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Exam Code: 200-301 Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
200-301 Cisco Certified Network Associate - CCNA 2022

200-301 CCNA
Certification: CCNA
Duration: 120 minutes

This test tests your knowledge and skills related to:

- Network fundamentals
- Network access
- IP connectivity
- IP services
- Security fundamentals
- Automation and programmability

The Cisco Certified Network Associate v1.0 (CCNA 200-301) test is a 120-minute test associated with the CCNA certification. This test tests a candidate's knowledge and skills related to network fundamentals, network access, IP connectivity, IP services, security fundamentals, and automation and programmability. The course, Implementing and Administering Cisco Solutions (CCNA), helps candidates prepare for this exam.

20% 1.0 Network Fundamentals
1.1 Explain the role and function of network components
1.1.a Routers
1.1.b L2 and L3 switches
1.1.c Next-generation firewalls and IPS
1.1.d Access points
1.1.e Controllers (Cisco DNA Center and WLC)
1.1.f Endpoints
1.1.g Servers
1.2 Describe characteristics of network topology architectures
1.2.a 2 tier
1.2.b 3 tier
1.2.c Spine-leaf
1.2.d WAN
1.2.e Small office/home office (SOHO)
1.2.f On-premises and cloud
1.3 Compare physical interface and cabling types
1.3.a Single-mode fiber, multimode fiber, copper
1.3.b Connections (Ethernet shared media and point-to-point)
1.3.c Concepts of PoE
1.4 Identify interface and cable issues (collisions, errors, mismatch duplex, and/or speed)
1.5 Compare TCP to UDP
1.6 Configure and verify IPv4 addressing and subnetting
1.7 Describe the need for private IPv4 addressing
1.8 Configure and verify IPv6 addressing and prefix
1.9 Compare IPv6 address types
1.9.a Global unicast
1.9.b Unique local
1.9.c Link local
1.9.d Anycast
1.9.e Multicast
1.9.f Modified EUI 64
1.10 Verify IP parameters for Client OS (Windows, Mac OS, Linux)
1.11 Describe wireless principles 1.11.a Nonoverlapping Wi-Fi channels 1.11.b SSID 1.11.c RF 1.11.d Encryption
1.12 Explain virtualization fundamentals (virtual machines)
1.13 Describe switching concepts
1.13.a MAC learning and aging
1.13.b Frame switching
1.13.c Frame flooding
1.13.d MAC address table
20% 2.0 Network Access
2.1 Configure and verify VLANs (normal range) spanning multiple switches
2.1.a Access ports (data and voice)
2.1.b Default VLAN
2.1.c Connectivity
2.2 Configure and verify interswitch connectivity
2.2.a Trunk ports
2.2.b 802.1Q
2.2.c Native VLAN
2.3 Configure and verify Layer 2 discovery protocols (Cisco Discovery Protocol and LLDP)
2.4 Configure and verify (Layer 2/Layer 3) EtherChannel (LACP)
2.5 Describe the need for and basic operations of Rapid PVST+ Spanning Tree Protocol and identify basic operations
2.5.a Root port, root bridge (primary/secondary), and other port names
2.5.b Port states (forwarding/blocking)
2.5.c PortFast benefits
2.6 Compare Cisco Wireless Architectures and AP modes
2.7 Describe physical infrastructure connections of WLAN components (AP, WLC, access/trunk ports, and LAG)
2.8 Describe AP and WLC management access connections (Telnet, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, console, and TACACS+/RADIUS)
2.9 Configure the components of a wireless LAN access for client connectivity using GUI only such as WLAN creation, security settings, QoS profiles, and advanced WLAN settings
25% 3.0 IP Connectivity
3.1 Interpret the components of routing table
3.1.a Routing protocol code
3.1.b Prefix
3.1.c Network mask
3.1.d Next hop
3.1.e Administrative distance
3.1.f Metric
3.1.g Gateway of last resort
3.2 Determine how a router makes a forwarding decision by default
3.2.a Longest match
3.2.b Administrative distance
3.2.c Routing protocol metric
3.3 Configure and verify IPv4 and IPv6 static routing
3.3.a Default route
3.3.b Network route
3.3.c Host route
3.3.d Floating static
3.4 Configure and verify single area OSPFv2
3.4.a Neighbor adjacencies
3.4.b Point-to-point
3.4.c Broadcast (DR/BDR selection)
3.4.d Router ID
3.5 Describe the purpose of first hop redundancy protocol
10% 4.0 IP Services
4.1 Configure and verify inside source NAT using static and pools
4.2 Configure and verify NTP operating in a client and server mode
4.3 Explain the role of DHCP and DNS within the network
4.4 Explain the function of SNMP in network operations
4.5 Describe the use of syslog features including facilities and levels
4.6 Configure and verify DHCP client and relay
4.7 Explain the forwarding per-hop behavior (PHB) for QoS such as classification, marking, queuing, congestion, policing, shaping
4.8 Configure network devices for remote access using SSH
4.9 Describe the capabilities and function of TFTP/FTP in the network
15% 5.0 Security Fundamentals
5.1 Define key security concepts (threats, vulnerabilities, exploits, and mitigation techniques)
5.2 Describe security program elements (user awareness, training, and physical access control)
5.3 Configure device access control using local passwords
5.4 Describe security password policies elements, such as management, complexity, and password alternatives (multifactor authentication, certificates, and biometrics)
5.5 Describe remote access and site-to-site VPNs
5.6 Configure and verify access control lists
5.7 Configure Layer 2 security features (DHCP snooping, dynamic ARP inspection, and port security)
5.8 Differentiate authentication, authorization, and accounting concepts
5.9 Describe wireless security protocols (WPA, WPA2, and WPA3)
5.10 Configure WLAN using WPA2 PSK using the GUI
10% 6.0 Automation and Programmability
6.1 Explain how automation impacts network management
6.2 Compare traditional networks with controller-based networking
6.3 Describe controller-based and software defined architectures (overlay, underlay, and fabric)
6.3.a Separation of control plane and data plane
6.3.b North-bound and south-bound APIs
6.4 Compare traditional campus device management with Cisco DNA Center enabled device management
6.5 Describe characteristics of REST-based APIs (CRUD, HTTP verbs, and data encoding)
6.6 Recognize the capabilities of configuration management mechanisms Puppet, Chef, and Ansible
6.7 Interpret JSON encoded data

Cisco Certified Network Associate - CCNA 2022
Cisco Certified testing
Killexams : Cisco Certified testing - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/200-301 Search results Killexams : Cisco Certified testing - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/200-301 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Cisco Killexams : Practical Advice For Organizing A Successful Open-Source Technical Certification Program

Dan is the co-founder and chief open source officer at Codefresha software delivery platform with CI/CD, GitOps, and more.

Training and certification programs have always been a popular way for people to pick up new skills and Excellerate their capabilities. When I was in high school, I had the opportunity to do the Cisco networking certification, which had a huge impact on my career. Famed technologist Kelsey Hightower got his start by using his wages at McDonald's to purchase an A+ certification book. Now he’s a distinguished engineer at Google.

These programs traditionally have been expensive and required learners to study physical books and take proctored in-person exams.

In my role at Codefresh, I’ve organized and hosted quite a few open source-centric labs, training and certification workshops over the years, both in-person and online, and we’ve learned a lot along the way. There are some important elements that can not only make a workshop much more successful than the typical labs that we often see available in the community today but also much more accessible.

In the spirit of open source, I’d like to freely share some of the important things we’ve learned.

Use hosted lab environments.

Whether you’re offering the certification training live in-person or virtually, it’s really difficult to account for the myriad personal computer variations you’ll see among the attendees. They’ll arrive with different equipment, different configurations and different experience levels as well. Relying on attendees’ personal machines often means that you, the workshop organizer, will waste much of the allotted training time debugging and/or reconfiguring people’s PCs.

Everything is so much smoother when you utilize a hosted online lab environment. With the help of a provider, you can create online lab environments for course participants that they access via a web browser—the virtual training environment itself is already preconfigured. So even if a course participant is connecting with a tablet, they can go through the training and exercises and never miss a beat.

In my experience, eliminating this variability has dramatically improved the percentage of people who successfully complete a training program. But there are additional benefits as well.

For Codefresh’s certification programs, we’re teaching people to build and deploy software to Kubernetes, a cloud-native orchestration platform. Generally in cloud computing, users have access to larger servers and resources. Putting all of that into a single developer’s machine basically means they get the most under-resourced cloud possible: their laptop.

Using under-equipped work or personal machines introduces a burden that many wouldn’t experience in their professional environment. Many would argue that employers should pony up for better resources (supported on the employer’s time/dime), and I don’t disagree. But while we’re waiting for a utopia, we can enable the next 100 Kelsey Hightowers with a more accessible program.

One of the really big additional advantages of the hosted online lab model is that with each step in the lab, the lab can automatically check to confirm that participants implemented a task correctly and can provide real-time feedback as needed. There’s a transparent and immediate feedback loop built into the model, whereas with conventional BYOPC labs and workshops, it’s not possible for instructors to see if their guidance is being implemented correctly by the participants—maybe they did things right, or maybe they didn’t. The hosted environment approach is a much more effective way to make sure that lab participants are successfully learning the material and implementing it properly.

Side note: If you’re going to offer a hosted environment whereby all of the coursework and interaction flows through a shared IP address, be sure to confirm that the address won’t get throttled if several hundred people try to use it at once for what may be seriously heavy lifting from a compute/bandwidth perspective. Do a dry run in advance to make sure the infrastructure scales as it should. In our case, one particular service we used would throttle us from pulling images students use in the lab.

Hosted lab environments introduce some additional cost, however, so the resources you outlay for the workshop have to make sense on a financial level relative to the anticipated benefits for the community. Some training providers may elect to charge an upfront fee for this accommodation.

Make the training "self-serve"-friendly.

Many technical certification workshops are oriented first and foremost as one-off live/virtual events that mostly benefit the attendees in the audience the day it was hosted. The (potentially large) audience of follow-on registrants will instead access a rebroadcast to follow along with the training as best as they can, but the learning impact just isn’t the same. Participants should be able to flexibly engage with the course content on their terms and timeline with no drop off in course effectiveness.

Consider making the memorizing material component of the coursework multi-functional so it can be delivered just as effectively in lecture format to live participants and for self-serve consumption post-event. You’ll find yourself designing the coursework differently—in a way that promotes learning effectiveness (and training continuity) for all course attendees and preserves the shelf life of the content for follow-on registrants.

Stay ahead of the technology.

In the open-source community, in particular, there is a high probability that eagle-eyed course attendees will notice—and not favorably—if you’re behind the times in the techniques you’re imparting. We expect and embrace this with the open-source community because innovation can move very quickly.

It behooves the training and certification course providers themselves to be as up to date as possible. And this ultimately requires a concerted and sustained effort to stay in sync with community innovation so that the coursework is directly relevant and therefore as helpful as it can be.

Conclusion

Embracing an excellent training and certification experience makes it easier for your users to learn and show off their certifications. This viral aspect of certification represents the best of open source: radical sharing.


Forbes Technology Council is an invitation-only community for world-class CIOs, CTOs and technology executives. Do I qualify?


Thu, 08 Dec 2022 20:30:00 -0600 Dan Garfield en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2022/12/09/practical-advice-for-organizing-a-successful-open-source-technical-certification-program/
Killexams : Why is the Cisco CCIE Certification so Difficult?

Nowadays, the world has progressed to a significant extent. The same is the case with businesses. Businesses on different scales involve computer programming and networking solutions

Therefore, every business requires creative professionals who can think outside the box. In this modern world, every business requires the best ways to expand the space in the networking career. So certifications have done a lot in this regard.

Is Cisco CCIE Certification difficult?

It would not be wrong to say that certifications are easy to get. Especially CCIE certifications are quite difficult and challenging to get. However, this difficulty is due to certain reasons, such as a difficult syllabus and a certain number of hours. Moreover, it also requires dedication. Therefore, candidates find it challenging to get the CCIE certification. You can learn Cisco CCIE here.

The CCIE certification improves the candidates’ skills and makes them professional in security, automation, data centre, collaboration, enterprise infrastructure, and wireless. The CCIE certification demonstrates professionalism in troubleshooting, maintaining, implementing, building, and designing networking infrastructures.

Moreover, there are no certain prerequisites for the CCIE Certification exams. However, the candidates need at least 5-7 years of experience.

Why should a person get the CCIE certification?

No one can deny that certifications have improved the quality of life. There are certain reasons why a person should get the CCIE certification. Some of the most significant reasons to get the CCIE certification are as follows.

The biggest and most prominent reason for a person to get the CCIE certification is that the candidates can secure their careers. There is a high demand for specialists and professionals in the networking field. The candidates can secure high value in IT companies, and they can implement a high and secure network. Therefore people can secure their careers in this field.

Certified professionals are always better than non-certified professionals. Candidates can get multiple job opportunities in this field. Therefore, CCIE-certified professionals are the most recognized in the world. The CCIE certification improves the job prospects of individuals. The candidates are more likely to get certain job roles, such as Senior Network Engineer, Network Administrator, Principal Network Architect, Senior Network Architect, Senior Security Engineer, and Senior Network Support Specialist.

It would not be wrong to say that this field has high salary growth. The CCIE-certified networking professional takes an average salary of US$127000 annually. So the CCIE certification is one of the highest-paying certifications in the world.

Validity and recertification

It is to be mentioned that CCIE and the rest of the certifications expire after a certain period. Therefore, the candidates have to apply for recertification. The CCIE certification exams are taken into two parts: a lab test and a written exam. For more details, navigate to these guys.

The written CCIE certification test costs $400 and can be taken in a test centre or online. The duration of the test is 120 minutes. Nowadays, the exams are in English, and the CCIE Security certification is in Japanese. The candidates should take the CCIE lab test in a test centre, which can take 8 hours.

The candidates qualify for the lab test after passing the written exam. Every attempt for the test costs $1600. They can apply for the lab exams within three years after passing the written test.

Press Release Distributed by The Express Wire

To view the original version on The Express Wire visit Why is the Cisco CCIE Certification so Difficult?

Sun, 06 Nov 2022 17:47:00 -0600 TheExpressWire en-US text/html https://www.digitaljournal.com/pr/why-is-the-cisco-ccie-certification-so-difficult
Killexams : Cisco certification

A series of programs that provide certification of competency in Cisco networking products. Administered throughout the world at authorized Cisco centers, the various certification levels are offered:

CCNA - Cisco Certified Network Associate

Small office/home office (SOHO) certification for LANs, WANs and dial-up services in networks of 100 nodes or less.

CCNP - Cisco Certified Network Professional

Certification for LANs, WANs and dial-up services in organizations with networks of 100 to 500 nodes.

CCIE - Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert

Highest level. Applicants select one of several tracks including "routing and switching," "WAN switching," and "SNA/IP Integration." Hands-on lab work is also required.

Wed, 20 Mar 2019 02:16:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/cisco-certification
Killexams : Introducing The First Cisco Certified Mixologist

You’d be hard pressed to find an IT back office that doesn’t have a few Cisco routers or switches laying around and collecting dust. We’d even bet there are a decent number of people memorizing this post right now that have a stack of them within arm’s reach. They’re the kind of thing most of us have no practical application for, but we still can’t bear to throw away. But it looks like [Sven Tantau] has found an ideal middle ground: rather than junk his Cisco Catalyst switches, he turned them into automatic bartenders.

Inspired by all those perfect little square openings on the front, [Sven] loaded each switch with a whopping 24 peristaltic pumps, one for each Ethernet port. To fit all his plumbing inside, the switches were naturally gutted to the point of being hollow shells of their former selves, although he does mention that their original power supplies proved useful for keeping two dozen power-hungry motors well fed.

The motors are connected to banks of relays, which in turn are thrown by an ESP32 and an Arduino Nano. [Sven] explains that he wasn’t sure if the ESP32 could fire off the relays with its 3 V output, so he decided to just use an Arduino which he already knew could handle the task. The two microcontrollers work in conjunction, with a web interface on the ESP32 ultimately sending I2C commands to the Arduino when it’s time to get the pumps spinning.

[Sven] mentions his robotic bartenders were a hit at the 2019 Chaos Communication Camp, where we know for a fact the computer-controlled alcohol was flowing freely. Of course, if you don’t intend on carrying your barbot around to hacker camps, you can afford to make it look a bit swankier.

Sun, 23 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Tom Nardi en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2019/10/04/introducing-the-first-cisco-certified-mixologist/
Killexams : If you want to land a job or get a raise in the tech industry, you have to pass a test — and pretty much everyone is cheating on the exams

Bill really didn't want to fail.

A Midwestern tech worker who had risen to become a vice president of IT at a big bank, Bill was set to take a Microsoft certification test to prove his proficiency with the company's Azure platform. Passing the test would help boost his career, adding another technical certification to his résumé that he could parlay into a raise, or maybe even a higher-paying job.

But after spending several hundred dollars to register for the test and studying for weeks, he didn't want to leave anything to chance. 

So he decided to cheat. 

It wasn't hard. With a little searching online, Bill — whose real identity Insider is concealing to avoid professional repercussions — was able to find the exact test he was going to take, along with the answers. He set aside a few hours, learned them all by heart, and aced the test. 

It was one in a long line of tech certifications that Bill freely acknowledges he earned, at least in part, by cheating. And he's far from alone: In the tech industry, it's an open secret that there are thousands, if not millions, of cheaters just like Bill. By combing through "exam dumps" or "brain dumps" — online repositories of certification tests, answers included — fraudsters can rack up professional credentials without knowing anything about what they're being tested on. And the companies issuing the specialized certifications, from Microsoft and Amazon to Google and Salesforce, have been virtually powerless to stop the cheating, even on the major platforms that they own. 

The rise of test dumps for tech certifications could have devastating consequences. Tech insiders familiar with the practice say unqualified candidates are using copies of exams for major tech systems and software to land jobs handling sensitive data and mission-critical infrastructure that affect employers and consumers alike. 

"If you step on a plane to Phoenix from San Francisco, imagine how you would feel if you found out your pilot cheated on all the exams and memorized all the answers," said Humphrey Cheung, an engineer with more than two decades of experience in the tech industry who has seen test dumps used countless times. "That would kind of suck, right?" 

A problem for companies, customers, and workers

Underneath every modern business, from grocery stores to missile manufacturers, lies a complex web of servers, databases, and other technology that is maintained by an army of IT and tech workers. In today's increasingly digitized economy, this critical infrastructure is as essential as electricity and water. Companies rely on tech to do everything from tracking sales and paying vendors to keeping their employees connected via Slack.

But with so many different platforms and systems to manage, companies need a quick way to ensure that IT employees and job candidates are proficient with the tools they're expected to work with. That's where third-party certifications come in. Like plumbers or electricians, IT workers earn independent certifications to confirm they understand leading systems and can install and repair them on the fly. Need to prove you can connect a Cisco router, or deploy a Salesforce instance, or secure a dataset in Google Cloud? Just get certified. 

The popularity of certification tests has exploded in recent years. The research firm IDC estimates that the US market for IT education and training that includes certification tests is now worth $1.4 billion a year. That's in part because third-party certification offers workers a quick route into the tech industry without an expensive college degree, and in part because tech vendors have discovered that they can outsource the work of maintaining the systems they sell to third-party IT companies staffed up with certified technicians instead of having giant, cumbersome customer-service departments of their own.

Imagine how you would feel if you found out your pilot cheated on all the exams and memorized all the answers.

But the high stakes have also led to what many in the industry acknowledge privately is an epidemic of cheating. It's impossible to put a reliable number on the amount of cheating happening, but Cheung and several other industry veterans said that based on how often they've spoken to people who admit to using test dumps and seen them circulate in professional networks, they'd guess that nearly half of all certifications worldwide are obtained by test-takers who crib the answers from test dumps.

These fraudulently obtained certifications are not just prevalent but also dangerous, certifications experts who track the use of these test dumps say. It can be hard to pin direct customer harm on test dump usage, these experts said, in part because companies are reluctant to admit to that sort of harm — if an employee screws something up, companies are much more likely to just fire them, not launch an investigation into their professional qualifications. But the cheating is clearly having a corrosive effect on the tech industry, particularly the hiring process.

"Maybe the person themselves doesn't deliver the value that they're supposed to have delivered," Randy Russell, the director of certification at Red Hat, an open source solutions provider, said. He added that fraudulently obtained certifications can also damage the reputation of the certification issuer, making the credentials they issue more suspect in the eyes of recruiters and hiring managers.

And for those recruiters and companies, they're forced to eat up more of their time weeding out candidates who may be cheaters. "The hiring managers and companies are also harmed, because they now have to devote more time and resources to vetting who is and isn't actually qualified," Tim Woodruff, a developer and consultant who specializes in the IT tool ServiceNow and has tracked the use of test dumps in the industry, said. But the biggest losers in the whole debacle, Woodruff said, are the aspirant tech workers who are taking the certifications legitimately, only to see the value of these tests degrade. "The people trying to launch or grow their career are probably the ones who are harmed most of all," he said.

Given how high-tech the industry is, the wave of cheating is surprisingly a low-tech scam. Many of the questions on major technical certification tests are reused for months or even years, so unscrupulous test-takers simply jot down or memorize the exam, type them up afterward, and then post the Q&A online. Prospective test-takers then pay for access to the completed test and breeze through their own exam. It's the same kind of scam college students run, just transferred to the world of IT testing.

The people trying to launch or grow their career are probably the ones who are harmed most of all

Exam dumps have been around for years. In 2002, a man in Vancouver, Washington, pleaded guilty to theft of trade secrets after compiling answers to the Microsoft exams for system engineers and solution developers and selling them online. But two decades later, such cheating is so ubiquitous that people are no longer being charged for the theft. Cheat sheets are available through countless channels online, from group chats and social-media ads to the websites of hundreds of companies — with names like CertKillers.net and ExamTopics.com and DumpsGate.com — that openly sell the answers to certification exams. Some of the sites feature threads and forums where users praise the dumps for helping them cheat, helpfully correct mistakes in the posted tests, and request the answers for other certification exams.

"Exam dumps are an industry now, is the sad truth," Michael Paul, a data-protection consultant in the United Kingdom, said. "You get this attitude from some people of, 'Oh, I just need to get the test passed.' They don't care that they're diminishing the entire value of that certification." 

In an ironic twist, major tech companies host lively marketplaces for test dumps on their own platforms. On the messaging app Telegram, group chats with impressive-sounding names like "Salesforce Support" connect thousands of users looking to buy and sell test dumps. Cheaters say that WhatsApp, the messaging app owned by Facebook's parent company, Meta, is a popular venue for finding dumps, and sellers advertise their wares on Instagram, YouTube, and Amazon's Marketplace. You can buy the answers to major tech certifications — including Microsoft Azure and Amazon Web Services — for as little $10, complete with reviews attesting to their reliability. 

Even LinkedIn, the job-networking site owned by Microsoft, has become a place where users offer test dumps for sale — despite the fact that Microsoft's own tools are affected by the cheating. The answers to "LinkedIn Skill Assessments," a set of free in-house exams that LinkedIn offers to enable users to certify their proficiency with dozens of tech tools, from Adobe Illustrator to Google Analytics, are all freely available on GitHub, which is also owned by Microsoft. Gleeful TikTok users have been quick to make videos highlighting this flaw in LinkedIn's tests.

The reasons for cheating

Cheung, the developer based in Singapore, was working for a networking company a few years ago when he received a résumé from a job applicant who had recently obtained his certification as a Cisco Certified Network Professional.

Cheung noticed some potential red flags in the application, so he invited the candidate to sit down with a Cisco router and run through a few problems. The candidate was stumped. Cheung then asked him to change some basic configurations. The candidate still couldn't do it — even after Cheung told him he could use Google for help.

"People get nervous in an interview, and I'm OK with that," Cheung said. "So I gave him every chance, and he couldn't do it." 

Ultimately, it became clear to Cheung that despite the candidate's "certification" in Cisco systems, he had no clue what he was doing. So Cheung asked the candidate if he had used an test dump to pass his certification. The defeated-looking candidate said yes.

For some, using test dumps is driven by nothing more than a desire to climb the corporate ladder by any means necessary. They aren't panic about getting caught — they're panic about whether or not the cheat sheets are right. Because test dumps are crowd-sourced by people who previously took the tests, there's no certain that the dump-makers copied out the questions correctly — or that they actually knew which of the multiple-choice options were the right answers. "When I started looking for the questions, there's a lot of wrong answers, so I didn't trust it," said an IT consultant in Italy who used an test dump this summer. 

But others have more complex reasons for cheating. For some, it's the expense. Certification tests can cost several hundred dollars a pop — or more for higher-level credentials. Sometimes the test fees are paid for by a worker's employer, but those trying to break into the industry often have to foot the bill themselves. Bill, the IT worker at a Midwestern bank, said that one reason he cheated was the reassurance the test dump gave him that he wouldn't have to pay to retake the test.

I was quite surprised to see the test that came up was literally the same questions

For others, it's desperation. The IT consultant in Italy, who asked to remain anonymous, said he studied hard for a certification offered by the cybersecurity firm CyberArk, and thought he knew the subject matter. But he turned out to be a bad test-taker, and he failed the test — twice. So he found some dumps online, studied the genuine questions in advance, and finally passed. He then used the certification to help him land a pay raise. 

There's a perception in the tech industry that test dumps are particular widespread in emerging market economies, where the relative cost of taking a test — and the potential payoff for achieving a certification — is much higher. "Broadly speaking, we do find that there tends to be more issues around test security in those markets, India being one in particular where we see a fair amount of it," said Russell, the Red Hat director. "Getting certified in that market can actually be absolutely transformative to one's income prospects and livelihood."

An engineer from Pakistan said when he was starting his career, he used dumps to get his first Salesforce certification. Taking the test cost him the equivalent of half his monthly salary — he simply couldn't afford to fail and pay to retake it. After memorizing some test dumps he found, he aced the test. 

"I was quite surprised to see the test that came up was literally the same questions," he recalled. "They didn't have a big bank of questions." He now works for a major tech firm in the United States and said he only obtains certifications through legitimate means now.

But the perception that workers from poorer countries are more likely to be cheaters can also fuel racism against foreign-born tech workers. "People from India are often looked upon with a disproportionate level of suspicion," Woodruff, the ServiceNow developer, said. "Companies and hiring managers are much more likely to assume that an Indian person obtained their certifications by fraudulent means, even if that biased expectation is subconscious and due to their recent experiences in hiring."

Companies are trying, and failing, to fight back

Given the onslaught of cheating, companies that offer certifications are taking a variety of countermeasures to try to combat cheaters. Some periodically refresh the exams with new questions; others monitor test-takers to see if anyone is answering the exams suspiciously fast. A Google spokesperson said the company asks exam-dump sites to take down the questions — an approach that seems unlikely to stem the tide of cheating. ServiceNow said it employs data analytics to identify when clusters of exam-takers all answer questions similarly, indicating that they likely used the same test dump.

Red Hat, the cybersecurity firm, eschews multiple-choice questions altogether, opting instead for hands-on exams that require the test-taker to demonstrate genuine proficiency with its tools. Many companies incorporate a hands-on component in their most senior certifications, but the increased costs of supervising and assessing such tests make them too expensive for many entry-level certifications.

But certification companies acknowledge that they are far from eradicating the problem. The more people cheat, the more others feel obligated to utilize underhanded methods to keep up with the cheaters they're competing against. And in many cases, the cheating appears to be condoned — and even encouraged — by employers. Vendors often deliver consulting and technical-support companies better deals on their products if the firms have more certified workers on staff. Multiple tech workers told Insider that it's common for unscrupulous employers to push their workers to use illicit dumps to earn extra credentials — either to make the company more attractive to potential clients or to earn it a discount on IT products.

One said his company provided him with copious test dumps when he asked them if they had any legitimate training resources for an upcoming test he was due to take. It made him suspect the expertise of his colleagues, and paranoid that if his employer's actions ever emerged, he might also be falsely accused of using dumps and stripped of his legitimately acquired certifications.

Fed up with the lack of progress at cracking down on cheaters, some workers in the tech industry are taking matters into their own hands. Woodruff spent the summer infiltrating multiple Telegram groups — some of which have thousands of members — that are dedicated to sharing the company's exams. Over time, he gained the trust of the group's administrators, ultimately convincing them to appoint him as a fellow administrator to help oversee the groups. 

He immediately disbanded the groups and banned all their members, disrupting — if only temporarily — one small part of the exam-dump trade.


Rob Price is a correspondent at Insider, based in San Francisco.

Got a tip? Contact Rob by phone or Signal at +1 650-636-6268, email at rprice@insider.com, or on Twitter at @robaeprice. Confidentiality offered.

Correction: November 14, 2022 — An earlier version of this story misstated the scope of Red Hat's business, it is an open source solutions provider not solely a security software provider.

Sun, 13 Nov 2022 21:36:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.businessinsider.com/tech-workers-cheating-certification-exam-dumps-jobs-higher-pay-promotions-2022-11
Killexams : Testing for Certification (all programs)

OPP coordinates all educator certification testing for students across the university. Services include test preparation, administration of representative diagnostic tests and approval for TEA certification testing.

Educator candidates at Baylor are well prepared for state certification exams.  Candidates participate in diagnostic test and review sessions as they prepare to demonstrate a deep knowledge base as measured by state exams. A robust network of support within the Baylor community ensures candidates every opportunity to become competent, successful educators who impact their students, communities and world.

Visit the TEA site for information about state of Texas certification exams:
https://tea.texas.gov/Texas_Educators/Certification/Educator_Testing/

More resources and information about testing may be accessed through Canvas for current students:
https://www.baylor.edu/canvas/

For questions about testing, contact:

Lisa Osborne
Educator Preparation Program Support Specialist
Office of Professional Practice
(254) 710-3190
Lisa_Osborne@baylor.edu

Wed, 26 Sep 2018 20:18:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.baylor.edu/soe/index.php?id=953512
Killexams : Ooredoo certified anew as Cisco Gold Partner

Ooredoo certified anew as Cisco Gold Partner

Ooredoo announced that it has been re-certified as a Cisco Gold Partner. Achieving the Cisco Gold Partner certification indicates that Ooredoo meets the rigorous global standards set out by Cisco.

The official evaluation criteria covers networking competency, service, support, and customer satisfaction. In every area of technical activity under scrutiny, Ooredoo’s provision was found to meet the high standards required.

Cisco Systems has been solving business challenges since the company was founded in 1984. With Cisco Gold Certification, Ooredoo gains access to Cisco’s comprehensive sales, technical, training, lifecycle services, and support.

Sheikh Nasser bin Hamad bin Nasser al-Thani, chief commercial officer at Ooredoo, said: “We are delighted to share the news of our re-certification as a Cisco Gold Partner. I can confidently state that such certification confirms once again that Ooredoo Business provides business customers with high quality services and support, as we respond to the needs of a continuously growing ICT market. We share the same impeccably high standards as esteemed partners such as Cisco, and are proud to be consistently recognised within the industry for our efforts.”

Business customers can leverage the Ooredoo Advantage, making Ooredoo ‘Best for Business’, thanks to its breadth and depth of talent, best fixed and mobile networks, broadest portfolio of ICT services and solutions, and trusted partner for 60 years.

Tue, 30 Mar 2021 05:22:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.gulf-times.com/story/687760/Ooredoo-certified-anew-as-Cisco-Gold-Partner
Killexams : Cisco Systems, Inc. (CSCO) Management Presents at Barclays 2022 Global Technology, Media and Telecommunications Conference Call Transcript

Cisco Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ:CSCO) Barclays 2022 Global Technology, Media and Telecommunications Conference Call December 7, 2022 3:10 PM ET

Company Participants

Bill Gartner - Senior Vice President, GM Optical Systems and Optics Group

Conference Call Participants

Tim Long - Barclays

Tim Long

Good. Yeah. Hello, everybody. Thank you for joining us here for this session with Cisco. Tim Long here, IT hardware com equipment analyst at Barclays. Very happy to have Bill Gartner with us, SVP, General Manager, Optical Systems, and Optics Business Unit. Looking forward to the discussion, pretty hot Topic area for Cisco and for the industry.

So, I think Bill's going to read a safe harbor and then maybe after that if you wouldn't mind just kind of deliver us a little overview of your roles and responsibilities at the areas that you're covering …

Bill Gartner

Right. Thanks Tim. First of all, thank you for having me. And before I start, I will be making some forward-looking statements that are subject to risk and uncertainties as outlined in our disclosures. Have I got all that right, Marilyn? Good. Okay.

My name is Bill Gartner and I responsible for two businesses in Cisco that, that are related by the fact that they both rely on optical communications. One is the optics business and the other is the optical systems business. And you can think of the optics business as the trans receivers that we sell with routers and switches that find their home inside a data center or inside a central office or within a campus environment. Those receivers are used typically to send optical signals on a fiber over relatively short distance like 10 kilometers. That's the optics business. And we serve all markets with that, that that includes the campus environments, enterprise, commercial, public sector, service provider and web.

And then the other businesses. Once you have to leave the data center and now send an optical signal across a city or across a country or even between continents, now it's a much more difficult problem to send that optical signal and it requires much more sophisticated solution that is classically chassis based. It's a chassis that we have to sell for an optical system to carry these signals reliably over very long distances. And the other thing that's unique about that world is that in a data center, when you add a new router or switch, you pull new fiber to every port on that router or switch because you're inside. You can do that.

When you leave the data center, now you're talking about crossing the Mississippi or crossing the Rockies, and you basically have to use the fiber that's in the ground. And so we have to put lots and lots of signals on one fiber. So, optical systems are what we use outside the data center or central office and optics what we use inside. That's the two worlds that I have. They're very different businesses, very different business models, but they're related by common technologies.

Question-and-Answer Session

Q - Tim Long

Great. Great. Thank you for that. Good start. So, maybe across the two businesses talk to us a little bit about kind of your priorities, looking out the next few years, obviously you've done the Acacia deal and integrated, you got routed out optical networks. There's just a lot going on, right? So, maybe talk about two or three of your priorities, then we'll dig more into it.

Bill Gartner

So, on the optical system side, we've just introduced a new optical layer platform called the NCS 1010 that offers some very innovative capabilities for customers to simplify operations. It runs IOS XR, which is our routing operating system. So, it's common for customers that have deployed our routers and it supports CNL band. So, massive capacity. That's our -- you can think about as a layer zero solution. We've just launched that.

And the other key thing for the optical systems business that we have under development is leveraging something that Acacia announced, which is a new DSP supporting 1.2 terabytes on a single wavelength, 1.2 terabytes on a single wavelength. And we'll be trialing that in second half of next year and we'll have that available in fourth quarter of next year. Those are two key development areas for the optical systems business.

And then on the optics side, we're I think still early stage on 400 gig deployments. So, a lot of effort in terms of getting 400 gig out there to our customers. We are also very focused on selling Cisco Optics, not only for Cisco routers and switches, but for third-party solutions as well. So, when customers want to consider optics as a buying center and say they want to consolidate their optic spend, we want to be considered as an optic supplier.

And then I think the one thing that's crossing the systems world and the optics world is Acacia has a very significant innovation in something called a 400 gig ZR or ZR Plus, which is effectively taking what was classically delivered in a chassis as part of an optical system and putting that into a plugable form factor. And that is a 400 gig ZR or ZR Plus. And that's part of our routed optical networking architecture. So that's an important thrust for really the optical systems business and the optics business.

And if you deliver me a minute here, Tim, I actually brought some show and tell, I'm going to try to make that a little crisp for you because I know you guys don't live in this world. This is is a line card that goes into an optical system. We sell this to all the web players, service providers. This is -- this supports 1.2 terabytes of capacity and it goes plugs into a chassis with a bunch of other line cards that plug into a chassis. So, for 1.2 terabytes, the customer basically can put -- get two trunks, if you will, or wavelengths, and they can combine up to 1200 gig interfaces. So, this 1200 gig ports here, and out comes to 600 gig ports. That's where the 1.2 terabytes comes from. This is part of an optical system.

And what we're doing with ZR pluggable is effectively now using -- taking what's in there, largely speaking and putting it in here. Now it's not quite apples-to-apples. This is a 400 gig plugable, that's 1.2 terabytes. So, you'd need three of these to get to one of those. But from a cost, power, space perspective, this is way, way, way more efficient for customers than that. And so, if you think about it, I own this business, which is part of Acacia. I own this business, which is part of our optical systems. I'm going to cannibalize a part of this business in order to make this business successful. And we're okay with that because we own both businesses, but we think there's more potential for this business over time. Does that help?

Tim Long

Yeah. Yeah. I'm glad you didn't have to take an airplane to get here.

Bill Gartner

By the way, my supply chain lead always is terrified when he sees me walking around carrying his stuff in a shopping bag. But we're not going to plug it into any customer's network.

Tim Long

So, Maybe we'll start with this routed optical networks, ZR, ZR Plus. So, ZR, ZR Plus admittedly has been slow, right? Maybe talk to us a little bit about why it hasn't developed as quickly as most in the industry had expected. Why is that going to be different? And touch on the length power, some of the key issue -- technical issues that need to be tackled or tackled.

Bill Gartner

So, let me disagree with you on one point there, Tim. I think for the web players, ZR and ZR Plus not all the web players, but many of the web players are deploying it in massive volume. And that's characteristic, I think, of the web players. They are quick to adopt new technologies. They don't have a lot of overhead in terms of processes and operations to get in the way. They don't have a lot of legacy. So, when there's a new technology that offers significant benefits in terms of power, space, cost, they can jump on it very quickly. And so, we were at capacity for much of the last year trying to serve that segment of the market with ZR and ZR Plus.

For the service provider market, which is traditionally deploying like chassis-based solutions, there's -- we're on a journey that is not going to happen overnight in part because they've deployed these systems which have a lot of life left in them. And so, they're not going to jump to a new architecture overnight. There's also operations -- some operations differences that they have to accommodate in moving from a world of chassis-based solutions to a world where you plug this into a router. But we're seeing very good traction there. We've deployed to over 20 customers now. I'm very confident that over time -- this is going to be a five-year journey. This isn't going to happen overnight. But over time, this pluggable is going to replace that transponder in many, many applications and service provider markets. So, I don't think the journey has gone any slower than we expected. I think we anticipate that for service providers, it is always a much slower transition to a new architecture. And this is a new architecture. It's not just sort of a new technology. And -- but I think we're on pace with where we expect it to be.

Tim Long

Okay. And part of the architecture is to remove the full optical system from the network?

Bill Gartner

So -- yeah. Let me just outline kind of at a high level what routed optical networking architecture is about -- because there's a lot of [indiscernible] out there that my competitors love to throw out. There's some misinformation on that, too. Part of it is replacing this with this. That's part of routed, and it's a big part of routed optical networking. Some think that's all it is. It's not simply that although this is where a lot of the CapEx and OpEx and power savings arises from this, but routed optical networking really came about when we looked at the scale of routers, what's happening in ASICs that's allowing routers to scale so dramatically. It wasn't too long ago.

When I came to Cisco -- I've been with Cisco 14 years. And when I came to Cisco, we had a 40-gig line card on a router, and it had 14 ASICs. And now we've got one ASIC, one ASIC that does 19 terabits of capacity. And that’s not going to go to 25 to 50 over time, one ASIC instead of 14. Nominally, you can kind of think of it as the cost of an ASIC of the cost of an ASIC. So every time like I take 14 down to seven, down to three, down to two, down to one, I'm getting cost savings, but I'm also packing much more capacity now into that one. So that's driven down the cost per bit on a router very, very dramatically over the last 10 years. It's also driven down the power per bit, because now we have one ASIC rather than a whole bunch of ASICs. So, the cost per bit on a router has come down dramatically over the last 10 years.

When we started building networks with an IP layer and a DWDM layer and sometimes an OTN layer, the motivation for that was that the router was the most expensive resource in the network. It was by far the most expensive thing in the network 20 years ago. And what we did is we -- as an industry is we basically built layers of the network to bypass routers whenever you needed to. So, if you had to go from A to B to C to D to E and you had some demands from A to E, it was very expensive to go through B, C and D to get to E. So, we went around B, C and D with an optical layer using things like ROADMs. And that made sense economically. That really made sense from a technical and an economic perspective. But now the cost of the router has come down so dramatically that it's actually more expensive to go around those routers than it is to go through them.

So that was -- that's one key insight that drove routed optical networking is it's no longer more cost effective to go around the router than it is to go through it. And in fact, what we did as an industry is we built a lot of these bypass wavelengths that have very little capacity on them. So, we can now take advantage of the IP layer, aggregate a whole bunch of demands and basically go through routers rather than around them. And so that simplifies the network in a very significant way because you can simplify the DWDM layer. It doesn't go away. To be clear, the DWDM layer is still there, but it's simpler. It can be much simpler. You can take advantage of these pluggable optics. And if you can take private line services like a T1 service or an OTN service and now put it on the IP layer with something called private line emulation, you can take those private line services that were traditionally served with custom products, put that now on the IP layer. Now you can get down to one layer in the network. Instead of having IP, OTN, DWDM, you can have just the IP layer. And that simplifies operations, it simplifies planning, it simplifies life cycle management. So that all together, it's private line emulation. It's the idea of rethinking how traffic moves through the network. It's pluggable optics, and now it's automating all of that with an automation infrastructure. It's really those things that make up the routed optical networking architecture.

Tim Long

Okay. Great. Great. Maybe sticking on the system side for a little bit. I'd say if you look at Cisco's industry share or anything like that, it's not where it is in routing. Talk a little bit about owning a lot more of the IP and the optical layer. Does that help new products like the NCS 1010. It's real catchy name you got there, that one. Just talk a little bit about kind of that vertical integration and what that can do for you even outside of routed optical networks or the traditional systems business.

Bill Gartner

So, let me say something you probably don't hear a lot out of somebody from Cisco is, I don't aspire to be number one in optical. That's not my goal, to be number one or number two in that market. The optical portfolio for Cisco is more of a portfolio play for Cisco. When customers want to buy optical and routing from one vendor and want basically an integrated solution, we're there for them. That's not to say we don't sell optical standalone because we do, but it's opportunistically that we go after those standalone plays. I don't have an objective to be number one in optical. In fact, as I mentioned earlier, when we do -- when we replace this with this, this is the profit pool in optical.

This is the most profitable part of the optical system. There's other elements like the ROADMs and things like that, that are really common infrastructure that don't go in with high margins. This is where the margins are, and we're going to replace it with this. And when we sell this, we're going to count it as part of our routing sale. So, effectively, I'm going to take down the optical business in support of routing. And we have strength in routing that we're going to leverage. So, this is very much a portfolio play where we're looking -- I'm wearing a Cisco hat and saying it's good for Cisco to leverage our relative market strength in routing. And I may have to cannibalize the optical business in order to do that, and we're willing to do that. And we think that's the right thing for our customers, we think it's the right thing for Cisco.

Tim Long

Okay. Maybe just last on this topic. The optical system vendors that are trying to add routing as a software layer or something, why does that not work as a solution?

Bill Gartner

I will never say never, and I don't discount our competitors. We've got 25 years of investment in routing with a couple of thousand people writing software. Hard won lessons and building very large-scale networks around the world, and it's a hard problem. So, I wish them luck if they're undertaking that.

Tim Long

Yeah. Okay. Good. The -- maybe back to kind of the optics side. You talked about still being relatively early in 400-gig deployments. Kind of talk to us about that evolution and how you see the next timing and scale for the next few versions.

Bill Gartner

Yeah. Well, first -- one thing I would want to be clear about is depending on which market segment we're talking about and even within market segments, different customers, the lifecycle for a given technology can be very, very long. But we're still selling -- we're still selling a ton of 10-gig optics, a ton of 10-gig optics. And 10-gig was around 20 years ago. And so, I think the tail for things like 100-gig and 400-gig is a very, very long tail. And without generalizing too much, what you see is web will adopt a technology like 100-gig very quickly and jump to 400-gig very quickly and then jump to 800-gig, and they'll jump to 1.6T. The service providers are going to be -- to have a much longer timeframe for deploying that technology, easily 10 years for something like 100-gig, easily. And they are going to generally be slower in jumping on a 400-gig bandwagon or an 800-gig bandwagon. They'll be slower jumping on it and then have a much longer time of deployment.

And then when you look at something like enterprise, it's much, much later and much, much longer. So like most of my 10-gig or 1-gig, we still sell a ton of 1-gig is going in enterprise applications. So these technologies have a very, very long tail. And if you ask like what's Google going to do or what's Facebook or Amazon are going to do, you get a very different answer than if you ask what Bank of America might be doing or what AT&T might be doing.

Tim Long

Okay. And then talking about the big hyperscalers what kind of trends are you seeing there? And I'm assuming as capacities go higher, there's got to be optical -- much more optics around -- we know each generation of switch has more optics. So, maybe talk about the trends there and what you think that means for the business.

Bill Gartner

So, let me talk both inside the data center and outside the data center. The -- inside the data center, 400-gig is pretty well being deployed right now by the web players. That's, I would say, entering maturity. It's still relatively early stage, but entering maturity. 800-gig is probably coming in the next couple of years. And 800-gig will be a little different than what we've seen in previous technology jumps in that 800-gig will be on a router port, it will support 800-gig, but the optic itself will likely be 200, 400-gig side-by-side, packaged into one optic. And we do that for technology reasons and cost reasons. So, it will be a longer time before we see 8000gig on the optics side.

It's also an issue of compatibility. If they've got a lot of 400-gig out in their data center and they put an 800-gig optic that has two 400-gig ports effectively on it, they can connect it to an existing 400-gig. So, there's a life cycle management issue there as well. Pretty mature inside the data center for 400-gig, but I'd still say, there's a lot of growth there still ahead of us.

Once you leave the data center, the web guys have metro networks and long-haul and subsea networks. So, those are three very different markets. I think the metro markets for the -- or data center interconnect market for the web players are largely going to go to this. For a couple, they're already there. Like this is exclusively what they're deploying. For others, I think they'll get there. Once you leave the metro area and get into long-haul or subsea, then I think this -- which has higher performance than the pluggable supporting -- this can support many thousand kilometer applications. This was maybe up to 1,000 kilometers today. They'll still deploy something like this, a chassis based solution.

The other thing I would say is we're -- for the last 20 years, the industry has been sort of a game of leapfrog of let's go from 2.5-gig to 10-gig to 25-gig to 40-gig to 100-gig. And every time you do that leapfrog, you get more capacity on the fiber. We are now approaching the point where we're just -- we're hitting what's known as Shannon's limit. We're just going to be out of gas on the fiber. So, we can't play that game anymore. Like our next-generation DSP coming out of Acacia will deliver 1.2-terabit on a wavelength, but the total fiber capacity that can be supported isn't moving that much. So, we can get a little bit better economics with a 1.2-terabit wavelength and maybe a 600 or 800-gig wavelength, but we're not really moving the needle in a significant way in terms of the total capacity. And then if you ask what's beyond that, it's very little incremental gain that we can get in terms of the total capacity you can put on a fiber. So, then we have to turn our attention to things like power or cost and say, look, the game is going to be who can drive to a lower power consumption on these things. It's not necessarily a game of capacity gain.

Tim Long

Interesting. Interesting. One of the priorities you talked about was third-party for optics. How do you go about that? How difficult is that to really start moving the needle on that business?

Bill Gartner

So, I think we've made good -- I think we're early stage in there. We've made very good progress with some very key logos. When a customer -- and now I'm talking primarily about service provider customers, because web is a little bit in a different category. But when a customer decides, for instance, that they want to consolidate their optics spend because the optic looks the same to them for whether they're plugging it into Cisco or Juniper or Nokia, we want to have a seat at the table for that conversation because we put optics through a certification and qualification process that is absolutely unparalleled in the industry. No provider of optic, no other vendor, whether it's Juniper or Arista or Nokia, does the level of certification on an optic that we do.

So, we can deliver our customers very high confidence that when they buy the optic, it will work in any host and it will work under all operating conditions. That means temperature variation, humidity variation, voltage variation, all these different permutations we test for, and we have a diverse supply chain. We make sure that even when we're sourcing the optic ourselves, even when we design and build the optic ourselves, we still have second sources for either all the technologies that go into that or the optic itself. So, we can take that supply chain management issue away from our customer and say, look, we will certain you that there's diversity in the supply chain. We'll certain that when there's typhoon in Thailand or an earthquake in Japan that takes down a good part of the optics supply chain, that we've already thought about that. And that gives our customers comfort. So, it's more than just does the optic work because the optics are fundamentally commodity. We make sure that we can certain it's going to work under all operating conditions and that we can diversify the supply chain on behalf of the customer. So, with that value, I think we have a good selling proposition to customers.

Tim Long

Okay. You mentioned supply chain, I didn't, but now I have a follow-up.

Bill Gartner

Sure.

Tim Long

So, maybe talk a little bit -- it's challenging, it's whack-a-mole and golden screws and all that stuff. So, where are you guys now looking on your business? How are you feeling about supply chain and volumes?

Bill Gartner

So, I would separate -- optics, I think, is in pretty good shape. We're heading down to back to like four-week sort of lead times. There are hot spots. So, we're not there yet, but we're heading there. And for many optics, we are -- we're within four-week lead time right now. Optics has not suffered in general from some of the other areas like the high capacity ASICs, the semiconductor industry has not hit as much in the optics area, and things like power supplies have not been a real constraint for the optics themselves. The optical systems are still on pretty long lead times, like 35, 37 week lead times, but we are seeing those come down as well.

I would characterize it as, I think there's daylight. We see daylight, we see improvement ahead. We're not out of the woods. This is not a mission accomplished statement yet. There is a whack-a-mole issue going on where there are some trouble spots we're still dealing with, and then there are some just pop up randomly that we still have to deal with. So, we're not out of the woods yet, but we're in a far better situation now than we were a year ago.

Tim Long

Okay. Just curious, obviously, you have Acacia and some real base level technology and IP. Could you talk a little bit about the broader Cisco-Silicon One and having silicon capabilities in addition to the optics? How does that better position you relative to maybe some optical or optics pure-play companies?

Bill Gartner

So, one thing, I think from an Acacia perspective, we worked really hard to vertically integrate as much as possible on the design and development side and really own all the key technologies there. And I think we're at a point where we can say that for all the key technologies that go into that optic, we've got ownership of that technology. That gives us control over the design, the performance, ultimately, the cost and it gives us comfort that we can manage those trade-offs between the various pieces in the optic.

I think it was December of 2019 that we made a pretty big announcement that we were going to shift our business model to support a component business model. So, in addition to doing our traditional systems business of selling fully integrated routers and switches with software and hardware and services, we were going to meet our customers where they want to be met. If they want to buy just the optic from us, not buy any of our systems, we'd sell them the optic. They want to buy just the silicon from us, like Silicon One, none of our systems, none of our software, we'd sell Silicon One. If they want to buy just our software or just our hardware platform and put their own software in it, we would do that. Very different business model for Cisco, has supply chain implications, has inventory implications, cash cycle implications. And it's fundamentally a different way we think about managing a business.

I think that, that opened up business for us with the web players, in particular, who were the main target for that whole announcement to say, look, if you want to go build your own, we want to be part of that solution with you. We don't want to be on the outside looking in. So, if you want to use our silicon, we'll be happy to work with you. And we now have customers buying only our silicon, only our optics, only our hardware platform with no software, putting their own software on or putting something like SONiC on it. Every combination you can possibly imagine, we are now to some customer offering. And I think it's opened up a lot of possibilities for us that we don't see many of our competitors being able to match with both silicon and optics.

End of Q&A

Tim Long

Okay. Great. Perfect. End time here, so thank you, everybody. Bill, thank you so much very much. Really appreciate it. Thank you.

Bill Gartner

Tim, thank you very much. Appreciate it. Appreciate you having me. Thanks, everybody.

Wed, 07 Dec 2022 12:06:00 -0600 en text/html https://seekingalpha.com/article/4563107-cisco-systems-inc-csco-management-presents-barclays-2022-global-technology-media-and
Killexams : Cisco updates SD-WAN to simplify provisioning, management

Cisco is set to unveil a new edition of its SD-WAN software that will extend the system’s reach and include new management capabilities.

Among the most significant enhancements to Cisco SD-WAN release 17.10, expected in December, is the ability to use Cisco SD-WAN Multi Region Fabric (MRF) support with existing Software Defined Cloud Interconnect (SDCI) systems to significantly expand the reach and control of the SD-WAN environment. 

MRF lets customers divide their SD-WAN environments into multiple regional networks that operate distinctly from one another, along with a central core-region network for managing inter-regional traffic, according to Cisco. 

SDCI technology is used to link enterprise resources to a variety of cloud, network, and internet service providers. Cisco customers could use SDCI with their SD-WAN deployments in the past but not MRF.

By combining the two technologies and using the Cloud OnRamp Multicloud Interconnect Gateway in Cisco SD-WAN software, customers can now set network, configuration and security policies across a wide variety of locations from a central site. Cisco’s SD-WAN Cloud OnRamp links branch offices or individual remote users to cloud applications such as Cisco’s Webex, Microsoft 365, AWS, Google, Oracle, Salesforce and more.

Customers can now assign regions and roles to SD-WAN edges deployed within SDCI infrastructure, and they can segment MRF regions into multiple sub-regions and share border routers between these sub-regions, allowing for better redundancy and failover-centric network designs, according to John Joyal, senior manager, product and solutions marketing with Cisco's enterprise SD-WAN and routing group. (Joyal wrote a blog about Cisco's SD-WAN MRF enhancements.)

Copyright © 2022 IDG Communications, Inc.

Mon, 05 Dec 2022 12:57:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.networkworld.com/article/3681657/cisco-updates-sd-wan-to-simplify-provisioning-management.html
Killexams : Cisco shares pop on earnings beat and increased 2023 forecast

A sign bearing the logo for communications and security tech giant Cisco Systems Inc is seen outside one of its offices in San Jose, California, August 11, 2022.

Paresh Dave | Reuters

Cisco reported fiscal first-quarter results on Wednesday that beat analysts' estimates and boosted its guidance for fiscal 2023.

The stock rose about 5% in extended trading.

Here's how the company did:

  • Earnings per share: 86 cents vs. 84 cents expected, according to Refinitiv
  • Revenue: $13.6 billion vs. $13.3 billion expected by analysts, according to Refinitiv

Revenue increased 6% year over year, while net income slid 10% to $2.7 billion. The company now expects sales growth in fiscal 2023 of 4.5% to 6.5%, up from a prior forecast that called for growth of 4% to 6%.

CFO Scott Herren said in a company release that Cisco delivered "strong results" and attributed the company's guidance forecast in part to an "easing supply situation."

While Cisco's numbers topped estimates, the company is still struggling to grow as the technology world rapidly shifts to cloud and subscription software and away from buying physical boxes. Cisco's stock price is down 27% this year, while the Nasdaq has dropped 29%.

Cisco's top business segment, which includes data-center networking switches, delivered $6.68 billion in revenue, up 12% from a year earlier.

Internet for the Future, its second-largest unit, saw revenue drop 5% to $1.3 billion. The division contains routed optical networking hardware the company picked up through its 2021 Acacia Communications acquisition.

Sales in the Collaboration segment, which features Webex, contributed $1.1 billion in revenue, down 2% year over year.

Cisco will hold its quarterly call with investors at 4:30 p.m. ET.

Wed, 16 Nov 2022 07:33:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.cnbc.com/2022/11/16/cisco-csco-earnings-q1-2023.html
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