that easy.

An Excel Model

Before you start coding this in your favorite language, it is instructive to model the whole thing in a spreadsheet like Excel. The basic algorithm is easy enough, but it is interesting to be able to quickly experiment with learning parameters and a spreadsheet will help with that.

I put the spreadsheet you can see below on GitHub. The macros control the training, but all the classification logic occurs in the spreadsheet. The Zero macro and the Train macro are just simple functions. The Train1 subroutine, however, implements the training algorithm.

The weights are the 6 blue boxes from B2:C4. Remember, the last row is the bias input which is always one. The inputs are at E2:E3. E5 is the expected result. You an plug it in manually, or you can use a formula which is currently:


You could replace the AND with OR, for example. You can also change the threshold and training rate. Don’t overwrite the result fields or the other items below that in column B. Also, leave the bias input (E4) as a 1. I protected the cells you shouldn’t change (but if you really want to, the password is “hackaday”).


How does a system like this learn? For the purpose of this example, I’ll assume you have a set of inputs and you know the output you expect for each (the train macro takes care of that). Here’s the basic algorithm:

  1. Set the inputs to the test case.
  2. Look at the expected output perceptron. If its output is not over the threshold, add the scaled input (see below) to the weights in the perceptron.
  3. Look at the other perceptrons. If their outputs are over the threshold, subtract the scaled input to the weights.
  4. Repeat the process for each test case.
  5. Keep repeating the entire set of cases until you don’t have to do anything in an entire set for step 2 and 3.

Scaled input means to take the inputs and multiply them by the training rate (usually a number less than 1). Let’s assume the training rate is 0.5 for the example below.

Consider if all the weights start at 0 and the test case is X0=1, X1=1. The “one” perceptron should fire, but its output is zero. So W0=W0+X0*1*0.5 and W1=W1+X1*1*0.5. In other words, both weights in that column will now be 0.5. Don’t forget the bias input which will be W2=W2+1*0.5.

Now look at the other peceptron. It shouldn’t fire and with an output of zero, it is fine so step 3 doesn’t make any changes. You repeat this with the other test cases and keep going until you don’t have to make any changes for step 2 or 3 for an entire pass.

Here’s the code from the Train1 macro:

' Train one item
Sub Train1()
' Put things in sane names
 Stim0 = Range("E2")
 Stim1 = Range("E3")
 Stim2 = Range("E4") ' should always be 1
 Bias = Range("F6")
 Threshold = Range("F8")
 TrainRate = Range("F9")
 Res0 = Range("B5") ' save this so it doesn't "move" when we start changing
 Res1 = Range("C5")
 Expected = Range("B9")
 ' If we expected 0 but Res0<Threshold then we need to bump it up by the forula
 If Expected = 0 Then
 If Res0 =Threshod, we need to bump it down
 If Res0 >= Threshold Then
 Range("B2") = Range("B2") - Stim0 * TrainRate
 Range("B3") = Range("B3") - Stim1 * TrainRate
 Range("B4") = Range("B4") - Stim2 * TrainRate
 End If
 End If

' Same logic for expecting a 1 and Res1
 If Expected = 1 Then
 If Res1 = Threshold Then
 Range("C2") = Range("C2") - Stim0 * TrainRate
 Range("C3") = Range("C3") - Stim1 * TrainRate
 Range("C4") = Range("C4") - Stim2 * TrainRate
 End If
 End If

End Sub

' Do training until "done"
Sub Train()
Done = False
ct = 0
Do While Not Done
 Done = True
 ct = ct + 1
 If (ct Mod 100) = 0 Then ' In case bad things happen let user exit every 100 passes
 If MsgBox("Continue?", vbYesNo) = vbNo Then Exit Sub
 End If
 For i = 0 To 1
 Range("E2") = i
 For j = 0 To 1
 Range("E3") = j
' We are not done if there is a wrong answer or if the right answer is not over threshold or if the wrong answer is over the threshold
 If Range("B8")  Range("B9") Or (Range("B5")  Range("B6") And Range("B5") >= Range("F8")) Or (Range("C5")  Range("B6") And Range("C5") >= Range("F8")) Or (Range("B6") < Range("F8")) Then
 Done = False
 End If
 Next j
 Next i
End Sub

' Zero out the matrix
Sub Zero()
Range("B2") = 0
Range("B3") = 0
Range("B4") = 0
Range("C2") = 0
Range("c3") = 0
Range("c4") = 0
End Sub

What’s Next?

Experiment with the spreadsheet. Try an OR, NAND, and NOR gate. Try an XOR gate and note that it won’t converge. There are variations on the algorithm to account for how far off the result is, for example. You can also try initializing the weights to random values instead of zero.

Next time, I’ll show you what this looks like in C++ (suitable for your favorite microcontroller) and talk about how to tackle larger problems. If you want to dig into the theory a little more, you might enjoy [Dan Klein’s] lecture in the video below.

(Banner image courtesy this excellent writeup on neural networks.)

Tue, 01 Nov 2016 23:28:00 -0500 Al Williams en-US text/html
VMware, Nvidia Reveal Private AI Foundation To Help Enterprises Run Gen AI Apps

Justin Boitano, vice president of enterprise computing at Nvidia, says the new full-stack software platform will help enterprises take advantage of ‘state-of-the-art’ Large Language Models like Llama 2 and build custom generative AI applications using proprietary information on VMware’s cloud infrastructure to significantly Boost productivity.


VMware CEO Raghu Raghuram

VMware is hoping to entice enterprises to build and run generative AI applications on its cloud infrastructure with a new full-stack software platform it has built with AI chip powerhouse Nvidia.

Unveiled Tuesday at VMware Explore in Las Vegas, the upcoming platform is called VMware Private AI Foundation with Nvidia, and it’s designed to help businesses use their proprietary data to build custom Large Language Models and run generative AI applications on VMware Cloud Foundation.

[Related: VMware Explore’s 5 Big Reveals: Updates To Tanzu, vSAN, NSX Plus, Workspaces And An AI Deal With Nvidia]

Both companies emphasized that the platform, which is expected to launch early next year, will help businesses address concerns around data privacy, security and control when building generative AI applications on the infrastructure of their choice.

VMware Private AI Foundation will initially be supported by systems with Nvidia GPUs, DPUs and SmartNICs from Dell Technologies, Hewlett Packard Enterprise and Lenovo. Support for the public cloud will come “in the future,” according to the companies.

The platform was unveiled as Nvidia seeks to continue its dominance in the AI computing space by expanding in the enterprise space through partnerships with IT heavy hitters like VMware. At the same time, VMware is hoping to cement itself as the No. 1 destination for enterprises running AI workloads in multi-cloud environments as semiconductor giant Broadcom gets closer to acquiring the company.

“Generative AI and multi-cloud are the perfect match,” said Raghu Raghuram, VMware’s CEO, in a statement. “Customer data is everywhere—in their data centers, at the edge and in their clouds. Together with Nvidia, we’ll empower enterprises to run their generative AI workloads adjacent to their data with confidence while addressing their corporate data privacy, security and control concerns.”

Platform Will Let Businesses Create Apps With ‘State-Of-The-Art’ Models

Justin Boitano, vice president of enterprise computing at Nvidia, said VMware Private AI Foundation will help enterprises take advantage of generative AI—which he called the “most transformational technology of our lifetime”—and build conversational interfaces that connect with business systems.

As examples, Boitano said companies could train Large Language Models “against call records with your customers, your IT tickets and your security configurations” to Boost business processes.

“We see AI being infused into every business over the next decade to make people 10 times more productive, to help them answer these complex questions about their business faster and more efficiently,” he said in a briefing with journalists and analysts.

A critical aspect of the new platform is that it will make it “easy for any enterprise” to build AI applications with “state-of-the-art” Large Language Models like Llama 2, Falcon LLM, MPT and Nvidia Nemo, according to Boitano.

The platform will accomplish this by letting businesses “pull in those models with the best-in-class tools and easily combine them with [their] proprietary information,” Boitano said. This will result in a new model that “has a nuanced understanding” of a business’ proprietary and private information.

Boitano said this is a welcome alternative for enterprises that want to avoid feeding proprietary data into public Large Language Models due to privacy concerns.

“You don’t want to provide those to a model that’s basically taking your proprietary data and encoding it into this publicly available thing, and that’s why the concept of private AI is so important,” he said.

What’s Included With VMware Private AI Foundation

VMware Private AI Foundation will consist of software components from VMware and Nvidia that will help businesses train AI models and then run inference of them for live applications.

“It’s a full workflow product for your AI developers, and it really takes away the complexity of how do I get started on this? Where do I go? What do I need? All of it is comes prepackaged from both of us,” said Paul Turner, vice president of cloud platform at VMware.

At the top of the software stack is Nvidia AI Workbench, a new toolkit from the GPU designer that lets developers create, test and customize pretrained Large Language Models on a PC and workstation and then scale them to any data center or cloud infrastructure.

The top of the stack also includes the Nvidia NeMo framework, which includes customization frameworks, guardrail toolkits, data curation tools and pretrained models to help enterprises build, customize and deploy generative AI models on any infrastructure powered by Nvidia GPUs.

A critical component of NeMo Is Nvidia’s TensorRT framework for Large Language Models that ensures such models run on the company’s GPUs with the best possible inference performance.

On VMware’s end, the platform includes the vSphere Deep Learning VM images and image repository, which will supply users a “stable turnkey solution image” with preinstalled frameworks and performance-optimized libraries for running AI workloads in virtual machines.

The platform also makes use of the VMware vSAN Express Storage Architecture for enabling performance-optimized NVMe storage and supporting GPUDirect storage over RDMA, the latter of which allows direct data transfer between hard drives and GPUs without involving the CPU.

VMware has also tuned the platform to support running AI workloads across up to 16 GPUs or virtual GPUs in a single virtual machine and across multiple nodes. Part of what makes this possible is a “deep integration” between vSphere and Nvidia’s NVSwitch technology that connects multiple GPU systems.

One of the platform’s two foundational elements is Nvidia AI Enterprise, a software suite that contains important building blocks for developing and running AI applications such as NeMo and TensorRT among other frameworks, pretrained models and tools. Nvidia launched it exclusively with VMware in 2021 before opening up the platform to other virtualization vendors and cloud service providers.

The platform’s other foundational element is VMware Cloud Foundation, the virtualization giant’s hyperconverged infrastructure platform for running applications in private or public environments.

VMware Private AI Foundation Will Have GPU-Based Pricing

When VMware Private AI Foundation releases next year, it will be made available as a single product sold by channel partners, either through VMware itself or bundled with OEM systems, according to Turner.

While Turner declined to provide pricing details, he said VMware plans to charge customers based on the number of GPUs they use to create and run their generative AI applications. Nvidia has used a per-GPU pricing model for commercial software it has developed in the past, including Nvidia AI Enterprise.

“As they scale their environment based on the number of GPUs, the Private AI Foundation pricing will be relative to that value that they’re getting,” he said.

Tue, 22 Aug 2023 06:00:00 -0500 text/html
Involta: On a mission to transform the world through technology

In its sustainability efforts, Involta is applying the same attention to detail and focus on performance that marks its IT solutions and services.

Ken Kremer, chief technical officer at Involta, points out that the company’s inaugural Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) report reflects its commitment to set an example for the IT industry. It also emphasizes Involta’s focus on the three pillars of its ESG strategy: environmental sustainability, employee well-being, and strong governance practices.

“When Involta was founded in 2007, sustainability wasn’t a top-of-mind issue for the industry, but our founders understood its importance and continually made everyday improvements that promoted energy efficiency and reduced our carbon emissions,” says Kremer. “Now we have the tools, strategies, and language needed to track and report on our environmental performance and ensure that our approach to ESG is marked by the same attention to detail our customers associate with our IT solutions and services.”

Based in Tucson, Arizona, and with more than 240 employees, Involta operates 12 high-performance data centers in Arizona, Idaho, Iowa, Minnesota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The company’s compute, networking, and storage offerings encompass a wide range of managed IT services and draw on its 12,000-mile fiber network.

“Leaders in the financial services, healthcare, manufacturing, and technology sectors know Involta for the technical strength of our solutions, our exceptional service guarantees, and the personal service and concierge-level care we provide,” adds Kremer. “We work to ensure that our core values, which we refer to as DRIVE – dedicated, results, integrity, visionary and experience – permeate everything we do, whether it’s providing a security operations center, delivering managed services – including Infrastructure-as-a-Service, Storage-as-a-Service, Backup-as-a-Service, and Disaster Recovery-as-a-Service – or designing the applications and infrastructure they need to meet their business objectives. Increasingly, we are also finding that these same customers are working towards sustainability goals of their own.”

Kremer notes that Involta is proud to support that important work by driving change and innovation in the technology sector. One example includes the use of closed-loop, water-free, and refrigerant-based cooling systems in all of the company’s data centers.  Another is a new state-of-the-art approach to ventilation.

“Through our partnership with DuctSox, we helped develop the industry’s first customizable air displacement ventilation dispersion system,” he says. “Not only do we not use the water that many data centers rely on, but we are also radically decreasing how much power is required to ventilate our facilities.”

This includes Involta’s Northpoint data center in Pennsylvania – a 40,000 square foot certified tier III facility that uses half as much power as the company’s first data center that went into operation in 2008. With a power usage effectiveness of 1.3, it is among the top five percent of the most efficient multi-tenant data centers nationwide. And with multiple uninterruptible power supply and diesel-powered generator systems in place at each of Involta’s data centers, power availability is backed up by a 100% guarantee.

“Data centers today use nearly 1% of electricity and create .3% of CO2 emissions globally,” adds Kremer. “As enterprises continue their digital transformations, they require more high-performance computing capabilities and generate more data, both of which require more power. That’s why it is absolutely essential that data center providers work to achieve net zero goals and collectively strive to create a more efficient, and more sustainable future for all.”

That is why Kremer says Involta joined VMware’s Zero Carbon Committed initiative. It is also why he believes efforts to procure more renewable energy and reduce carbon emissions are crucial and should influence how companies choose their partners.

“We’ve worked with VMware as a Cloud Tested partner for many years, a relationship that has helped us reimagine and grow our cloud solutions to align with the evolving needs of modern businesses,” he says. “VMware’s cloud, networking and security, and digital workspace offerings provide a dynamic and efficient digital foundation to global customers and help empower entire industries to minimize their impact on the environment. Partnerships with others that share the same vision serve as a force multiplier in efforts to address climate change.”

Such efforts he notes are consistent with each of the three key pillars of Involta’s ESG strategy: environmental sustainability, employee well-being, and strong governance practices.

“Involta’s employees volunteer for projects like Clean Yer Creek, an annual cleanup in Duluth, and numerous other initiatives that address ESG issues like hunger, literacy, and housing,” says Kremer. “It’s important to be in tune with the communities we serve. Our vision to enable our customers to transform their worlds through technology has never been more paramount, or more closely tied to the sustainability movement. Technology and energy go hand in hand, and as technology advances, we become increasingly dependent on energy. Paying attention to our energy mix and prioritizing renewable energy is a strategy Involta has fully embraced, and we hope to see our peers follow suit.”

Learn more about Involta and its partnership with VMware here.

Thu, 21 Dec 2023 07:05:00 -0600 en text/html
Learning Support Courses
A course designed to allow students to simultaneously satisfy the LS requirement and take MATH 1111, an Area A math course. The course will cover the Beginning or Intermediate Algebra syllabus needed for the student to be successful in College Algebra. The course allows the instructor to assist the students with any deficiencies they may have while attempting the College Algebra topics. The material covered in MATH 0999 is meant to provide background information or just-in-time remediation of the syllabus covered in MATH 1111. syllabus to be covered include: polynomial, rational, and radical expressions and equations, quadratic functions and their graphs, and systems of equations.

Prerequisite: Accuplacer Quantitative Reasoning, Algebra, and Statistics score of 258 or higher; any Area A MATH course with a grade of C or higher, old SAT Math score of 440 or higher, new SAT Math Section score of 480 or higher, ACT Math score of 17 or higher, MPI of 1175 or higher; or, beginning spring 2024, a HSGPA of 3.1 or higher

Corequisite: MATH 1111


View Course in Catalog
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The fight against pediatric cancer has been one of the Blue Jackets Foundation's primary areas of focus since the team's inception in 2000. Hats For Heroes and additional fundraising programs have raised more than $4 million to fund a variety of support programs for pediatric cancer patients and their families, including therapy through distraction, critical research projects and assistance in providing palliative care for youth.

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