Exam Code: 1Y0-312 Practice test 2023 by Killexams.com team
1Y0-312 Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops 7 Advanced Administration

Exam Code : 1Y0-312
Exam Name : Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops 7 Advanced Administration (CCP-V)
Exam Duration : 90 minutes
Number of Questions : 71
Passing Score : 64%

Exam Topics, Syllabus and Contents
Architecture Overview - Determine whether the number and sizing of the Citrix StoreFront components are appropriate for a production environment.
- Determine whether the number and sizing of the Citrix Gateway components are appropriate for a production environment.
- Determine whether the number and sizing of the Citrix infrastructure components are appropriate for a production environment.
- Determine whether the number and sizing of machines hosting HDX sessions is meeting the needs of a production environment.
Manage a Virtual Apps and Desktops Environment with Multiple Locations - Determine how an FMA Zone architecture can be used in an environment with multiple resource locations.
- Determine how to configure and manage VDA Registration in a multi-zone environment.
- Determine how to use zone preference settings.
- Determine how to configure Optimal Gateway Routing in a production environment.
- Determine how to configure Subscription Store synchronization for a given scenario.
Implement Backups and Disaster Recovery - Determine how to perform backups of key components and data in a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
- Determine how to translate requirements from a disaster recovery plan into an action plan in a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
- Determine how to fail over a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment to a disaster recovery environment, and later restore the production environment.
Implement Advanced Authentication Methods - Determine how one-time passwords can be used with RADIUS authentication in a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
- Determine how to implement smart card authentication in a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
- Determine how to implement ADFS and SAML authentication in a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
Improve App and Data Security - Determine how to prevent jailbreak attacks by managing user assignments
- Determine how to minimize the impact of attacks.
Secure Machines Running the Virtual Delivery Agent - Determine how to Encrypt VDA communications with TLS and how to enhance OS security through image management.
- Determine how to use GPOs and Citrix Policies to lock down machines running VDAs.
Advanced Troubleshooting - Determine how to use various tools to troubleshoot a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
- Determine how to use basic PowerShell commands to get information about a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
- Determine how to troubleshoot StoreFront issues for a given scenario.
- Determine how to troubleshoot Citrix Gateway issues for a given scenario.
- Determine how to validate FMA services and SQL connection health in a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
- Determine how to troubleshoot VDA registration issues for a given scenario.
- Determine how to troubleshoot common HDX connection issues for a given scenario.
App Layering and Creating the Layers - Determine how App layering components communicate.
- Determine how to create an OS Layer.
- Determine how to create a Platform Layer.
- Determine how to create an App Layer.
- Determine how to create an Elastic App Layer.
- Determine how to create User Layers.
- Determine how a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops image deployment changes when using Citrix App Layering.
Deploy a Layered Image using Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops - Determine how to create an App Layering template.
- Determine how a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops image deployment changes when using Citrix App Layering.
Explore Layer Priority and Maintain an App Layering Environment - Determine how layer priority affects the composition of layered images.
- Determine how to update different types of layers.
- Determine how to maintain and update the App Layering environment.
- Determine additional App Layering considerations and how to locate additional information as needed.
Workspace Environment Management (WEM) Administration - Determine how to deploy the components of a Workspace Environment Management (WEM) solution.
- Determine how to perform general administration of WEM in a given scenario.
Use WEM to Centralize Environment Management, Optimize Performance and Secure Environments - Determine how to manage user resources with WEM in a given scenario.
- Determine how to manage user profiles using WEM in a given scenario.
- Determine how to use various WEM Transformer features in a given scenario.
- Determine how to optimize machine performance using WEM.
- Determine how user logon times are optimized using WEM.
- Determine how to use WEM to increase the security of a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
Migrate and Upgrade WEM - Determine how to migrate user environment management to WEM in a given scenario.
- Determine how to upgrade a WEM deployment in a given scenario.
- Determine how to implement redundancy in a WEM deployment.

Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops 7 Advanced Administration
Citrix Administration helper
Killexams : Citrix Administration helper - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/1Y0-312 Search results Killexams : Citrix Administration helper - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/1Y0-312 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Citrix Killexams : Mapping a Printer in Citrix Remotely

Ruri Ranbe has been working as a writer since 2008. She received an A.A. in English literature from Valencia College and is completing a B.S. in computer science at the University of Central Florida. Ranbe also has more than six years of professional information-technology experience, specializing in computer architecture, operating systems, networking, server administration, virtualization and Web design.

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Killexams : How to login as an Administrator in Windows 11/10

In a Windows operating system, an Administrator account is an account that allows a user to make changes that require administrative permissions. An Administrator has more rights on a Windows OS as compared to the users with a local account. For example, the users with a local or standard account can access files and folders on their own user space, make system changes that do not require administrative permissions, install and uninstall programs, etc. On the other hand, an Administrator can change security settings, install and uninstall software, add and remove users, make changes to other user accounts, etc. In short, to perform the tasks that require administrative permissions, you should be logged in as an Administrator. In this tutorial, we will see how to log in as an Administrator in Windows 11/10.

Login as an Administrator in Windows

Every Windows computer has a Local Administrator account that is created at the time of Windows installation. As described above, the Administrator has full access to the Windows device as compared to other standard users. The Administrator can also create new and delete the existing users and change the user account permissions. You can log in as an Administrator in Windows 11/10 by:

  1. Using the existing Administrator Account
  2. Enabling the built-in Administrator account
  3. Creating a new Local Administrator account
  4. Changing the local or standard into an Administrator account

Let’s see all these methods in detail.

1] Using the existing Administrator Account

log in as admin

If you are starting your PC then locate the Administrator account and use the password to login.

If you are currently not logged in as an administrator and want to change to an admin, open Start, click on the user icon, select Sign out and then log into the Admin account by using its password.

2] Enabling the built-in Administrator account

The Windows OS has a built-in Administrator account. In Windows 11/10 and Windows Server 2016, the built-in Administrator account is disabled at the time of Windows installation and another local account is created which is the member of the Administrators group.

The built-in Administrator account is also called the Super Administrator account. If we compare the built-in Administrator account with the Local Administrator account, the built-in Administrator account has elevated privileges. This means when you perform the administrative tasks, you will not get the UAC prompt. Apart from that, if you want to do some serious troubleshooting on your Windows machine or if you want to recover your main account or another user account, you can use the built-in Administrator account.

Because the built-in Administrator account does not show the UAC prompt, any application can have full control over your system. Therefore, running this account on a regular basis can be risky. You should enable the built-in Administrator account only if you have to do some troubleshooting or recover other user accounts. After performing your task, you should disable it.

As explained above, every Windows OS has a Local Administrator account which is created at the time of Windows installation. Hence, you have to sign in to that Local Administrator account in order to enable the built-in Administrator account. After enabling the built-in Administrator account, you can login as an Administrator in Windows 11/10.

3] Creating a new Local Administrator account

add a family member Windows 11

Every Windows 11/10 computer has a default Local Administrator account which is created at the time of Windows installation. Using that account, you can create another Local Administrator account for another user. To do so, open the Accounts page in your Windows 11/10 Settings and then click on the Family & other users option. Now, you have two options:

  • You can create a Local Administrator account for your family member.
  • You can create a Local Administrator account for a person who is not your family member.

Let’s see how to create a Local Administrator account for a family member and other users.

 Create a Local Administrator account for your family member

You can use this option if you have another Microsoft account and you want to add that account as an Administrator to your Windows computer.

Create administrator account for family member

  1. On the Family & other users page in Windows 11/10 Settings, click on the Add account button next to the Add a family member option.
  2. Enter the email address of the family member and click Next.
  3. Select the role (organizer or member) and click Invite. After that, an invite will be sent to the email address.
  4. Open the email address and accept the invitation. After accepting the invitation, that account will be added automatically to your Windows device.
  5. Now, open the Family & other users page in WIndows 11/10 Accounts settings and select the newly added account.
  6. Click Change account type and select Administrator in the drop-down and click OK.

Now, you can login as an Administrator in Windows 11/10 using that account.

Create a Local Administrator account for a person who is not your family member

If you do not have another Microsoft account, you can still create a Local Administrator account. This time, you have to add an account in the Other users section on the Family & other users page. The steps are as follows:

Create administrator account for other users

  1. Open the Family & other users page in Windows 11/10 Accounts settings.
  2. Click on the Add account button next to Add other user.
  3. You will be prompted to enter your email address. Click on the I don’t have this person’s sign-in information link.
  4. Now, click Add a user without a Microsoft account.
  5. Enter your username and password. After that, select the security questions and type your answers.
  6. Click Next.
  7. Now, select the newly created account and click Change account type.
  8. Select Administrator in the drop-down and click OK.

Now, you can use this account to login as an Administrator in Windows 11/10.

Read: How to rename built-in Administrator Account in Windows.

4] Changing the local or standard account into an Administrator account

If you already have created a local account on your Windows machine, you can change its type and use that account to login as an Administrator. The steps to change the local account to an Administrator account are as follows:

change user account type windows 11

  1. Open the Family & other users page in Windows 11/10 Accounts settings.
  2. Select the local user account under the Other users section.
  3. Click on the Change account type button and select Administrator in the drop-down.
  4. Now, click OK.

How do I log onto my computer as an Administrator?

At the time of Windows installation, a Local Administrator account is created automatically. You can use that account to log onto your computer as an Administrator. Apart from that, you can also enable the hidden or built-in Administrator account or create an additional Local Administrator account.

We have explained all these methods above in this article.

How do I run Windows as an Administrator?

To run Windows as an Administrator, you should have an Administrator account. There are different methods by which you can create an Administrator account. In addition to this, you can also enable the built-in Administrator account. But it is not recommended to use the built-in Administrator account on a regular basis due to security issues.

This is all about how to log in as an Administrator in Windows 11/10.

Read next: How to fix the disabled Administrator account on Windows 11/10.

Login as an Administrator in Windows
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Killexams : Citrix App Requirements for the iPad

A published author and professional speaker, David Weedmark has advised businesses and governments on technology, media and marketing for more than 20 years. He has taught computer science at Algonquin College, has started three successful businesses, and has written hundreds of articles for newspapers and magazines throughout Canada and the United States.

Sun, 16 Jan 2022 05:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://smallbusiness.chron.com/citrix-app-requirements-ipad-71410.html
Killexams : Best System Administrator Certifications for 2022
  • Certification programs help system administrators stand out from their peers while expanding and validating their skills. 
  • Certification training and testing help IT professionals earn professional credibility and more power to direct and control their career paths. 
  • Numerous certifications are available, but several are exceptionally valued and respected. 
  • This article is for system administrators and IT professionals who want to expand their knowledge and professional credibility through certification programs.

System administrators are the glue holding together business operations, ensuring smooth-running IT infrastructures. The role requires in-demand career skills that range from server and client configuration and maintenance to access controls, network services and application resource requirements. SysAdmins may even work with more user-facing products, like directory and name services, network addressing, database services, web and desktop applications, and email. They’re often the company “tech expert” – sometimes at several organizations simultaneously. 

System administrator certifications help IT professionals navigate their career paths, expand their knowledge and demonstrate their expertise to managers and employers. SysAdmin certs may even help you secure managerial and executive level jobs and higher pay.

TipTip: If you’re a SysAdmin specializing in database services, consider exploring the best database certifications for database administrators and developers.

Best system administrator certifications

After examining various credentials, we developed this list of our five favorite system administrator certifications for 2022. These certifications are geared toward various experience levels, product interests and skill sets. They can foster your development within system administration, encourage you to explore new areas of expertise, and help you set and achieve career goals

1. Microsoft Certified: Azure Solutions Architect Expert 

Many businesses operate within Microsoft ecosystems, making Microsoft certifications extremely valuable and sought after. However, Microsoft has overhauled its certification processes in accurate years, replacing broad certificates like Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert with a wider variety of role-based certification options divided into the following roles: 

  • Data engineer
  • Data scientist
  • Artificial intelligence engineer
  • Security engineer
  • DevOps engineer
  • Functional consultant
  • Developer
  • Administrator
  • Solutions architect 

Certifications come in beginner, intermediate, and expert levels, based on applicants’ experience. 

Various system administrators may find some Microsoft certifications more advantageous than others. However, the Azure Solutions Architect Expert is the most in-demand certification for a SysAdmin with IT operation experience.  

The Azure Solutions Architect Expert certification is ideal for someone with extensive experience using Azure to solve problems and make decisions for a business’s tech needs. Candidates must have experience with every level of IT operations as well as DevOps. Candidates will be tested on their knowledge and ability to design solutions for data storage, identity, infrastructure and more using Azure. 

This certification combines elements of system administration, Azure implementation and solutions architect experience. Candidates should have one prerequisite qualification: the Azure Administrator Associate certification.  

TipTip: If you have solutions architect experience, check out our list of the best enterprise architect certifications. Credentials at the architect level can lead to some of the highest-paid tech industry positions.

Microsoft Certified: Azure Solutions Architect Expert facts and figures

2. Professional Oracle Linux 8 System Administrator 

Although Oracle is known for its database products and solutions, it also distributes Linux products geared for the enterprise and designed to support cloud environments. Oracle Linux is optimized for various Oracle products and platforms, such as:

  • Oracle Exadata Database Machine
  • Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine
  • Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud
  • Oracle Database Appliance

To support Oracle Linux, the company offers several Oracle Linux System Administrator learning paths. It also provides several standalone Linux administration courses. Oracle’s Linux certifications are considered among the best Linux certifications to earn. We’ll highlight the Professional Oracle Linux 8 System Administrator certification below. 

The OCP Oracle Linux System Administrator certification, currently at version 8, covers many tools and processes. Candidates must be well-versed in:

  • Linux file systems
  • Control groups
  • Container concepts
  • Advanced storage administration techniques
  • Oracle cluster management 
  • Using Ksplice Uptrack commands 

The certification also tests for knowledge of network bonding, task automation, security configuration and more. 

SysAdmins who support Oracle Solaris might also be interested in the Oracle Solaris System Administrator certification, which Oracle offers at the Associate and Professional levels. Oracle also offers a Cloud Database Migration and Integration Professional certificate

Professional Oracle Linux 8 System Administrator certification facts and figures

Did you know?Did you know?: Oracle certifications are vendor-specific certifications to advance your networking career and are frequently sought after by SysAdmins.

3. RHCE: Red Hat Certified Engineer

In the realm of Linux system administrator certifications, Red Hat certifications stand out. Red Hat’s more senior-level certifications are especially popular among IT professionals and the firms that hire them. Those holding the Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) credential qualify for highly competitive job roles, including the following:

  • Senior Linux administrator
  • Senior UNIX administrator
  • Senior systems engineer
  • Infrastructure systems engineer
  • IT analyst 

The RHCE is considered a high-level credential that’s not easy to obtain. Candidates must first obtain the Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) credential. The RHCE credential expands the RHCSA’s understanding of automation in multisystem environments. Candidates must then pass an intense, demanding, four-hour, hands-on, performance-based exam. Those who earn the RHCE can go on to earn the Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) in Infrastructure credential.

Candidates can choose a path based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. RHCE certification is valid for three years from the date the certification was achieved. To maintain the certification, a credential holder must pass any RHCA test or pass the RHCE certification test again before the end of the three years.

TipTip: See our Red Hat certification guide for additional Red Hat professional certifications based on software products, virtualization, storage and cloud-based solutions.

RHCE facts and figures

Certification name Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE)
Prerequisites and required courses

Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) certification via one exam: EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator

Recommended courses: 

  • Red Hat System Administration I (RH124)
  • Red Hat System Administration II (RH134)
  • Red Hat System Administration III: Linux Automation with Ansible (RH294)

Note: Courses are not required, but Red Hat requests that candidates who opt out of the courses demonstrate equivalent experience.

Number of exams One exam: EX294 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam
Cost per exam $400 (RHCE test fee only)
URL https://www.redhat.com/en/services/certification/rhce
Self-study materials Several online education resources, including Udemy.com, offer courses to help you prepare for the RHCE exam. In addition, some books are available with resources to help you study for the test.

4. CompTIA Server+

CompTIA certifications, such as the A+ for hardware technicians, Network+ for network admins and Security+ for security specialists, are highly regarded in the computing industry. The CompTIA Server+ certification is no exception. 

Companies such as Intel, HP, Dell, Lenovo, Xerox and Microsoft recommend or require their server technicians to earn CompTIA Server+ credentials.

The Server+ certification test focuses on fundamental, vendor-neutral server-related topics, including:

  • Server hardware
  • Operating systems
  • Storage systems
  • Networking
  • The IT environment (documentation, diagrams and best practices)
  • Security and disaster recovery
  • Virtualization 
  • Troubleshooting

Individuals seeking positions across the system administration world, including data technician, network administrator, IT technician and data center engineer, can benefit from CompTIA Server+ certification. This certification also provides new IT professionals with an excellent foundation for more specialized certifications.

Candidates for the Server+ certification take one exam: SK0-005. CompTIA recommends that candidates have at least two years of practical experience working with servers and either CompTIA A+ certification or comparable knowledge. This certification also stands out because it does not expire – certification is good for life. 

CompTIA Server+ facts and figures

Certification name CompTIA Server+
Prerequisites and required courses Required: None Recommended: CompTIA A+ certification plus 18 to 24 months of IT experience
Number of exams One exam: SK0-005 (90 minutes, 90 multiple-choice and performance-based questions; 750 on a scale of 100 to 900 required to pass)
Cost per exam $358; purchase vouchers through CompTIA Marketplace; test administered by Pearson VUE
URL https://certification.comptia.org/certifications/server
Self-study materials Links to practice questions, test objectives, e-books and other training resources are available on the certification page. test study bundles, including e-books and CertMaster practice, are available from the CompTIA Marketplace.

Did you know?Did you know?: CompTIA also offers some of the best computer hardware certifications as well as vendor-specific Dell certifications, help desk certifications and more.

5. VCAP-DCV Design 2022: VMware Certified Advanced Professional – Data Center Virtualization Design 2022

VMware certifications are must-have credentials for IT professionals interested in virtualization. With a comprehensive certification program encompassing all skill levels, VMware credentials are recognized globally as the best in their class of professional certifications.  

The latest incarnation of the VMware vSphere product is Version 8. VMware offers five credentials related to the vSphere product:

  • Certified Technical
  • Certified Professional
  • Certified Advanced Professional (Data Center Virtualization Design)
  • Certified Advanced Professional (Data Center Virtualization Deploy)
  • Certified Design Expert 

VMware also offers a wide range of badges for specific product applications. We’re highlighting the intermediate certification: Certified Advanced Professional – Data Center Virtualization Design. 

Training is required for non-credential holders seeking to obtain the VCAP-DCV credential. VMware offers various training options to meet the training prerequisite: self-paced (on demand), live online and live classroom – some of which include virtual labs. Those possessing a valid VCAP-DCV Design certificate must attend a training course or pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. 

VCAP-DCV Design 2022 facts and figures

Certification name VMware Certified Advanced Professional – Data Center Virtualization 2022 (VCAP-DCV)
Prerequisites and required courses Path 1 (non-VCP credential holders): Earn the VCP-DCV 2022 and pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. Additional training courses are recommended but not required. 

Path 2 (active VCAP-DCV Design or Deploy 2019 or newer credential holders): Pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. Training is recommended but not required.

Path 3 (VCAP-CMA Design or Deploy 2019 or newer, VCAP-DTM Design or Deploy 2019 or newer, VCAP-NV Design or Deploy 2019 or newer holders): Earn the VCP-DCV 2022 and pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. Training is recommended but not required. 

Path 4 (VCAP-DCV Design 2021 holder): Either attend the training course in 2022 or pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam.  Path 5 (VCAP6.5-DCV Design or Deploy or older): Earn the VCP-DCV 2022 and pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. Training is recommended but not required. 

Number of exams Professional DCV exam (130 minutes, 70 single and multiple-choice questions; must score 300 out of 500 to pass)

Exam for certification: VCAP-DCV Design Exam (150 minutes, 60 single and multiple-choice questions; must score 300 out of 500 to pass)

Cost per exam Professional DCV exam: $250 VCAP-DCV Design exam: $450 
URL https://www.vmware.com/learning/certification/vcap-dcv-design.html
Self-study materials VMware offers a downloadable test guide for each exam. VMware Customer Connect Learning offers test prep subscriptions.

Key TakeawayKey takeaway: Earning the best IT certifications, including system admin certs, is an excellent career advancement tool for amassing and validating your skills and knowledge.

Beyond the top 5: More SysAdmin certifications

In addition to the five system administrator certifications we highlighted above, many other certification programs can help further the careers and professional development of IT professionals in system administration.

It makes sense to investigate the plethora of vendor-specific programs available for those who work with systems from companies like Brocade, Dell EMC, HPE, IBM, NetApp and Symantec. Many play into critical system specialty areas, such as storage, security and virtualization, while others offer a broad range of platforms for these and other technology areas. 

Here are some examples:

  • IBM Certified System Administrator MQ V9.1: IBM Certified System Administrator MQ V9.1 is for SysAdmins who cover admin activities such as migrating, configuration, availability, performance tuning and problem determination.
  • NetApp Certified Data Administrator (NCDA): NCDA is geared toward professionals who manage NetApp data storage controllers running the ONTAP operating system.
  • ServiceNow Certified System Administrator: ServiceNow Certified System Administrator is aimed at professionals adept at configuring, implementing and managing ServiceNow systems.

Vendor-neutral certification programs also offer a variety of interesting and potentially valuable credentials. For example, Linux Professional Institute certifications are well known and widely recognized in IT shops and operations that depend on Linux servers to handle their workloads. 

TipTip: Tech professionals may also want to consider certifications in adjacent fields, including big data certifications, starter cybersecurity certifications and project management certifications.

Job board search results (in alphabetical order by certification)

The following chart shows the results of an informal job search we conducted to give you an idea of the relative frequency with which our top five certifications appear in actual job postings. While all the certifications are popular, the CompTIA Server+ stands out as the clear favorite.

Certification SimplyHired Indeed LinkedIn Jobs Linkup Total
Microsoft Certified: Azure Solutions Architect Expert (Microsoft) 1,722 4,281 554 2,711 9,268
Oracle Linux 8 System Administrator (Oracle) 1,831 2,232 166 765 4,994
RHCE (Red Hat) 417 527 1,015 1,972 3,931
Server+ (CompTIA) 6,817 5,082 1,125 4,182 17,206
VCAP-DCV Design 2022  (VMware)* 2,884 2,885 220 4,932 10,921

* When searching for VCP – Data Center credentials, we found most job descriptions didn’t indicate a specific version.

Although employers tend to pay SysAdmins less than some of their IT peers, such as network engineers and enterprise IT architects, a career in system administration is still worth pursuing. SimplyHired reports $79,283 as the national average salary for system administrators, with a range of $49,718 to $136,224. Indeed.com similarly reports that $76,942 is the average base salary for system administrators, while senior system administrators can expect an average salary of around $92,803.  

Building a dynamic IT skill set

IT systems are dynamic. They grow with companies and change with evolving technology. Therefore, it’s important for system administrators to nourish their skills. Certifications and training show you’re qualified to handle the responsibilities of your desired position while demonstrating your willingness to learn and grow. 

As you move through your career in system administration, you may want to branch into new specialties or software. Fortunately, in addition to receiving certifications, you can access many excellent courses and educational resources to help you continue to grow in your field. 

Ed Tittel and Kim Lindros contributed to the reporting and writing in this article.

Sun, 22 Jan 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10752-best-system-administrator-certifications.html
Killexams : Citrix fixes major security flaws across several services
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Citrix released a patch for a number of high-severity vulnerabilities affecting multiple offerings, the company confirmed in a security bulletin earlier this week.

Given the severity of the flaws, the prevalence of the tools in question, and the fact that there are no workarounds and other mitigations, the company said it was pivotal for the affected organizations to apply the fix immediately. 

Wed, 15 Feb 2023 22:01:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.techradar.com/news/citrix-fixes-major-security-flaws-across-several-services
Killexams : Public Administration Degree Types And Career Paths

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

Individuals looking to Strengthen communities or society at large can pursue public administration degrees. These programs allow students to develop skills in areas such as leadership, community organizing, fundraising and budgeting. Graduates with public administration degrees can pursue employment with the government or with non-government entities.

Public administration professionals include public affairs specialists, park managers, urban planners and public works managers. Public administration degrees can open the door to many professional roles that Strengthen local communities and public sector efforts.

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Serve your community and shape the future of public service with a transformative and practical public administration program from Southern New Hampshire University

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Public Administration Explained

What is public administration? Public administration professionals work in government agencies and nonprofit organizations to serve and Strengthen communities. These individuals focus on areas such as housing, transportation, public health and emergency management to advance society through research and the implementation of programs.

The scope of public administration efforts can vary based on employer, role and sector. For example, professionals with public administration degrees might handle tasks relating to planning, staffing, organizing or budgeting.

What is a Public Administration Degree?

Public administration degrees exist at multiple levels and with various focuses. Read on to learn about some of the most common degrees in public administration.

Bachelor of Public Administration (BPA)

A BPA offers a foundation in the field for undergraduate students. These programs typically comprise 120 credits and take four years of full-time enrollment to complete. Enrollees explore courses in public policy, public budgeting and public planning, along with project management for government agencies and nonprofit organizations.

Admission requirements align with most bachelor’s degrees—candidates must possess a high school diploma or the equivalent and provide supporting documentation of any education completed. Some schools may require letters of recommendation or responses to writing prompts.

Potential careers for BPA graduates include budget director, public administration consultant and nonprofit director.

Master of Public Administration (MPA)

Master of public administration degrees require enrollees to complete 36 to 45 credits and generally take two years to complete. Coursework dives deeper into public administration courses through classes in human resource management, organizational theory and administrative law.

MPA candidates must provide undergraduate transcripts demonstrating GPAs in the 3.0 range, with some institutions offering guaranteed admission for applicants with GPAs of 3.5 or higher from partner schools. Programs may also require candidates to provide a resume or CV, a personal statement, letters of recommendation and graduate test scores.

Potential MPA jobs include development coordinator, urban planner, environmental consultant and policy manager.

Master of Public Policy (MPP)

A master of public policy degree shares some similarities with public administration. However, public policy vs. public administration differ since public policy focuses on creating and shifting policy rather than implementing it. MPPs typically comprise 35 to 48 credits and take about two years to earn.

Admission requirements align with MPA degrees, with candidates submitting letters of recommendation, transcripts with GPAs in the 3.0 range and personal statements.

MPP courses typically cover international affairs, social and urban policy, economic development and business policy. With an MPP, a graduate can explore professional roles in the public and private sectors as consultants, policy research assistants, community outreach managers and government relations managers.

Master of Business Administration (MBA) in Public Administration

An MBA in public administration includes the business-centric courses typical of an MBA degree while diving deeper into the intersection between government and private enterprise. Along with standard MBA courses in business ethics, business law, economics and supply chains, enrollees take public administration classes like public budgeting and enterprise management.

MPA timelines are similar to those of MPP and MPA degrees, though some schools offer accelerated programs that allow enrollees to complete their MBA in one year.

Ph.D. in Public Administration

At the doctoral level, professionals and students can pursue a Ph.D. in public administration. These degrees may include 54 to 93 credits, though some schools allow learners to apply credits from master’s programs to their Ph.D. requirements. Admission requirements are typically more restrictive than for master’s degrees, often requiring a 3.2 GPA in a relevant master’s program.

Ph.D. students must complete dissertations and defend their research before a panel of faculty members to earn this terminal degree. Courses may include economics for policy analysis, along with seminars in public management, policy implementation and organization theory. A Ph.D degree-holder with a focus on public administration can pursue employment in academia or roles like city manager, policy analyst or research director.

Ph.D. in Public Policy

Similar to the divide between MPAs and MPPs, a Ph.D. in public policy covers courses more geared toward creating policy rather than implementation. Instructors deliver classes in research methodology, microeconomics for public policy and the political and social context of the policy process.

Like the Ph.D. in public administration, graduates with a public policy Ph.D. can work in the public or private sectors or academia. Other common professional roles for public policy Ph.D. graduates include nonprofit manager, superintendent, health planner and policy researcher.

Candidates must have master’s degrees, with some schools requiring majors related to public policy. Applicants may also need to provide graduate test scores to gain admission.

Popular Fields for Public Administration Graduates

A public administration degree qualifies you to pursue employment in several sectors. As of 2019, graduates with public policy or social services degrees worked in the following sectors, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

  • 32% worked in community and social service occupations
  • 15% worked in management occupations
  • 9% worked in office and administrative support positions
  • 9% worked in education and library roles
  • 7% worked in business and financial operations occupations
  • 29% worked in other fields

The following section explores potential employment sectors for graduates with public administration degrees.

Business and Finance

Median Annual Salary: $76,570
Projected Occupation Growth (2021-2031): +7%
Field Overview: Individuals with public administration degrees who work in business and finance handle money-related tasks for their organizations. They might track income and expenditures, plan to meet financial goals or examine companies’ financial records.
Common Roles: Accountant, auditor, budget analyst, financial analyst

Community and Social Services

Median Annual Salary: $48,410
Projected Occupation Growth (2021-2031): +10%
Field Overview: Community and social services professionals assist clients and patients in overcoming challenges through treatments like therapy, rehabilitation and community-level strategies. These workers find employment in various settings, such as healthcare facilities, public health departments and nonprofits.
Common Roles: Health education specialist, rehabilitation counselor, family counselor, social worker

Education, Training and Library

Median Annual Salary: $57,220
Projected Occupation Growth (2021-2031): +7%
Field Overview: This field covers public education. Though an MPA can help these professionals develop a greater understanding of this field, teachers and instructional coordinators typically need education degrees and state licensure as well.
Common Roles: Teacher, instructional coordinator, library technician


Median Annual Salary: $102,450
Projected Occupation Growth (2021-2031): +8%
Field Overview: Management professionals oversee teams of workers, collaborate with other stakeholders and establish organizational policies. These roles appear in the public and private sectors in various industries.
Common Roles: Emergency management director, human resources manager, top executive, computer and information systems manager

Office and Administrative Support

Median Annual Salary: $38,050
Projected Occupation Growth (2021-2031): -4%
Field Overview: These professionals provide assistance in office settings by creating, organizing and tracking documents. In a public administration context, they may help deliver information to the public and track documentation for public policy efforts.
Common Roles: Office clerk, financial clerk, public safety telecommunicator

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Public Administration Degrees

What is a public administration degree good for?

A public administration degree serves individuals looking to affect change in both small-scale and large-scale communities. Public administration graduates can pursue employment in city planning, nonprofits, public works and education.

Is a public administration degree worth it?

Payscale reports that individuals with MPAs earn an average annual salary of around $73,000. This strong income, along with the fulfilling nature of the work, can make a public administration degree worth it for driven individuals.

Wed, 15 Feb 2023 17:14:00 -0600 Matt Whittle en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/advisor/education/public-administration-degree/
Killexams : What Is Public Administration? Skills, Degrees And Careers

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

The field of public administration tackles some of society’s most intractable challenges in areas like housing, poverty and the environment. Whether they work in government or the nonprofit sector, public administrators translate theory into practice, enacting policies that set quantifiable goals and achieve measurable results.

If you feel passionate about public service, public administration could be the career track for you. But what is public administration, exactly?

In this article, we outline the scope of the field, including the skills and public administration degrees that prepare candidates for careers in this field.

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Defining Public Administration

Public administration is the planning, preparation and execution of policy meant to build and strengthen civil society. Public administration officials analyze and evaluate all aspects of public policy programs, especially budgets, as part of creating and implementing those programs.

Public administrators typically work for local, state or federal government agencies. They may also work for mission-driven nonprofits focused on particular policy areas like homelessness and emergency preparedness.

Public Policy vs. Public Administration

These fields are often discussed as being the same, but there is a key difference between public policy vs. public administration. Public policy focuses more on the analysis and creation of policies intended to benefit society, while public administration concentrates on the implementation of those policies.

Skills for Public Administrators

Analytical Skills

Analytical skills involve the ability to gather information from large bodies of data and make decisions based on conclusions drawn from the data. In public administration, this can mean scrutinizing budgets and reviewing the outcomes of past programs to Strengthen efficiency and achieve the best results from new or continuing policies.


Because public administrators often liaise between government agencies and the public, effective communication is an essential part of their role. They should be able to describe needs to funders and policy planners while also ensuring transparent decision-making and policy processes.


Decision-making in public administration affects people’s lives and should therefore rely on the best available data and reflect a clear understanding of the end goals to be achieved.

While it’s impossible to predict all the potential outcomes of a given decision, public administrators are expected to base their decisions on objective analysis with an understanding of potential consequences.


Leadership in public administration entails a demonstrated understanding of the relevant issues. Public administration leaders must be able to weigh the needs of stakeholders and establish consensus about policies to achieve the maximum good.

Since profit isn’t a big motive in public service, leaders should also know how to inspire team members in an effective, ethics-driven way.


In public administration, problem-solving means first identifying the real-world problem that needs to be fixed. Public administrators must then review available data to reach a potential policy solution, also incorporating input from the communities directly affected by the problem.

The final step is to choose the best possible proposal given any constraints at hand, whether related to budget, time or personnel.

Time Management

Time management promotes efficiency in public administration. Because policy initiatives are often time-driven, with quantifiable results expected by a given deadline, the ability to determine priorities and set schedules is essential.

Degrees in Public Administration

Bachelor of Public Administration

A bachelor’s degree in public administration is the first step toward a career in public service. The degree typically entails four years of undergraduate study and 120 credit hours.
To apply to the best bachelor of public administration programs, you will need a high school diploma (or GED equivalent) and GPA and SAT/ACT scores.

Master of Public Administration (MPA)

Ready to take the next step beyond a bachelor’s degree? An MPA degree prepares candidates for leadership roles in public service. Curricula focus intensely on finance and budgeting, program analysis and management.

Full-time MPA students can complete their master’s in two years. Part-time students can expect to take three to four years, depending on the number of credits required to graduate (generally a minimum of 42). To apply, you should have an accredited bachelor’s degree and a minimum 3.0 GPA. Relevant work experience can sometimes compensate for a lower GPA.

Before you apply, remember that any MPA program should be fully accredited by the Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs, and Administration, the internationally recognized accreditation agency for public administration degree programs.

Master of Public Policy (MPP)

Another step beyond a bachelor’s degree in public administration is a master of public policy, which further hones your skills in policy analysis, quantitative methods, and communications.
While MPA programs prepare students to manage agencies, the MPP degree focuses on research and the close analysis of policy, intending to Strengthen it.

All candidates should have an accredited bachelor’s degree. Programs usually require a minimum of 30 credits to graduate and take one to two years to complete, depending on the institution.

MBA in Public Administration

Where an MPA prepares you for a career in the government or at a nonprofit, the master of business administration is typically the springboard to a career at a private company. Applicants to MBA degree programs should have a bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution.

Ph.D. in Public Administration

Requiring a minimum of three to four years, a Ph.D. in public administration involves writing academic papers, giving lectures and teaching undergraduate courses, all while conducting extensive research that culminates in a dissertation.

Candidates should have an MPA with a GPA of 3.0. They should also have management experience in the public service sector.

Ph.D. in Public Policy

A Ph.D. in public policy provides advanced graduate training for top research positions in academia and government. This degree can also prepare learners for executive roles with nonprofits and other institutions that make policy.

A master’s degree is the prerequisite for a Ph.D. in public policy. Prospective candidates should expect to spend at least four years earning this degree, and the Ph.D. is usually conferred upon completion of a dissertation.

Careers in Public Administration

Emergency Management Director

Median Annual Salary: $76,730 per year
Required Education: Bachelor’s degree
Job Description: Emergency management directors establish the plans and procedures for responding to public emergencies like natural disasters and large-scale accidents. These professionals also help prepare for such emergencies before they happen.

Social and Community Service Manager

Median Annual Salary: $74,000 per year
Required Education: Bachelor’s degree
Job Description: Social and community service managers oversee social service programs and organizations that support the well-being of a given community.

Urban and Regional Planner

Median Annual Salary: $78,500 per year
Required Education: Master’s degree
Job Description: Urban and regional planners are responsible for land use plans and programs that help build communities, prepare for growing populations and renew infrastructure.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Public Administration

What is public administration?

Public administration is a profession centered on the conception, management and implementation of policies meant to Strengthen the public good. The term “public administration” also refers to the academic study and professional training that leads to careers in government or with nonprofits.

What is the job of a public administrator?

Public administrators are the frontline personnel who work to help society by developing and executing programs that address issues such as poverty or environmental degradation. These professionals’ responsibilities involve budget analysis, human resources, networking and public relations.

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Killexams : Master's in Healthcare Administration Online

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Lead in Healthcare Administration

  • $627 per credit (36 credits total)
  • 5 terms per year, each term is 10 weeks
  • Transfer up to 12 graduate credits to reduce cost
  • Complete in as few as 15 months or at your own pace
  • Applicable to many roles in healthcare
  • Focus on communication, critical thinking and analytics in healthcare

Master's in Healthcare Administration Program Overview

Healthcare administrators play a vital role in today's shifting healthcare paradigm – they ensure equitable quality and access to the best care through leadership. By earning your online Master of Science (MS) in Healthcare Administration degree program, you'll boost your qualifications to fill critical roles within healthcare organizations and advance your career in this vital industry.

Healthcare is a booming field. If you've set your sights on a leadership role in the healthcare field, but aren't interested in a clinical position, then a career in healthcare administration could be for you. Healthcare managers have the unique responsibility of applying business best practices in combination with applying the models, influences and complexity of the healthcare industry. It's a role that takes a combination of organizational leadership and strategic vision balanced with skillful collaboration among internal and external stakeholders.

At Southern New Hampshire University, you'll receive the formal healthcare education necessary to advance your skills and complement your experience within the complex field of health administration. The master's in healthcare administration online program covers a variety of topics, including:

  • Finance and economics
  • Law
  • Policy
  • Informatics
  • Strategic planning

"With healthcare being one of the fastest-growing industries in the United States – and those currently in health care administrative roles retiring at record rates – graduates will be able to pursue a variety of career options in hospital, outpatient clinic or long-term care facility, home care agency roles managing entire organizations or specific departments," said Dr. Rebecca Arsenault, an adjunct faculty member at SNHU.

SNHU provides students with an array of accredited online healthcare degrees and online nursing programs. Our online MS in Healthcare Administration broadens our offering in this vital area, providing a more in-depth study of the healthcare industry for those ready to take the next step in their careers.

"In healthcare, the only constant is change and innovation," said Dr. Matt Frederiksen-England, an SNHU adjunct faculty member. "SNHU teaches nurses and healthcare administrators the philosophy about leadership, focusing on building a foundation that will allow post-graduates to adapt to the ever-changing environment. Students are provided the tools to be leaders who will help drive a better healthcare delivery system."

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How You'll Learn

At SNHU, you'll get support from day 1 to graduation and beyond. And with no set class times, 24/7 access to the online classroom, and helpful learning resources along the way, you'll have everything you need to reach your goals.

Career Outlook

Healthcare leaders are needed more than ever. As medical technology advances and each generation continues to lead longer lives, we can expect the need for more and more qualified healthcare professionals. At the same time, there is an increased focus, even scrutiny, on the rising costs of healthcare without an overall increase in patient outcomes. Healthcare leaders must have a firm grasp of the internal and external influences on healthcare including reimbursement models, quality and improvement measures, marketing and communication strategies, government impacts, finances and budget and how to lead teams through change.

Headshot of Dr. Matt Fredericksen-England with the text Dr. Matt Fredericksen-EnglandAnd that's before you even consider a pandemic like COVID-19. A worldwide pandemic showed us how necessary it was to have healthcare leaders in a time of crisis. They navigated populations through uncertain times, everything from securing PPE to collaborating with community partners on how to contain the virus.

"I believe most of the world saw the importance of healthcare administrators and nurse leaders during COVID-19. When times were tough, the ones who still maintained employment were healthcare workers more than any other field," said Dr. Matt Frederiksen-England, an adjunct faculty member at Southern New Hampshire University. "Students earning an MS in Healthcare Administration are those who will be providing leadership to healthcare in the years to come.

Job Growth and Salary

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects the addition of more healthcare jobs than any other occupational group from 2020 to 2030 – offering about 2.6 million new job openings across the country.1 That's a jump of 36% since the 2018 prediction of 1.9 million.

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Job Growth

While the BLS considers 5% the average growth rate for all occupations, medical and health service managers are projected to have 28% growth through 20311 – meaning opportunities abound for MS in Healthcare Administration graduates.

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While salaries vary regionally, the BLS reported a median annual salary of $101,340 for medical and health services managers in 2021.1

Leading a Healthcare Organization

Earning your MS in Healthcare Administration is a great choice in getting you closer to your goal of leading a healthcare organization. Healthcare administrators utilize their extensive knowledge of healthcare to take lead on issues related to organizational management. As a healthcare administrator, you’ll be in charge of managing and overseeing staff and processes in varying departments, floors, units or even entire facilities.

Dr. Toni Clayton with the text Dr. Toni Clayton"Healthcare administrators support policies and processes for the delivery of care and services that impact our patient populations," said Dr. Toni Clayton, executive director of health professions. "It requires leaders to apply healthcare principles and methodologies as they manage people and processes."

That being said, good healthcare administrators must lead an organization by demonstrating business acumen as well as deep empathy for their team members, patients and clients. As a healthcare administrator, you might find yourself in charge of tasks such as:

  • Assessing resource needs
  • Budget preparation
  • Demonstrating organizational leadership and representation
  • Facilitating interdepartmental communications
  • Implementing continuous quality improvement programs
  • Informing recruitment efforts
  • Leading and managing staff
  • Making recommendations to Strengthen financial position
  • Managing health information
  • Strategic planning
  • Upholding compliance and regulation standards

Where Could You Work?

According to the Association of University Programs in Health Administration (AUPHA), healthcare executives have the opportunity to make a significant contribution to improving the health of the citizens in the communities they serve. They also have the opportunity to work in thousands of health services organizations throughout the U.S. and the world, including:

Consulting Firms

Provide strategic recommendations to healthcare organizations to Strengthen care and efficiency.

Disposable Supplies and Equipment

Provide medical equipment and supplies, office supplies and other items to hospitals and healthcare organizations.

Federal Programs

Help people in the communities get access to healthcare through federal and state-funded programs like Medicare and Medicaid.

Home Health Agencies

Work in communities and meet people where they are to provide greater access to medical care and assistance.


Help to ensure hospital departments, staffing, equipment and more are functioning at optimal levels.

Insurance Companies

Work with hospitals, federal agencies and other organizations to provide insurance coverage to policyholders and help process insurance claims.

As a healthcare leader, you'll be responsible for managing growth in human capital, leading strategic planning efforts and being well versed in navigating the healthcare system that is heavily influenced by public policy and government leadership and legislation – all crucial in today's workforce.

Start Your Journey Toward an Online Healthcare Administration Degree

Why SNHU for Your Online Master's in Healthcare Administration

Admission Requirements

How to Apply

Janet Johnson, MS Healthcare Administration 2021 graduate

Get the Skills You Need

Janet Johnson '21

"SNHU has given me the skills and knowledge to advance in my career. After graduating, I was offered a job at a large, well-respected hospital, and I’m excited to see where the future will take me."

Courses & Curriculum

SNHU’s online MS in Healthcare Administration was designed to provide you with the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in top healthcare administration positions. To ensure the program is on the cutting-edge of healthcare, the master's degree curriculum and coursework is regularly reviewed by an advisory board made up of healthcare professionals from a wide variety of occupations within the industry. With this vital input from industry experts, you can graduate from our program feeling confident that you're ready to take your career to the next step.

"Subject-matter experts develop course competencies based upon job skills identified by employers," said Dr. Rebecca Arsenault, an adjunct faculty member at SNHU. "From these skills-based competencies, course learning objectives reflect real-world skills that students will need as they seek employment opportunities.

Industry-Aligned Standards

Healthcare is a unique and complex industry that undergoes frequent changes based on developments in technology and medical practices, as well as political and policy changes. This means that leaders in the healthcare field need a strong understanding of the industry to successfully lead a medical facility or other healthcare organization. As such, the master's in healthcare administration online curriculum was developed by well-respected practitioners in the field and is aligned with standards from:

  • The Association of University Programs in Health Administration (AUPHA)
  • The Healthcare Leadership Alliance (HLA)

Following these standards, our rigorous online MS degree program will focus on equipping you with the expertise required for top healthcare administration positions, including:

  • Communication
  • Computational skills
  • Critical thinking
  • In-depth understanding of the healthcare environment
  • Leadership
  • Relationship management
  • Societal and cultural context

Develop Diverse and Practical Expertise

SNHU's MS in Healthcare Administration will require you to take courses within 3 critical disciplines in healthcare administration – integrated health profession, organizational leadership and health information management.

Dr. Rebecca Arsenault with the text Dr. Rebecca Arsenault"Students develop diverse expertise including day-to-day management, financial and reimbursement competency and other technical skills necessary to operate healthcare facilities and services," Arsenault said. "Students develop an understanding of the role of a healthcare administrator in leading teams, allocating resources for staff training and development and quality improvement initiatives and promoting community public and governmental relations."

Another benefit to the program is the opportunity to participate in hands-on learning.

"This program provides the option for students to participate in HEaRT (Higher Education and Real-world Training) Challenges, which are internship-type work experiences where students address a critical problem facing healthcare facilities across the country," Arsenault said. "Students then present their ideas and recommendations directly to industry experts."

Not the healthcare program you're looking for? If you'd like to enroll in a program geared more toward the business environment within healthcare, SNHU also offers an MBA in Healthcare Management. The MBA program was designed to focus more on the business skills necessary in building good leaders, and when paired with the healthcare management concentration, you can still dive deeper into issues like healthcare law, ethics and compliance.

Minimum Hardware Requirements

Stacey Marrazo, MS Healthcare Administration 2022 graduateLearn from Industry Experts

Stacey Marrazo ‘22

"The professors were all professionals with experience in the field they were teaching. It was almost like being able to follow them through their work and understand the inner workings of the job."

University Accreditation

New England Commission of Higher Education Southern New Hampshire University is a private, nonprofit institution accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education (NECHE) as well as several other accrediting bodies.

Tuition & Fees

Tuition rates for SNHU's online degree programs are among the lowest in the nation. We offer a 25% tuition discount for U.S. service members, both full and part time, and the spouses of those on active duty.

Online Graduate Programs Per Course Per Credit Hour Annual Cost for 15 credits 
Degree/Certificates $1,881 $627 $9,405 
(U.S. service members, both full and part time, and the spouses of those on active duty)*
$1,410 $470 $7,050 

Tuition rates are subject to change and are reviewed annually.
*Note: students receiving this rate are not eligible for additional discounts.

Additional Costs:
$150 Graduation Fee, Course Materials ($ varies by course)

Frequently Asked Questions

Is a master's in healthcare administration worth it?

What can I do with a master's degree in healthcare administration?

How much can you make with a master's in healthcare administration?

How long does it take to get a master's in healthcare administration?

How do I get a master's in healthcare administration?

How much does a master's in healthcare administration cost?

What degree is needed to run a hospital?

Examples of Jobs You Can Pursue with a Degree in Health Science

Jobs in health sciences are in demand, with more than 50 career paths for people with degrees in health science. Jobs in healthcare, health education, and medical science offer countless opportunities for steady, meaningful work helping others be healthy and well.

What is Quality Improvement in Healthcare?

With the goal of improving patient outcomes, achieving efficiency and reducing costs, quality improvement in healthcare has a significant impact on the healthcare field. Learn more about quality improvement and how to get started in this growing field.

Are Online Medical Billing and Coding Courses Worth It?

Medical billing and coding courses can provide you with the knowledge needed to break into the field or upskill for your career. Taking medical billing and coding courses allows you to explore the area of study before committing to a full degree program.


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