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Killexams : Network-General Troubleshooting practice test - BingNews Search results Killexams : Network-General Troubleshooting practice test - BingNews Killexams : What the GRE Test Is and How to Prepare No result found, try new keyword!"The best course of action is to take a practice exam, and use that to decide how much preparation you need." ETS provides numerous free and for-purchase general GRE test prep resources ... Mon, 25 Jun 2018 03:17:00 -0500 text/html Killexams : Could This Computer Help You Beat Cancer?

Nov. 22, 2022 – The 1960s marked the arrival of computers in medicine. Expensive, cumbersome hunks of plastic and metal that could (maybe) get test results to a doctor faster. The 1980s saw the first real difference-making functions computers could offer – clinical, financial, administrative – and in 1991, the Institute of Medicine published the first manifesto on what electronic health records could (and would) be.

Since then, we’ve seen computer breakthroughs across all areas of medicine, with artificial intelligence, virtual reality, and telemedicine brought to the fore. But something else is brewing that not a lot of people know about yet: Quantum computing, a completely new type of computing that has already begun to advance everything from drug development and disease identification to the security of electronic records.

“Think of it as transitioning from getting light through fire and candles and now having electricity, and there's a light bulb that is lighting it all,” says Lara Jehi, MD, Cleveland Clinic’s chief research information officer.

What Is Quantum Computing?

Classical computers (aka binary computers), which are the foundation of today’s devices, including artificial intelligence and machine learning, work by using information known as bits. These appear as 0 or 1 (sometimes defined as off/on or false/true). 

Quantum computers, on the other hand, use quantum bits known as qubits. And yes, the definition of “quantum” – as in: very, very small – applies.

International Business Machines, more commonly known as IBM, is currently leading this new tech. A common misconception about quantum computers is that they are “a next evolution of computers that will get faster,” says Frederik Flöther, PhD, life sciences and health care lead with IBM Quantum Industry Consulting. Instead, he wants us to look at quantum computing as something completely new “because it is fundamentally a different hardware, a different software, not just an evolution of the same.”

How does it work differently from existing computers? Quantum computing deals in nature. Therefore, qubits have to be based on the natural world. What does that mean? Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman was famously quoted as saying, “Nature isn't classical, dammit, and if you want to make a simulation of nature, you'd better make it quantum mechanical, and by golly it's a wonderful problem, because it doesn't look so easy.” 

Nature, says Jehi, doesn’t work in black and white or fit into boxes. 

“We have to convert it to zeros and ones because that’s what computers speak,” she explains. But quantum computing uses the principles of quantum mechanics. “It's exactly how nature works, because it is based on the fundamental unit of everything in nature, which is atomic structure.”

Very, very small indeed. And that’s why quantum computing could be game-changing tech in medicine. 

“Quantum computers can be used to represent a bunch of different solutions to a problem all at the same time, and then collapse down to the optimal solution, the one that actually works,” says Tony Uttley, president and chief operating officer with Quantinuum, a collaboration between Cambridge Quantum and Honeywell Quantum Solutions that is working to drive the future of quantum computing. “And the reason it does that is because of some fabulous properties of quantum physics.”

Establishing a Quantum Computing Beachhead 

Scientists around the globe are studying quantum computers and looking into how they can harness this technology to make some big gains in the medical world. 

IBM has created the IBM Quantum Network and is partnering with different organizations, from startups to Fortune 500 companies, to develop and test technology in various settings. One of these partnerships with the Cleveland Clinic is set to establish the “Discovery Accelerator,” focused on advancing health care through high-performance computing on the hybrid cloud, quantum computing technologies, and artificial intelligence. 

Many people around the country are now using this technology on existing computers by tapping into the cloud, but with limited qubit access. IBM has researchers in places like Germany and Japan working on quantum computers and will be installing the country’s first of IBM’s next-generation 1,000+ qubit quantum systems on the Cleveland Clinic campus, which they are planning to use to help further investigate quantum computing’s many predicted benefits.

But what are those benefits? 

Drug Discovery and Development 

Quantum chemistry is one main area quantum computing is poised to help. 

“The immediate application of that would be in drug discovery,” says Jehi. When scientists make drugs, they sit in a lab and develop different chemical formulas for what might constitute that drug. 

“But for us to really know if it's going to work, we need to be able to imagine how that chemical composition will translate into a structure,” she says. 

Even in their most powerful form, today’s supercomputers are slow in their ability to change this chemical formula on paper to a simulation of what the chemical compound will look like. And in many cases, they can't do this type of analysis. 

“So, we end up making the drugs without knowing exactly how they’re going to look, which is not really the optimal way of creating a drug you expect to work” explains Jehi. “It’s a waste of time creating compounds that aren’t going to have any effect.”

Quantum computers will allow researchers to create and see these molecular structures and know how they bind and interact with the human body. In effect, they’ll know if a potential drug will work before ever having to physically make it.

Because of its differences from classic computing, quantum computers are not limited in their ability to simulate how different compounds can appear. Being able to simulate the compounds that drugs are made of can lead to a faster discovery of medications to treat a wide range of conditions. 

Disease Analysis 

Eventually, this technology could assist with disease analysis, working on a molecular level to allow computers/AI to contemplate, for example, cancer molecules and gain a deeper understanding of how they function. 

Jehi says quantum computing can also be used to study things like chronic illnesses. These are conditions that people must live with and manage, and how a person is feeling in this instance can vary day-to-day, based on things like what a person is eating, the weather, or medications they are taking. 

“There are so many different possibilities for what could change a patient's trajectory in one way versus another,” says Jehi.

 She stresses that if we have a group of patients, and we've captured everything that's happened to them along their disease journey, it’s very challenging to mimic what that group looks like, and then study the effects of these different interventions on it using traditional computing. 

“It just gets way too complicated, and the computers that we have can't keep up with analyzing the effects of the different possibilities. It gets jumbled up," Jehi says. 

But quantum computing can offer quantum machine learning, meaning you use this special quantum ability to handle different simulations and different possibilities. 

Cleveland Clinic, for instance, is looking at how some patients who undergo general surgeries have heart complications after their procedures. 

“It would be transformative if we could identify ahead of time who is at highest risk of having a heart attack after surgery, as so we could take care of those people better,” she says. 

The clinic’s current data set includes records for 450,000 patients, and current AI/machine learning makes sifting through this very slow and complex. The clinic is using machine learning approaches to create a synthetic data set, a smaller group that is a replica of the much larger one. Quantum technology could Boost and speed this analysis to produce models that better perform.

Disease Detection 

“Imagine you go get a CT scan,” says Uttley. “There are already AI solutions that you can run that set of images through and ask, ‘Does this look like something that would be cancer?’” This existing technology, he explains, works well on things that are typical and have been identified before, because that's how machine learning works. If AI has seen something 100,000 times, it can often find something else that looks like it. 

But today’s classical computers aren’t equipped to identify something unfamiliar. “Those are places where quantum computers can be much better at thinking of images and being able to say, ‘I can detect rare cancers or rare conditions that you don't have a huge library of things that look like that,’” Uttley says. 

This is also where researchers can use a quantum computer to be able to figure out what things could look like. 

“The beauty of quantum computing is that it is a bias formation in quantum physics, this more probabilistic design. And so you can take advantage of that probabilistic design to help them think about this,” Uttley says. 

How Far Out Are We? 

Uttley says we’re in an emergent era of quantum computing. Quantum computers exist and that’s a big deal, but a lot of this technology is still in fairly early stages. 

“It's a little bit like we're at the beginning of the internet and saying, how are things going to play out,” he explains. 

Right now, companies like Quantinuum are striving to perform computations on both a quantum and classic computer, compare the results, and say, “We’re getting the same answer.” 

“So, this is the era where we're able to build trust and say these quantum computers are actually working correctly,” Uttley explains.

In the future, he says, we can possibly imagine something like a quantum MRI that is able to understand your body in a way that transmits that data to a quantum computer to detect what's wrong, and be able to tell the difference between cancerous and non-cancerous. That will allow faster treatments and tailoring them to specific patient populations.

“What we're doing today might seem slightly less sexy than that, but is maybe even equally important,” says Uttley. 

This is using quantum computers to make the best encryption keys that can be made. The medical community, which is already using quantum computing to execute this, is excited about this being a better means of keeping patient data as secure as possible. 

In June, Quantinuum launched InQuanto, which is quantum computing software that is allowing computational chemists, who, until now, only had classical computers at their fingertips. The move created an opportunity to start thinking about the problems that they worked on and what they would do with a quantum computer. As quantum computers become higher-performing over the years, Uttley says the software will go from tasks like isolating one molecule to solving larger problems. 

“That will happen over this next decade, where I think we'll see the first kind of real use cases come out in the next likely 2 to 3 years,” he says. For now, this technology will likely be used in tandem with classical computers.

Uttley says that progress in the quantum world and medicine will continue to grow at a slow and steady pace, and in years to come, we’ll likely see things start to click and then eventually, this to take off “full force.”

Wed, 23 Nov 2022 21:35:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : How a pandemic PhD peer network group stood the test of time

Jillian Collins (bottom left) on a video call with her peer-mentoring group.

In 2019, I started my PhD at Colorado School of Mines in Golden, conducting research on type 1 diabetes. It was a new laboratory — which brought its own challenges, especially when the COVID-19 pandemic forced people into social isolation in March 2020. Not only were we still in the process of building our lab, but I also needed to learn how to use the equipment, as well as specific techniques that required hands-on training.

Being the sole senior student in my department, the only person I had for guidance was my principal investigator (PI) Nikki Farnsworth, and although she was very helpful and excited to teach and mentor me, it was difficult not to feel alone at times because I didn’t have experienced students to talk to who could empathize.

As lockdowns started taking effect, Nikki sent me a link to an online peer-mentoring group programme, created by Whitney Stoppel at the University of Florida in Gainesville, that connects graduate students to help them navigate obstacles during their studies. She thought this would be a great opportunity for me to expand my network and would help me to overcome feelings of isolation, especially because I would be matched with others with similar research interests. I applied, and two days later I was matched with four other PhD students, who were studying biological Topics in Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and Texas.

Our first meet-and-greet Zoom meeting was on 23 March, 74 days after the pandemic was declared. Everyone introduced themselves and discussed their research areas and their university. We chatted for about one hour, and discussed basic information such as how many years we had been in graduate school, hobbies and how the pandemic had been for us so far.

Our meetings were irregular until June, when we decided to meet every other Monday for the rest of the summer. Each meeting is scheduled for one hour because people sometimes show up a little late or must leave early. Near the end of every semester, we schedule a new time and day to meet to accommodate everyone’s schedule.

My expectations were low at first, but the group has become a deep well of support and a great source for exchanging ideas and collaborations. For example, in early 2020, during my first semester in the lab, I was taking part in a task many biology PhDs will be familiar with: troubleshooting western-blot experiments. When I vented my frustrations to my support group, they recommended storing my transfer buffer in the fridge instead of at room temperature to prevent it overheating during one of the steps.

They solved other problems, too. My protein lysate was sticking to the pipette. They made recommendations to help break up the lysate further and increase its weight so it would release more easily from the pipette. When I mentioned that my project would eventually require injections in mouse tails it turned out that some of them were experienced in the technique, and they were able to provide me with tips and tricks they had picked up that cannot be found in research articles.

The practical advice was helpful, but what was so fulfilling was the shared eagerness we had to help each other solve problems.

Like many young adults, I sometimes struggle to not let my emotions affect my interpretation of feedback or advice, especially given the lack of experienced graduate students from whom I can seek help. What should I do when I feel overwhelmed with work, for example? This happened towards the end of my first year as my workload increased. Feelings of stress, anxiety, frustration and fatigue became the norm until one day my mind completely stopped working. I kept this to myself until the next Monday meeting, at which I shared my feelings with my peer-mentor group. One of them asked: “Have you ever tried discussing this with your PI”? Looking back, you would think that would be common sense, but at the time I needed that outside perspective.

Communicating my stress to Nikki was very productive and I learnt how to handle this situation better by being more open and taking ownership of my emotions, instead of letting them fester and build up. This simple example has significantly improved my graduate-school experience. Being able to freely discuss the situation with my peer group and develop solutions and hear different perspectives has improved my ability to communicate effectively with others.

Our group has also been a great source of encouragement. When someone accomplishes something important, such as publishing a paper, we all celebrate and congratulate them. I was incredibly anxious when I had to present a thesis proposal, because I was the first student in my lab to do so. I felt that the quality of my presentation and performance would negatively affect the lab’s reputation if I wasn’t the most impressive of the students in my class. My group was extremely encouraging. They offered to read my proposal, listen to practice presentations and even attend my proposal presentation. They strengthened my confidence and helped me realize my fears were in my head. We also discuss life outside research, such as showing off our plants and pets, and talking about vacations, hobbies and fun activities.

I encourage scientists, especially young researchers, to join or create a virtual or in-person peer mentor support system — both have their benefits. Being in this group for so long, I’ve learnt it takes time and effort to build worthwhile relationships. It’s amazing how validating it can be if even one person can empathize with your situation. Feeling listened to and heard are two very influential factors that can create a major shift in one’s perception of a situation.

For peer-mentor groups expanding outside the university, in which an online platform would be required, I recommend discussing the idea with your PI and seeing whether collaborators or other schools would be interested. Or, if in-person is preferred, reach out to other graduate-student organizations to create a peer-mentorship programme in the university. My group of friends reminds me of the importance of teamwork, collaboration and support. Our group was created more than 2.5 years ago, and we still meet virtually every 2 weeks.

I look forward to it every time.

Competing Interests

The author declares no competing interests.

Thu, 24 Nov 2022 23:28:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Improved Network Performance Measurement and Analysis Enabled by Broadband Forum No result found, try new keyword!Broadband network operators can now take advantage of improved performance measurement and analysis tools with the principles of quality attenuation being applied more widely to operators' networks ... Mon, 28 Nov 2022 23:14:00 -0600 en-US text/html Killexams : The Phenomics Revolution

In 2017, I got a call from Ginger Hultin, my new health data coach. She was concerned, she said, about my TMAOs.

“My what?” I asked.

“Your TMAOs,” she repeated, referring to trimethylamine-N-oxide, a metabolite excreted by bacteria in the stomach that can increase risk for heart disease if levels get too high.

Who knew?

Not to worry, said Hultin in a soothing, upbeat voice. I could reduce my score by cutting back on red meat, which TMAO-secreting bacteria love to gorge on.

Trimethylamine-N-oxides were part of a battery of tests I had taken a few weeks earlier when Hultin’s employer, a Seattle start-up called Arivale, had collected copious amounts of my blood, saliva, and stool to test hundreds of biomarkers. These included DNA markers, proteins, metabolites, lipids like cholesterol, and the microbiome in my gut.

The company had also sent me a Fitbit to measure steps, sleep and heart rate. Online they had asked endless questions about my health, medical history, happiness, stress and more, to add to my digital health report card—information that was integrated with my other data using advanced computers and algorithms to produce the report.

The goal was for me, a basically hale and hearty man in my fifties, to find out just how healthy I really was—and would be.

Hultin asked me to scroll to a section called “Genes” in my online Arivale profile. “Do you see the finding about vitamin D?” she asked. My result for a gene called VDR indicated that I had a mutation that makes it difficult for my body to absorb vitamin D. “This is probably why your vitamin D level is low,” she said, referring to yet another section of my profile. Not dangerously so, though she suggested that I start taking a vitamin supplement.

I was impressed. I had spent years as a reporter trying out hundreds of newfangled tests like these to see what they might reveal about the health of an real human, findings that I had chronicled in my 2009 book Experimental Man and in dozens of articles before and after, including a 2017 story in NEO.LIFE, “The Radical Idea of Avoiding Sickness”. Most of them, however, had been too new, experimental, and incomplete to tell me much.

Arivale’s data and analysis was different. It seemed more scientifically sound. More important, it seemed believable.

Yes, the company was testing just a small number of biodata points, a few hundred out of the thousands that might be influencing, say, my risk for heart disease. Nor was TMAO likely to have an immediate influence—or much influence at all, compared with other risk factors—on whether my heart would keep happily beating, or would one day seize up. Yet the report was telling me things that few people learn from standard exams. I was also being given choices based on my own specific data about how to intervene in my own healthcare—for instance, to rein in the burgers and BBQ pulled pork sandwiches or face the consequences.

At the time, I remember feeling like I had just gotten a checkup from the future, something that scientists and entrepreneurs had repeatedly promised me during my experimental man project, but seldom delivered on. This wasn’t surprising given the complexity of human biology and the newness of the science, although I had been wondering when all of this would finally come together to make a difference in keeping me in tip-top health.

Could the advent of Arivale be the moment?

As it turned out, it was not. Two years later, Arivale folded, a victim mostly of high costs. Few customers were willing to pay $3,400 for a profile, or even $99 a month, to which the company eventually slashed its price. But Arivale did signal the dawn, or perhaps the predawn, of a new era in health care that in 2022 seems even closer to being realized. It’s called scientific wellness, a field that collects and analyzes reams of biodata and uses it to keep you well rather than waiting for you to get sick before taking action.

One way to look at scientific wellness is to think of it as “well care,” rather than the “sick care” that is the current standard of care in the U.S. and the rest of the world. “Well care” means keeping a person healthy, which doesn’t at first glance seem radical. Yet it is, in part because the science to delve deeply into the secrets hidden in our genes and in other molecules like TMAO was, until recently, unavailable.

Now the data is arriving, even if much work remains to make sense of it. Scientific wellness may be poised at last to usher in a new health-care paradigm, in which people will routinely get Arivale-style tests and analysis. This will include getting a dashboard of risk factors like most people have never seen before that will track transitions from a state of wellness to a state of disease. It will be like getting weather forecasts about a personal future of possible maladies, and what can be done now to prevent them.

Scientists and physicians are already using scientific wellness approaches to help develop new and better diagnosis (or prediagnosis) methods and potentially improved treatments for everything from cancer to brain health.

“The science and technology to help us predict and prevent diseases is arriving,” says  Leroy Hood, a physician and biologist who founded Arivale. Hood, 83, has been a leading figure in precision health for more than two decades, since long before the science was ready and the term “precision health” even existed. “The big task ahead of us now,” says Hood, “is to take all this and make it work for millions of people.”

A New Approach

To do this, Hood recently launched another endeavor to jump-start the age of scientific wellness that is much more ambitious than Arivale. It comes as other wellness efforts are gathering steam, including government-sponsored projects like biobanks that have been for years collecting DNA and other biodata on millions of people, and are just now starting to use new technologies and discoveries to make sense of it.

The private sector is also delving into treasure troves of new data, including drug companies that hope to use it to develop new pharmaceuticals. A handful of start-ups are also developing risk-profile tests and algorithms using biobank data. These include Genomics PLC, headquartered in Oxford, England, which is working with the Manchester-based, UK Biobank to develop risk scores for dozens of diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, and several cancers. The company is tapping into DNA, electronic medical records, and other biodata that was collected (with consent) from 500,000 Brits. Other fledgling businesses, such as Alden Scientific in Boston, are in the early stages of creating complex profiles of biodata for individual consumers.

Hood’s new venture is called Phenome Health, a name derived from the term “phenomics”—the science of measuring one’s phenotype. This refers to a person’s state of health at any given moment as influenced by their genes and from changes in other molecules, such as proteins, in the body—plus the impact of diet, lifestyle, age, and other factors.

Phenome Health, says Hood, is a variation on Arivale, but with several key differences. “First of all, it’s a nonprofit. We realized that before all this will work commercially, there is still some basic science and research to be done, and economies of scale that need to happen to bring the costs down.” Hood also is planning to raise far more money than anyone else working in phenomics—a whopping $10 billion. He hopes to find it not from investors or even traditional grants but from the U.S. Congress—a big ask in Washington these days, but one Hood is convinced he can make happen.

Another lesson learned from Arivale is that they needed more people and more biomarkers to allow their analysis to draw firmer and more comprehensive conclusions about risk. “We need to include a lot more people,” says Hood, “and run them on a lot more tests,” which is why he wants to recruit one million volunteers to give samples in the U.S. for a project that will run for 10 years. His wish list of biodata includes not only sequences of complete genomes—a person’s entire DNA, which now costs around $600 per genome—but also thousands of proteins, those compounds in the body made by cells from instructions from DNA that include everything from enzymes and hormones to structural elements in skin, hair, fingernails and more. Phenome Health also plans to collect everything from bacteria in the gut to metabolites like TMAO, which are chemicals that our bodies—or bacteria living inside our bodies—create when they break down food, drugs and other chemicals.

“We’re planning to test for 3,000 proteins,” says Hood, far more than Arivale. “We’re probably going to do 2,500 metabolites,” he adds, also a deluge compared to past efforts, “and a whole variety of key clinical chemistries, including levels in your body of environmental toxins like mercury.” Phenome will collect data on brain health working with brain-testing company Posit Health, a partner that’s signed up to assess 25 cognitive functions, and to create a digital neural profile.

Recruits also will be asked to use wearables like Fitbits that measure not only steps, sleep  and heart rates, but also oxygen levels, heart variability, erratic pulses like atrial fibrillations, and daily calories consumed. Plus, they will run standard blood tests like creatinine and cholesterol.

All this data will be crunched using advanced artificial intelligence and machine learning that also will incorporate subjects’ medical records, journal articles and other medical information, all to produce a state-of-the-art phenomics report card. Doctors will be able to use this report card to assess a person’s current and future health and to help their patients, as Ginger Hultin helped me using my Arivale data, to start any preventive measures that need to be taken.

A huge concern with collecting all this intimate health data is privacy. We live in an era when even banks and secure government data—not to mention health information collected by doctors, hospitals, insurers, and by health apps on our phones—are sometimes hacked. “Of course, we will institute state-of-the-art security measures to protect people’s data,” says Hood. Still, security breaches will remain a possibility, just as they do for people who do their banking on apps and conduct other aspects of their lives on digital systems.

A Long and Winding Road

Hood’s obsession with phenomics goes back more than 40 years to when he was at the California Institute of Technology in the 1970s and 1980s, when he first became interested in applying information technology to biology. This horrified his colleagues, who in those days preferred to work directly with organisms and ecosystems and didn’t yet realize how important computers and digital databases were about to become to their field. “My colleagues in the biology department tried to move me to engineering,” he remembers, even as he worked back then to co-invent some of the first advanced DNA sequencers. This included technology that later became the core to Applied Biosystems, the first major sequencing company, founded in 1981.

Parting ways with Caltech in 1991, Hood moved to Seattle, where he headed up the Department of Molecular Biotechnology at the University of Washington before founding the Institute for Systems Biology in 2000. This was another radical notion of his—that biologists should be studying entire systems of molecular and physiological activity in cells and organisms—and at a time when the norm was a reductive approach that isolated and studied single genetic biomarkers and highly focused functions and systems. Around this time Hood coined what he called the “Three P’s”—Personalized, Predictive, and Preventative—as an early way to describe his vision, and later added a fourth—Participatory—at the suggestion of Google co-founder Larry Page. 

In the early 2000s, the science was driven mostly by genetics, as the Human Genome Project was finishing the first-ever sequence of a complete human genome, a 10-year-plus project funded by Congress for $2.7 billion ($5.5 billion in 2022 dollars). Excitement around DNA was at a fever pitch as geneticists discovered gene variants like APOE4, a mutation that is a strong indicator of Alzheimer’s disease, and BRCA1 and BRCA2, which indicate high risk for breast cancer. Biotech companies like Genentech were also developing new drugs such as Herceptin, which targets a genetic mutation in the HER gene that causes various cancers, including stomach, esophageal, and breast, shutting the gene down. Geneticists were also discovering genes for rare and often devastating diseases like cystic fibrosis and Fragile X syndrome.

Science in the early 2000s, however, remained a long way off from realizing Hood’s visions for scientific wellness. What was available using molecular markers was almost exclusively genomic and focused largely on single genetic letters—the A, T, C and G of DNA—and how differences in these letters, called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), seemed to be correlated with a higher risk for disease. For instance, a G instead of a C might slightly bump up a person’s risk of getting bladder cancer, although a few years later scientists discovered that the effect size of these single letter mutations in causing disease tended to be very small compared to other risk factors like age, diet, and other genes. Scientists back then were also talking about assessing the combined effects of multiple genes (polygenics) and biomarkers like proteins and metabolites. But using these multiple biomarkers for determining disease risk remained costly and mostly beyond that day’s technical capacity.

Only in the last decade did Arivale become scientifically feasible. Founded in 2015, it ultimately tested 5,000 people. Although this population wasn’t particularly large, given the ambitious goals, it was enough to get some preliminary results. “We were able to monitor 167 individuals as they transitioned from wellness to sickness over a four-year stretch,” he says. “We looked at ten of these people who then transitioned to cancer. In every case there were proteins that were way off the scale compared with the normal average. We mapped them into disease-perturbed networks and projected what the transition was going to be.”

Arivale proved the concept of scientific wellness, which is why Hood considers it to be a success even though it failed as a business. 

Credit: Joelle Bolt and Katie Peek; source: Jennifer C. Lovejoy; background image: Bravissimos /iStock.

Experiments to Come

Having proved the concept, the next task is to deepen the pool of data and expand the insights that can be gleaned from it. That will require building workable platforms, honing methods, gathering more baseline data and developing new and better technologies. Computers need to be taught how to recognize critical information within a firehose of unstructured data. Iya Khalil, a theoretical physicist turned bio-AI expert who is the global head of the AI Innovation Lab at Novartis, says that much more needs to be done. “This stuff is really complicated,” she says. “Right now, we’re better at using this data for rare diseases that are easier to identify and predict. We need to work on building it out for more common diseases that have multiple risk factors. But it’s becoming much more real than it was before.” 

The current state of scientific wellness is analogous to the Human Genome Project in the 1990s, says Hood. Although it had a big price tag, it helped the nascent genomics industry scale up its capabilities, which ultimately brought costs down. “We think that will happen with phenomics,” he says. 

“Prices are already falling,” says Rory Collins, professor of medicine and epidemiology at the University of Oxford and the chief executive of the UK Biobank, the government- and private philanthropy-sponsored project that has genetically sequenced  500,000 Britons, and is planning to add phenomics biomarkers to their scores that predict future risks for several diseases. This is part of the initiative developed by Genomics PLC, in Oxford, that recently announced polygenic risk profiles for 28 diseases. By using UK Biobank data, for instance, Genomics PLC was able to provide risk assessments for apparently healthy people—such as  a 40-year-old man with no symptoms or family history of heart problems who, it was revealed, is at high risk for heart disease by the time he turns 60. Other biobanks, such as the Massachusetts General Brigham biobank at Harvard, are also developing polygenic risk profiles and plan to soon include proteins and other markers.

Phenome Health’s effort would be larger than any of these—if Hood succeeds in procuring twice the amount of funding that the Human Genome Project raised in the early 1990s. That’s a big if in an era when pushing through big science projects is politicized and fraught. But Hood is confident.  Phenome is in discussions with “key members of Congress,” he says. It is also exploring partnerships with companies and organizations such as Guardian Research Network, which has a patient base of 30 million patients in 13 states. 

“I like the nonprofit approach Lee is taking,” says Khalil. He’s looking to power a new ecosystem, and not looking for ‘How do I make money off this data?’” Without such a basic effort, she adds, “we will continue doing health care in the same way we do it now.” 

Hood suspects there will be a consumer-based “phenomics-and-me” style company spinning out from Phenome Health in future years when costs come down and more data is collected and analyzed. Right now, Phenome is working on a spin-out company based on the modular computer platform they’re building to analyze the data they’re planning to collect.

Some scientists ask why Phenome Health needs to recruit one million new people to study when dozens of biobanks and institutions around the world already have recruited and genetically sequenced millions of people. UK Biobank has now finished complete sequences of their entire cohort of 500,000 people. “There is a risk that setting up a new cohort will mean waiting another 10 to 15 years to get data that we already have tracked for over a decade,” says  Collins. “It might make more sense to look at these cohorts that have already existed for a long time, and then think about which ones you might enhance with more depth in order to create your million or your two million.”

Hood counters that a new cohort can set out from the beginning to use the latest technology and build into it continual updates as they happen. Also, most risk profiles coming out of biobanks have tests for perhaps a few hundred thousand or a million SNPs— those single letter genetic markers—instead of nearly every one of the six billion nucleotides that come with sequencing a complete human genome, which is what Hood plans to do.  “I think most of the SNP data is utterly trivial and it’s totally inadequate for what you can do now. No one is collecting as much data as we plan to,” he says.

However, the UK Biobank’s Collins confirmed that they have now finished complete sequences of their entire cohort of 500,000 people. (Data from the first 150,000 was released earlier this year in a study in Nature,  which announced the discovery of almost a half-billion new genetic variants, far more than were known before.)

Diversity is another challenge for many biobanks. Most existing repositories include data from overwhelmingly white populations, which misses the rich diversity of human genetics. To remedy this shortfall, Phenome Health plans to work with its partner, Guardian, to tap into their large cohort of Black, Hispanic, and other marginalized people in the U.S. It’s also a social justice issue, given that different ethnicities have different genetic proclivities—variations that need to be better understood to Boost prediction and treatment. “We need greater diversity to better understand the human gene pool,” Hood says.

Another hurdle to bringing scientific wellness to more people is a resistance to deploying phenomics in the clinic. “There’s a lag between the development of technologies and the ability to convince doctors and health-care systems that those technologies are valid and worthwhile, and sufficiently cost-effective or valuable to incorporate them into health care,” says Robert Green, a medical geneticist at Mass General Brigham Hospital, and a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, who studies how to bridge the gap between novel technologies and clinical practice. For instance, women are not routinely tested for BRCA1 and 2 genes to determine their breast cancer risk. These tests are available and well-established, but they have yet to be integrated into the daily workflow of most physicians.  “How do you fit this into the 15 minutes that doctors have with their patients?” asks Green. 

Standards are also lacking on how much evidence is needed to prove that a predictive test is good enough to be used routinely in the clinic. Nor are set pathways and rules established for how the FDA evaluates predictive DNA and other molecular tests. “We’ve got to get there,” says Green, “but the challenge is implementation, not vision.”

The way to gain acceptance, Hood believes, is to convince a few key physicians to sign on. That starts with working with them in demonstration projects and clinical trials. But he isn’t looking just to doctors and other providers to drive the shift to well care. He also expects patients to drive change, too. “Once well care reaches a critical mass of new people who taste its benefits,” he says, “they are going to see how transformational this type of health care is, and they’re going to demand it.” 

With Phenome Health, Hood is convinced that his long quest to bring precision health to millions of people may be finally on the brink. “I’m absolutely convinced of it,” he says, with his trademark broad smile, intensity and optimism.

If he’s right, it may not be too long until everyone will have a Ginger Hultin calling them to discuss their TMAO and genetically influenced vitamin D levels, or whatever bubbles up from their own report. After I got Hultin’s news about my TMAO, I opted to cut back on the burgers and BBQ pulled pork sandwiches. A few months later, she called back, her voice cheery as ever, to go over my results from a fresh round of testing. My TMAO score, she reported, had shifted to normal.

With her help, I managed to make at least a small gesture towards staving off heart disease, now and, hopefully, in the future.

David Ewing Duncan is a journalist who writes for Vanity Fair, Wired, MIT Technology Review, the New York Times, the Atlantic and other publications. He is the author of ten books, most recently, Talking to Robots: Tales from Our Human-Robot Futures (Dutton).

Find out more about Phenome Health’s efforts to transform the future of health care here. Learn more about phenomics, the new science of wellness, in other stories in this special report.

Wed, 07 Dec 2022 02:14:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Math Riddle: 5 Problems On Algebra To Help You Prepare For Your Exams

These math riddles on algebra will test your knowledge of algebra and help you prepare for any math exam. Test yourself with these math riddles now.

Math Riddle: 5 Problems On Algebra To Help You Prepare For Your Exams.

Math Riddle: 5 Problems On Algebra To Help You Prepare For Your Exams.

There are several reasons why solving math riddles is beneficial for you. 

First, they allow you to practice problem-solution strategies. Second, they give you a chance to review basic mathematical concepts. Third, they encourage you to develop critical thinking skills. Finally, they can Boost your overall math skills.

Our goal is to help you with your studies and help you get smarter than you already are. 

Why are we here if not to help you? 

This is why we have another set of math riddles from around the web waiting for you. 

Are you ready to solve them? We sincerely hope that you are.

So, let’s start!

These 5 Math Riddles Are So Fun To Solve That Even Your Kids Will Love Them!

Math Riddle #1

(x-1)2 = [4√(x-4)]2

Math Riddle #2

A man drives from London to Soho at 8:00 am. His car travels at a constant speed of x km/h. He discovers that he is 50 kilometers from Soho at around 2:00 pm. What is the distance between London and Soho?

Math Riddle #3

Simplify: 4m+5+2m-1

Math Riddle #4

Solve: |- 2 x + 2| - 3 = -3

Math Riddle #5

The sum of two consecutive numbers is 41. What are the numbers?

All the best! 

These Math Riddles Are So Easy That They Will Probably Make You Love Maths.

Math Riddle #1
There are two possible values of x. 

x = 13 and x = 5.

Math Riddle #2

The distance between London and Soho is (6x + 50) km.

Math Riddle #3

6m + 4

Math Riddle #4

X = 1

Math Riddle #5

The first number is 20 and the second number is 21. 

We hope that you liked this math riddle. 

Also try: Math Riddles: 5 Questions On Calculating Area And Perimeter

Math Riddles: 5 Tough But Fun Math Questions With Answers

Sun, 27 Nov 2022 22:04:00 -0600 text/html
Killexams : Minor Poll Problems Twisted Into False US Election Claims No result found, try new keyword!Voters did not encounter widespread problems on Election Day ... Trump seized on the problem in a message on his social network. He said the problem, which appeared similar to a voting issue ... Mon, 07 Nov 2022 15:06:00 -0600 text/html Killexams : Here are the top 10 highest-paying NYC civil service jobs, according to data

STATEN ISLAND, N.Y. — New York City provides a wealth of career opportunities with room to grow and top benefits through its civil service jobs — but some careers pay more than others.

New York City employs hundreds of thousands of people in its 80 agencies, and taking a test is the way to get started in the hiring process for most of these positions.

The Advance/ examined data on every civil service test that has been offered in the last five years to find the top 10 highest-paying civil service jobs — by annual salary — in New York City.

10. Marine Oiler

Annual salary: $49,705

Exam last offered: 2022

Job description: Marine Oilers, under direct supervision, lubricate and assist in the maintenance and operation of marine propulsion and auxiliary equipment of all marine vessels; perform duties as person in charge on the dock for fueling operations; perform operations and maintenance for Marine Section’s bulk oil fuel facility.

Qualifications: Candidates must possess one of the following issued by the United States Coast Guard:

  1. A valid Merchant Mariner Credential (MMC) with endorsement as a Third Assistant Marine Engineer or higher officer endorsement; or
  2. A valid MMC with any of the following rating endorsements: Qualified Member of the Engine Department (QMED) – any rating; QMED - Junior Engineer; QMED - Oiler; or QMED - Fireman/Water Tender

Under New York City Administrative Code Section 12-120, you might need to be a resident of the City of New York within 90 days of the date you are appointed to this position.

9. Plan Examiner (Buildings)

Annual salary: $70,341

Exam last offered: 2022

Job description: Plan Examiners (Buildings), under general supervision, perform responsible supervisory work, or difficult and responsible work, in the engineering or architectural analysis of structures and building equipment systems, and the examination of plans for the construction, alteration or repair of buildings and equipment systems in New York City to enforce codes and regulations under the jurisdiction of the Department of Buildings. They complete reports and interpret building codes, rules, and zoning regulations; when needed, conduct field inspections of buildings and make recommendations and reports on findings.

Qualifications: You must have a valid New York State Professional Engineer’s License or a valid New York State Registration as an Architect; and either:

  1. Four years of full-time, satisfactory experience in architecture or civil engineering performing work in building design, building construction, or building equipment systems design, of which two years must be in building design or building equipment systems design; or
  2. A master’s degree or higher in civil engineering, or a five-year bachelor of architecture or a master of architecture from an accredited college or university, and three years of full-time, satisfactory experience in architecture or civil engineering performing work in building design, building construction, or building equipment systems design, of which two years must be in building design or building equipment systems design.

City residency is not required for this position.

8. Computer Specialist (Operations)

Annual salary: $71,330

Exam last offered: 2018

Job description: Computer certified (Operations), under supervision, with considerable latitude for independent action or the exercise of independent judgement, are responsible for providing management with state-of-the art technical assistance in all aspects of data processing operations. They provide supervision or senior staff support of computer operations in a large-scale, multi-programmed mainframe computer environment, or within a large networked or multi-tier computer environment.


  1. A certificate from an accredited technical school (approximately 675 hours) with a specialization in computer operations plus a four-year high school diploma or its educational equivalent, and three years of satisfactory, full-time computer operations experience in a large-scale mainframe or multitiered computer environment, or three years of satisfactory data communications network experience in a mainframe or multi-tiered computer environment, one year of which must have been in a project leader capacity or as a major contributor on a complex project; or
  2. A four-year high school diploma or its educational equivalent and five years of satisfactory full-time computer operations or data communications network experience as described in “1″ above, one year of which must have been in a project leader capacity or as a major contributor on a complex project; or
  3. A baccalaureate degree from an accredited college and four years of satisfactory full-time computer operations or data communications network experience as described in “1″ above, one year of which must have been in a project leader capacity or as a major contributor on a complex project; or
  4. Education and/or experience equivalent to “1″, “2″, or “3″ above. However, all candidates must have at least a four-year high school diploma or its educational equivalent and three years of satisfactory full-time computer operations or data communications network experience as described in “1″ above, one year of which must have been in a project leader capacity or as a major contributor on a complex project.

City residency is not required for this position.

7. Child and Family Specialist

Annual salary: $73,027

Exam last offered: 2022

Job description: Child and Family Specialists, under general supervision, in the Administration for Children’s Services (ACS), work in child protection, family permanency, family support and community affairs; facilitate child safety and other family team conferences at critical case decision points; develop a safety plan for children assessed to be unsafe and at risk; assess the service needs and serve as a resource for children, families and providers; make recommendations for appropriate foster care system placement and services; and advocate best practices and decisions for children and families.

Qualifications: A master’s degree in social work (MSW) from an accredited school of social work and one of the following:

  1. A valid New York State Registration as a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) and at least one year of satisfactory full-time post-graduate experience that includes substantial experience in one or more of the following modalities of practice: facilitation of family team conferences or family group decision making meetings utilizing a conferencing model which emphasizes family engagement and consensus based decision-making; clinical group work with children, youth, parents or individual families; or the conduct of professional training on Topics relating to child and family services; or
  2. A valid New York State Registration as a Licensed Master of Social Work (LMSW) and at least three years of the experience required in “1″ above. Up to two years of this experience may have been in the supervision of social work practice areas described in “1″ above; or
  3. At least three years of the experience required in “1″ above. In addition, a valid New York State Registration as a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) or Licensed Master of Social Work (LMSW) must be obtained within one year of appointment. Employees who fail to obtain their LCSW or LMSW within one year after appointment may have their probationary periods extended for no more than six months. Failure to obtain the LCSW or LMSW by the end of the probationary period will result in dismissal.

Under New York City Administrative Code Section 12-120, you might need to be a resident of the City of New York within 90 days of the date you are appointed to this position.

6. Occupational Therapist (Department of Education) -- Tie

Annual salary: $73,394

Exam last offered: 2022

Job description: Occupational Therapists (DOE), under varying degrees of supervision, provide occupational therapy services to students with disabilities which may include the utilization of computer systems in connection with assignment.

Qualifications: A valid license and current registration to practice as an Occupational Therapist in New York State. City residency is not required for this position.

6. Physical Therapist (Department of Education) -- Tie

Annual salary: $73,394

Exam last offered: 2022

Job description: Physical Therapists (DOE), under varying degrees of supervision, administer professional and responsible physical therapy services to students with disabilities which may include the utilization of computer systems in connection with assignment.

Qualifications: A valid license and current registration to practice as a Physical Therapist in New York State. City residency is not required for this position.

5. Public Health Nurse

Annual salary: $76,716

Exam last offered: 2020

Job description: Public Health Nurses, under varying degrees of supervision, perform public health nursing duties in public health programs which may include assignments in the community, in school health, child health, maternity services, homeless health, tuberculosis clinics, and/or other specialized nursing programs; make home visits. All Public Health Nurses perform related work.

Qualifications: A bachelor’s of science degree in Nursing from a regionally-accredited college or university or one recognized by the New York State Education Department as following acceptable educational practices; and a license and current registration to practice as a Registered Professional Nurse in New York State. This License must be maintained for the duration of employment. City residency is not required for this position.

4. Marine Engineer (Diesel)

Annual salary: $77,857

Exam last offered: 2022

Job description: Marine Engineers (Diesel) operate the main propulsion equipment and auxiliaries of diesel powered vessels of the City of New York. Under direction, they assist in the operation and maintenance of the engine room; assist in the maintenance, minor, or emergency repair work and operation of the main propulsion equipment, auxiliaries, electrical equipment, steering engines, pumps, and fuel tanks of diesel vessels of the City of New York; assist in the proper care, storage, and use of fuel on board ship.

Qualifications: A valid United States Coast Guard Merchant Mariner Credential (MMC) with endorsement as a Third Assistant Engineer Unlimited, Motor Vessels, or Limited Assistant Engineer of Motor Vessels of at least 6000 H.P., or higher license. This license must be maintained for the duration of employment. Under New York City Administrative Code Section 12-120, you might need to be a resident of the City of New York within 90 days of the date you are appointed to this position.

3. Certified IT Administrator (Database)

Annual salary: $79,564

Exam last offered: 2019

Job description:

Qualifications: Required professional/vendor certifications. A bachelor’s degree and two years of satisfactory, full-time computer applications experience; or a four-year high school diploma or its educational equivalent and six years of satisfactory, full-time computer software experience as described in “1″ above, one year of which must have been in a project leader capacity or as a major contributor on a complex project in one or more of the acceptable areas; or education and/or experience requirements combined. City residency is not required for this position.

2. Certified IT Administrator (LAN/WAN) -- Tie

Annual salary: $81,951

Exam last offered: 2020

Job description: Certified IT Administrators (LAN/WAN) under supervision, with latitude for independent action and judgment, in the management and administration of complex and secure Local Area Networks (LANs), Wide Area Networks (WANs) and/or Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs), are responsible for planning, designing, configuring, installing, implementing, testing, troubleshooting, integrating, performance monitoring, maintaining, enhancing, security management, documenting, and support of network servers, operating systems, applications, voice over internet protocol (VOIP), computer software, hardware and associated devices. Certified IT Administrators (LAN/WAN) may liaise with vendors for technical support; may supervise a small unit engaged in work described herein; may serve as a project leader of small network projects, or may independently perform LAN, WAN, and/or MAN work of a highly technical nature.

Qualifications: You must have one professional/vendor certifications in local area network (LAN) and/or wide area network (WAN) administration. A bachelor’s degree and two years of satisfactory, full-time computer applications experience; or a four-year high school diploma or its educational equivalent and six years of satisfactory, full-time computer software experience as described in “1″ above, one year of which must have been in a project leader capacity or as a major contributor on a complex project in one or more of the acceptable areas; or education and/or experience requirements combined. City residency is not required for this position.

2. Certified IT Developer (Applications) -- Tie

Annual salary: $81,951

Exam last offered: 2021

Job description: Certified IT Developers (Applications), under supervision, with latitude for independent action and the exercise of independent judgment, are responsible for performing highly technical and supervisory responsibilities in applications development, including planning, designing, configuring, installing, testing, troubleshooting, integrating, performance monitoring, maintaining, enhancing, security management, and support of complex computer applications programs. Certified IT Developers (Applications) may supervise a small unit engaged in the above duties; may serve as a project leader of projects involving computer applications programs, or may independently perform development, testing or maintenance work of a highly technical nature. In the temporary absence of the supervisor, they may perform the duties of that position

Qualifications: Required professional/vendor certifications. A bachelor’s degree and two years of satisfactory, full-time computer applications experience; or a four-year high school diploma or its educational equivalent and six years of satisfactory, full-time computer software experience as described in “1″ above, one year of which must have been in a project leader capacity or as a major contributor on a complex project in one or more of the acceptable areas; or education and/or experience requirements combined. City residency is not required for this position.

2. Computer Specialist (Software) -- Tie

Annual salary: $81,951

Exam last offered: 2020

Job description: Computer certified (Software), under supervision, with considerable latitude for independent action or the exercise of independent judgment, are responsible for the analysis, design, development, implementation, enhancement, maintenance and security of database management systems, operating systems, data communications systems, applications, mobile applications, websites, and/or related software functions; may supervise a unit engaged in work related to these areas or may independently perform related work of a highly complex, technical nature.

Qualifications: A bachelor’s degree, including or supplemented by 24 semester credits in computer science or a related computer field and two years of satisfactory, full-time computer software experience; or a four-year high school diploma or its educational equivalent and six years of satisfactory, full-time computer software experience as described in “1″ above, one year of which must have been in a project leader capacity or as a major contributor on a complex project in one or more of the acceptable areas; or education and/or experience requirements combined. City residency is not required for this position.

1. Chief Marine Engineer (Diesel)

Annual salary: $87,792

Last offered: 2022

Job description: Chief Marine Engineers (Diesel), under general direction, supervise and direct the operation of the main propulsion equipment and auxiliaries of diesel powered vessels. Chief Marine Engineers (Diesel) supervise and direct all members of the engine crew; supervise and direct the operation, maintenance and minor or emergency repair of the main propulsion equipment, auxiliaries, electrical equipment, steering engines, pumps and fuel tanks on diesel powered vessels; perform all duties of inspection officer below decks; and supervise and direct the care, storage and use of fuel on board ship; observe all federal and departmental regulations pertaining to the operation of engine equipment of diesel powered vessels and keep records and make reports.

Qualifications: A valid Merchant Mariner Credential (MMC) issued by the United States Coast Guard with endorsement as a Chief Engineer Limited for Motor Vessels, not less than 6000 H.P., or higher license. This credential must be maintained for the duration of your employment. City residency is not required for this position.


There is currently a shortage of chief marine engineers, marine engineers, and marine oilers in New York City.

The Department of Transportation (DOT) has repeatedly emphasized that one absence in a major title can disrupt service, with the U.S. Coast Guard mandating that each vessel be staffed with at least one captain, one assistant captain and various other positions. If the department is unable to sufficiently staff each of those positions, the vessel cannot legally operate, which has been the core issue prompting exact service reductions.

To alleviate the longstanding staffing issues that have plagued the Staten Island Ferry in exact years, the DOT is working to create a new marine oilers apprenticeship program, which would train workers on-site to receive their certifications with hopes of permanently hiring them once they’ve completed the program.

There are many steps that would need to be taken by other city agencies before the apprenticeship program could be implemented.

First, the Department of Citywide Administrative Services (DCAS) would need to create a new marine oilers apprentice position and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) would need to approve additional funding to pay those salaries. Then, DCAS would need to remove the existing two-year experience requirement for the marine oiler position, which would allow the apprentices to be hired immediately after the program. The program to recruit marine oilers would also require the approval of the AMG union, also known as The Atlantic Marine Group of the Masters, Mates, and Pilots.

The vessel jobs in this list — chief marine engineers (diesel), marine engineers (diesel) and marine oilers — are jobs for members of the Fire Department of New York (FDNY) and not for Staten Island Ferry crew members.

However, there is also a shortage of marine engineers in New York City, as the Marine Engineers’ Beneficial Association (MEBA), the union that represents the captains, assistant captains, mates, chief engineers and marine engineers on the Staten Island Ferry, has been deadlocked in a decade-long contract dispute with the city.

Chief marine engineers, marine engineers, and marine oilers for the Staten Island Ferry make a lesser wage, according to the union.

Workers in MEBA have not received a single wage increase since 2010, as the union claims compensation currently offered by the city is far below what union members could make elsewhere in the country. The lack of a new contract and existing low wages have made it difficult for the city to recruit and retain talent during a national maritime workers shortage.

Last month, City Comptroller Brad Lander issued a preliminary decision that Staten Island Ferry marine engineers, which represent about half the workers of MEBA, should be paid higher prevailing wages set by domestic commercial cargo ship workers due to the comparable nature of their work.


Open, competitive, computer-based tests are administered throughout each month for various positions.

The DCAS Computer-Based Testing and Application Centers (CTAC), where exams are taken, are open to the public. However, due to the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, walk-ins are no longer accepted, and appointments must be scheduled online at Online Application System (OASys).

For more information about registering for tests, log onto the DCAS website. To apply for a civil service test open during this application period, go online via the OASys at To receive monthly test updates, sign up for the DCAS newsletter at and click the Exams tab.

On Staten Island, the testing center is located at 135 Canal St., Stapleton. Additional testing centers are located at: 2 Lafayette St., Manhattan; 210 Joralemon St., Brooklyn; 118-35 Queens Blvd., Queens; 1932 Arthur Ave., the Bronx.

After an test is administered, it generally takes nine to 12 months for an eligible list of passers to be established from which agencies can hire, according to DCAS.


If you purchase a product or register for an account through one of the links on our site, we may receive compensation.

Mon, 28 Nov 2022 01:49:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : BBC 100 Women 2022: Who is on the list this year?
100 Women - BBC World Service

The BBC has revealed its list of 100 inspiring and influential women from around the world for 2022.

Among them are global music phenomenon Billie Eilish, Ukraine’s First Lady Olena Zelenska, actresses Priyanka Chopra Jonas and Selma Blair, the ‘tsarina of Russian pop’ Alla Pugacheva, Iranian climber Elnaz Rekabi, record-breaking triple jump athlete Yulimar Rojas, and Ghanaian author Nana Darkoa Sekyiamah.

This is the 10th season of 100 Women, so we are taking the opportunity to explore what progress has been made over the last decade. While there have been huge steps forward for women's rights - from the number of female leaders to the MeToo movement - for women in many corners of the world it still feels like there is a long way to go.

The list also reflects the role of women at the heart of conflict around the world in 2022 – from the protesters bravely demanding change in Iran, to the female faces of conflict and resistance in Ukraine and Russia. For the first time this year, we have also asked previous 100 Women to nominate others who they felt deserved a place on the 2022 list.

Find out more about 100 women by selecting an area of interest
Maeen Al-Obaidi

Maeen Al-Obaidi, Yemen


As the civil war in Yemen has grown more violent this year, lawyer Maeen Al-Obaidi continues to be focused on peace building in the besieged city of Taiz. She has taken on the role of a mediator, facilitating prisoner exchanges between conflicting groups. While she is not always successful getting fighters back to their families alive, she tries to make sure the bodies of those deceased are returned.

She has volunteered for the Yemen Women Union, where she defended imprisoned women. She was also the first woman promoted to the Lawyers Syndicate Council, overseeing the human rights and freedoms committee.

Fatima Amiri

Fatima Amiri, Afghanistan


Afghan teenager, Fatima Amiri is one of the survivors of a suicide attack at a tuition centre in Kabul that killed more than 50 people, most of them female students. She sustained serious injuries, including the loss of an eye and severe damage to her jaw and ear.

Whilst recovering, she studied for her university entrance exams and sat them in October, scoring more than 85%. Her dream is now to study computer science at Kabul University and says that losing her eye in the attack has only made her stronger and more determined.

Nathalie Becquart

Nathalie Becquart, Vatican


Her appointment by Pope Francis as an undersecretary of the Synod of Bishops made her the first woman to ever hold this position. In the role, she is one of a number of leaders advising the pope on matters important to the Catholic Church, as well as being the only woman with voting rights. The body's secretary-general said in 2021 that her appointment showed that “a door has opened” for women.

Previously, the French nun of the Congregation of Xavières served as the first female director of the National Service for the Evangelisation of Young People and Vocations in France.

As Pope Francis states, ‘it is a duty of justice to fight against all discrimination and violence’ on women… Together, we need to support in any way to involve more women in leadership positions at all levels.

Nathalie Becquart

Taisia Bekbulatova

Taisia Bekbulatova, Russia


A renowned Russian journalist, Taisia Bekbulatova founded the independent media outlet Holod in 2019. The organisation has reported extensively on the war in Ukraine, as well as publishing stories about inequality, violence, and women's rights. The website was blocked in Russia by authorities in April, during a crackdown on independent media.

Despite this, Bekbulatova and her team have vowed to continue their work, and have seen their readership increase. Bekbulatova, who left Russia in 2021 after being labelled a "foreign agent", has travelled to Ukraine herself to report on the war from the front line.

I don't believe in inevitable progress. Modern civilisation has always seemed fragile and easy to destroy. And women's rights are usually the first to vanish.

Taisia Bekbulatova

Kristina Berdynskykh

Kristina Berdynskykh, Ukraine


During the war in Ukraine, award-winning journalist Kristina Berdynskykh has travelled around her country, reporting from regions that had been under Russian shelling. Some of her work has focused particularly on the details of daily life in a city in conflict.

Born in Kherson, Berdynskykh has worked as a political journalist for 14 years in Kyiv, including at NV magazine and various TV and radio projects. She created e-People, a social media project about participants in Ukraine’s Euromaidan Revolution that later became a book.

María Fernanda Castro Maya

María Fernanda Castro Maya, Mexico

Disability activist

As a woman with an intellectual disability, Fernanda Castro is fighting for others like her to be able to participate in politics. She is part of a group of disability rights advocates, supported by Human Rights Watch, asking all political parties in Mexico to include people with intellectual and learning disabilities in their policies.

Her work covers language accessibility in documents concerning political decisions, and inclusion in political parties and electoral events. Castro was part of a Mexican delegation to the United Nations which presented a report into disability rights, and is a representative for the global network Inclusion International.

Chanel Contos

Chanel Contos, Australia

Sexual consent activist

Founder of a movement dubbed 'Teach Us Consent’ that lobbies for holistic consent and sexuality education, in 2021 Chanel Contos posted a story on Instagram, asking her followers if they or someone they knew had been sexually assaulted at school. Within 24 hours more than 200 people had replied “yes”.

She launched a petition calling for earlier consent education in Australia. Thanks to her campaign, consent education will be mandatory in all schools from kindergarten until year 10 from 2023. Now she is educating people about non-consensual condom removal, or stealthing, as well as campaigning to criminalise the act.

Eva Copa

Eva Copa, Bolivia


A former student leader of Aymara descent, Eva Copa is shaking up politics in Bolivia. After failing to win her party’s nomination to be mayor of El Alto, the country’s second-largest city, she stood against their candidate and won with 69% of the vote. She recently announced the city’s plan for women, which will aim to strengthen women’s rights through policy and investment.

Copa is not new to politics, having served as a senator between 2015 and 2020. Her split with the ruling party is seen by many as a shift towards a more diversified political landscape in Bolivia.

We need more women leaders: women always on their feet, never on their knees.

Eva Copa

Joy Ngozi Ezeilo

Joy Ngozi Ezeilo, Nigeria

Law professor

As emeritus dean of law at the University of Nigeria and former United Nations Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, Joy Ezeilo is a leading authority in the field of international human rights.

She is a founding director of the Women Aid Collective (WACOL), which in the last 25 years has provided free legal aid and shelter to 60,000 vulnerable women in Nigeria. She also founded the Tamar Sexual Assault Referral Centre, to provide a rapid response to victims and survivors of abuse.

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Nominated by 2021 100 Women laureate, writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

“Professor Ezeilo has impacted many lives through the provision of free legal aid to the poor, especially to women and girls whose human rights have been violated.”

Ibijoke Faborode

Ibijoke Faborode, Nigeria

Founder of ElectHER

Through ElectHER, Ibijoke Faborode is disrupting the women’s political movement in Nigeria. Her organisation works to bridge inequality gaps in political representation and has engaged more than 2,000 women in politics across Africa. With the #Agender35 campaign, her organisation is directly backing 35 women running for local or federal office in the 2023 general election, providing human and financial resources.

She is also behind the first African feminist mobile app for election data analysis. Faborode currently serves in the Leadership Council of The Democracy and Culture Foundation, which identifies new ways to Boost democratic processes.

Erika Hilton

Erika Hilton, Brazil


The first black trans woman ever elected to a seat in the National Congress of Brazil. Erika Hilton is an activist who campaigns against racism, and for LGBTQ+ and human rights.

As a teenager, she was expelled from a conservative family home and lived on the streets, before going to university. With a background in student politics, Hilton moved to São Paulo and joined the left-wing PSOL party. In 2020 she was elected to the city’s council and went on to author the law that introduced a municipal fund against hunger in Brazil’s largest city.

Our fight is to achieve equal rights, equal wages and the end of gender-based violence, whether we're black, Latin, white, poor, rich, cis or transgender.

Erika Hilton

Park Ji-hyun

Park Ji-hyun, South Korea

Political reformer

As a university student, Park Ji-hyun anonymously helped bust one of South Korea’s biggest online sex-crime rings, known as the Nth rooms. This year she went public with her experience and went into politics, reaching out to young female voters.

When the Democratic Party lost the presidential race, they named her co-interim leader. She was also on the women's committee, which focused on tackling digital sex crimes. In June, the party faced further losses and she resigned. While she may not have an official role at the moment, she is still committed to pushing for gender equality in politics.

Globally, digital sex crimes threaten women's rights and we need to solve this problem in solidarity.

Park Ji-hyun

Zahra Joya

Zahra Joya, Afghanistan


For six years under Taliban rule, Zahra Joya became ‘Mohammad’ and dressed as a boy to attend school. When US-led forces toppled the Taliban in 2001 she returned to school as Zahra. She started working as a journalist in 2011 and was often the only female reporter in the newsroom.

She is the founder of Rukhshana Media, an online news agency focused on covering issues that affect women of Afghanistan, named after a 19-year-old who was stoned to death by the Taliban. Joya was evacuated from Afghanistan in 2021 and now runs Rukhshana Media from exile in the UK. She won the Gates Foundation’s 2022 Changemaker Award.

I believe in the soft power of words and we must speak about injustices against women.

Zahra Joya

Ursula von der Leyen

Ursula von der Leyen, Germany

President of the European Commission

The first female president of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen is a German politician. She served in Angela Merkel’s cabinet and was the first female defence minister ever appointed in Germany.

Born in Brussels, she studied economics and medicine before going into politics. She took the EU’s top job in 2019, and has since then led the bloc through Brexit, the Covid-19 pandemic, and the war in Ukraine. She was a driving force behind an EU law requiring gender balance on company boards that was adopted this year.

Sanna Marin

Nominated by 2020 100 Women laureate, Finland’s Prime Minister Sanna Marin

“As Europe has been faced by one crisis after another, Ursula von der Leyen has shown incredible resolve in helping the European Union get through these challenges together. Her leadership has been unfaltering. The times are tough, but she is even tougher.”

Naomi Long

Naomi Long, Northern Ireland


Former Justice Minister Naomi Long brought in legislation to tackle a number of new sexual offences in Northern Ireland this year, including downblousing, cyber-flashing and abolishing the ‘rough sex’ defence. Having received death threats herself, Long has also sought to raise awareness of the harassment of female politicians.

A civil engineer by profession, she joined the Alliance Party in 1995. After serving as Lord Mayor of Belfast, she became the first Alliance MP elected to Westminster in 2010, knocking former first minister Peter Robinson out of the Westminster seat he had held for more than 30 years.

We need to tackle the attitudes that create an environment in which abuse remains commonplace. That means all of us directly and consistently challenging the culture of male entitlement, sexism, and misogyny.

Naomi Long

Ayesha Malik

Ayesha Malik, Pakistan


Appointed this year as the first female judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, Justice Ayesha A. Malik has authored judgements protecting the rights of women. This includes her landmark judgement which banned the so-called two-finger test of rape victims. These ‘virginity tests’ used to be performed during the examinations of sexual assault cases until they were outlawed in 2021.

Alongside her role on the Supreme Court, Malik also conducts training for judges around the world and has inaugurated conferences for women judges in Pakistan, encouraging the debate around including the gender perspective in the justice system.

Women must build a new narrative - one that includes their perspective, shares their experience, and includes their stories.

Ayesha Malik

Zara Mohammadi

Zara Mohammadi, Iran


As one of the founders of the Nojin Socio-Cultural Association, Zara Mohammadi has dedicated more than a decade to teaching the Kurdish language in her hometown of Sanandaj.

The Iranian constitution says that use of regional and ethnic languages is freely permitted in educational settings, but lawyers and activists say this is not the case in practice, so children cannot learn their mother tongue at school. The Iranian government accused Mohammadi of "forming groups and societies with the aim of disrupting national security" and she was sentenced to five years in prison. She has been in jail since January 2022.

Mia Mottley

Mia Mottley, Barbados

Prime Minister

As the first female prime minister of Barbados, Mia Mottley won a second term in office after a landslide victory, in January. She has led the Barbados Labour Party since 2008. She guided the Caribbean island as it cut ties with the British royal family, removing the monarch as head of state and becoming the world's existing republic.

Mottley is known for being outspoken about climate change. At COP27 she criticised wealthy nations for failing to tackle the climate crisis, warning there could be a billion climate refugees by 2050 if no action is taken.

Sepideh Qoliyan

Sepideh Qoliyan, Iran

Political campaigner

Law student Sepideh Qoliyan was sentenced to five years in prison for supporting workers’ rights in Khuzestan province, in south-west Iran. She has spent the past four years in four different Iranian prisons, including Evin, the primary site for the housing of political prisoners.

Even from prison, she continues her work, having sent out an audio tape describing the "inhumane" treatment she has faced. She also acts as a voice for female inmates and, while on bail, wrote a book about the "torture" and "injustice" that women experience in Iran’s prisons.

Roza Salih

Roza Salih, Scotland


In May 2022, Roza Salih became the first refugee to be elected to Glasgow City Council, having arrived in Scotland as a young girl when her family was forced to flee Iraq. Now the SNP councillor for the Greater Pollok ward, Salih has campaigned for refugee rights since she was a teenager and she and her school friends came together to protest the detention of a friend.

Their campaign, the Glasgow Girls, drew national attention to the treatment of asylum seekers. Salih has gone on to co-found Scottish Solidarity with Kurdistan, visiting Kurdish regions in Turkey as a human rights activist.

Simone Tebet

Simone Tebet, Brazil

Member of the Brazilian Federal Senate

Seen by many as a figure to temper the country’s deepening polarisation, centrist Brazilian Senator Simone Tebet finished third in this year’s presidential race. She was elected state representative in 2002 and mayor of her hometown Três Lagoas in 2004 and 2008. In 2014, she was elected to the Senate with over 52% of the valid votes.

She was the first woman to chair the Constitution and Justice Committee of the Senate, considered the chamber's most important panel. A professor of law for over a decade, Tebet also chaired the Joint Committee to Combat Violence against Women.

Everyone should know that the future is female, and a woman's place is wherever she wants.

Simone Tebet

Kisanet Tedros

Kisanet Tedros, Eritrea

Educational entrepreneur

Beles Bubu is a YouTube channel which teaches Eritrean children their language and culture, founded by content creator and entrepreneur Kisanet Tedros. Born and raised in Ethiopia, from a young age she appreciated the importance of understanding language to feel connected to one’s roots.

Her production team brings together self-taught voice and digital artists from Eritrea, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo to create digital content. The videos are accessed by Tigrinya-speaking parents and their children from Eritrea and Ethiopia. Tedros also organised the first Beles Bubu Kids Festival for refugees in Kampala, Uganda.

Cheng Yen

Cheng Yen, Taiwan

Buddhist philanthropist

Dharma Master Cheng Yen is seen as one of the most influential figures in the development of modern Taiwanese Buddhism. Founder of the humanitarian Tzu Chi Foundation, she is sometimes referred to as ‘the Mother Teresa of Asia’.

She started the organisation in 1966, with just 30 housewives saving money to help families in need. It has since grown to have millions of followers globally, providing international relief and medical aid, and running schools and hospitals. Now in her late 80s, her followers continue their philanthropic campaigns and most recently provided financial and material aid to refugees from war-torn Ukraine.

Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe

Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe, UK/Iran

Charity worker

“The world should unite to make sure that there is no-one held either hostage or in prison for something they haven’t done” were British-Iranian Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe’s words after she was freed by Iranian authorities in March, after a long-running campaign by her husband Richard pushing the British government to secure her release and resolve a historic debt dispute with Iran.

Zaghari-Ratcliffe was arbitrarily detained in Iran while on holiday with her daughter in 2016, and subsequently as diplomatic pawn was held hostage by the Iranian authorities to put pressure on the British government. She was held for six years - initially convicted by the Revolutionary Court of attempting to overthrow the Iranian regime. When her first sentence concluded in 2021, she was given a second sentence, and held in Iran until a diplomatic settlement was reached. Zaghari-Ratcliffe has strongly refuted all allegations, and is writing a memoir with her husband.

Olena Zelenska

Olena Zelenska, Ukraine

First Lady

A successful TV scriptwriter used to working behind the scenes, Olena Zelenska was thrust onto the world stage when her husband, Volodymyr Zelenskyy, became president of Ukraine in 2019. As First Lady she has worked to Boost women’s rights and promote Ukrainian culture.

After the Russian invasion, she used her platform to highlight the suffering of the Ukrainian people, becoming the first spouse of a foreign president to address US Congress. She is now focused on delivering mental health support for children and families traumatised by the war.

Women have taken on even more responsibilities than in peacetime… A woman who has experienced this (war) will never take a step back. And I am sure that our inner confidence will grow.

Olena Zelenska

Dima Aktaa

Dima Aktaa, Syria


In 2012, Dima Aktaa’s home in Syria was bombed. She lost her leg and the ability to do one of her favourite things - run. Approximately 28% of Syrians have a disability, nearly double the global average, according to UN data. Ten years later, Aktaa is in the UK, training to compete in the 2024 Paralympics.

After raising money for refugees during the pandemic, she was recognised as a member of England’s alternative football squad, the Lionhearts. Her story recently featured in pop star Anne-Marie’s music video Beautiful, and she continues to raise awareness of the strength of people with disabilities.

Zar Amir-Ebrahimi

Zar Amir-Ebrahimi, Iran


This year, award-winning actress and filmmaker Zar Amir-Ebrahimi became the first Iranian to win Best Actress at Cannes for her performance in Holy Spider, a film based on the true story of a serial killer who targeted sex workers.

Amir-Ebrahimi had to leave Iran to avoid persecution and prosecution, when an intimate video of her was leaked and she was subjected to a smear campaign about her past love life. In 2008 she moved to Paris, founded her production company Alambic Production, and has continued to build an impressive career both in front of and behind the camera.

Selma Blair

Selma Blair, US


Known for her roles in pop-culture classics Cruel Intentions, Legally Blonde and the Hellboy franchise, Selma Blair is an American film and television actress.

She was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 2018 and has been praised for raising awareness of the condition, talking candidly about her health journey and the challenges she faces. This year, she released her memoir Mean Baby, and teamed up with an ability-inclusive make-up brand, with the goal of making ergonomic cosmetics that are easier to use and apply for everyone.

I'm a woman that has had a hard past, that could be judged for a lot of things and could have my power dismantled very easily, but it has been through the support of other women that I am here.

Selma Blair

Ona Carbonell

Ona Carbonell, Spain


Spanish artistic swimmer Ona Carbonell campaigns to normalise perceptions of being both a mother and an elite athlete. A three-time Olympian, she has collected more than 30 major medals, including Olympic silver and bronze.

In 2020, she gave birth to her first child and began training to be able to reach the Tokyo Olympics. She voiced her disappointment over rules that meant she couldn’t breastfeed her son at the event. This year, she became a mother for the second time. She told her story in a documentary to show other female athletes that motherhood can be compatible with sport.

Sarah Chan

Sarah Chan, South Sudan

NBA scouter

Former professional basketball player Sarah Chan is now mentoring teenagers and teaching them the sport all over Africa. She is also the first female manager of scouting in Africa for the NBA’s Toronto Raptors basketball team.

After fleeing war in Khartoum, Sudan, she and her family moved to Kenya, where Chan’s basketball career began. She secured a basketball scholarship at Union University in Jackson, Tennessee, and played professionally in Africa and Europe. Chan founded Home At Home/Apediet Foundation, an NGO that combats early-age marriages, advocates for education, and uses sports to educate young people.

You are what you believe about yourself, so believe in a future worthy of all your dreams and aspirations.

Sarah Chan

Priyanka Chopra Jonas

Priyanka Chopra Jonas, India

Actress and producer

With more than 60 films to her name, Priyanka Chopra Jonas is one of Bollywood’s biggest film stars. After her movie debut in 2002, the former Miss World’s breakthrough in Hollywood came as she made history as the first South Asian actress to lead an American network drama series (Quantico, 2015).

Her Hollywood acting credits include Isn't It Romantic and The Matrix Resurrections. She has established her own production company, making films in India. Chopra is also a Unicef Goodwill Ambassador, campaigning for children’s rights and education for girls.

The MeToo movement and subsequent voices of collective women coming together, protecting each other, and standing by each other - there’s something very powerful in togetherness.

Priyanka Chopra Jonas

Billie Eilish

Billie Eilish, US

Singer and songwriter

Grammy Award-winning and record-breaking superstar Billie Eilish is known for pushing boundaries with her music - from her single Your Power, which calls out abusers who exploit underage girls, to All The Good Girls Go To Hell, a song about climate change.

She made history this year by becoming the youngest Glastonbury headliner ever, using her set to protest against the US Supreme Court's decision to end the constitutional right to abortion. She has spoken openly about body image, her periods of depression and living with Tourette's syndrome.

I’m in awe of the time we’re in right now. Women are at the top. There was a specific period of time where I was in this pit of hopelessness because I didn’t have girls like me being taken seriously.

Billie Eilish

Ons Jabeur

Ons Jabeur, Tunisia

Tennis player

After a historic run at the 2022 Wimbledon Championships, Tunisian tennis star Ons Jabeur became the first Arab or African woman to reach a Grand Slam final in the Open era. Just months later, she reached the final of the US Open.

The 28-year-old, who started playing tennis when she was just three, made it to number two in the Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) ranking - the highest position ever held by an African or Arab, whether male or female. Jabeur has won three career singles titles, and has been credited with inspiring a new generation of players.

Sneha Jawale

Sneha Jawale, India

Social worker

When her parents couldn’t fulfil a demand for more dowry in December 2000, Sneha Jawale’s husband set her on fire with kerosene. The family didn’t file a police complaint. After her husband left with their son, she became determined to rebuild her life, as a tarot card reader and scriptwriter – jobs where people didn’t have to see her face.

Jawale, now a social worker, was asked to star in a theatre play, Nirbhaya, named after the 2012 Delhi gang-rape victim and based on the experiences of survivors of violence. Performing to audiences around the world helped her overcome her fears.

Over the last 10 years, society’s attitudes towards burn and acid survivors have changed. I don’t consider myself any less than a Miss World or Miss Universe. I say I am beautiful, so I am.

Sneha Jawale

Reema Juffali

Reema Juffali, Saudi Arabia

Racing driver

In 2018, Reema Juffali made history by becoming Saudi Arabia’s first ever female professional racing driver. This year, she founded her very own team, Theeba Motorsport, to compete in the International GT Open and Boost Saudi Arabian access to and participation in motor racing. Through the team, the professional driver is creating a variety of educational opportunities and programmes to Boost diversity in the sport.

A role model for other female racing drivers around the world, Juffali hopes to achieve another first - contesting the prestigious Le Mans 24-hour race with Theeba Motorsport.

Many stereotypes remain for women in society. Support needs to come from the home, as well as from society, for meaningful and lasting change to happen.

Reema Juffali

Kadri Keung

Kadri Keung, Hong Kong

Fashion designer

Designing aesthetically pleasing garments for the elderly and for differently abled bodies is a passion for Kadri Keung. She started adaptive fashion brand RHYS with her mother Ophelia Keung in 2018, inspired by caring for Kadri’s grandmother and realising that garments for the elderly often lack style and functionality.

As a clothing design graduate, Keung combines her knowledge with the needs of the customer, whether that be velcro fastenings or a bag to hold a catheter. Her brand employed and trained 90 underprivileged women, including some with disabilities. In 2022, Keung started Boundless, an inclusive brand promoting fashionable functional items.

Mie Kyung (Miky) Lee

Mie Kyung (Miky) Lee, South Korea


As a passionate supporter of the arts, Miky Lee is leading a Korean cultural wave. She is a driving force behind K-pop’s global success and an architect of the music festival KCON. She is also an executive producer of Parasite, the first foreign-language film to win an Oscar for best picture.

Lee is vice chair of South Korea's entertainment conglomerate CJ ENM - a powerful film and TV studio, cable operator and music production company.

Rebel Wilson

Nominated by 2021 100 Women laureate, actress Rebel Wilson

“She is total GIRL POWER, and a role model to me. She has represented and promoted her culture to the world and is all class.”

Laura McAllister

Laura McAllister, Wales

Professor and former footballer

Former captain of the Wales women’s football team, Laura McAllister has held several senior roles in sports governance. She is currently Deputy Chair of Uefa's Women's Football Committee and stood for election as Uefa representative on the Fifa Council in April 2021. She is a board director at the Football Association of Wales Trust.

Currently a professor at Cardiff University, McAllister is an expert on Welsh politics. This year, she was chosen by Wales as an LGBTQ+ sports ambassador to attend the World Cup in Qatar. She was asked to remove her ‘rainbow wall’ bucket hat that showed support for the LGBTQ+ community as she entered the stadium.


Milli, Thailand

Rap artist

Artist and songwriter Danupha Khanatheerakul, better known by her stage name Milli, uses controversial lyrics to address issues such as unrealistic beauty standards and sexual consent. She raps in multiple languages and dialects, also incorporating slang from Thailand's transgender community. She recently announced her first debut album called BABB BUM BUM.

She became a viral sensation at Coachella festival this year by challenging Thai stereotypes and the government, as well as eating mango sticky rice onstage, a traditional Thai dessert. Last year she faced defamation charges for criticising the Thai government's Covid-19 response. As a result, the hashtag #SaveMilli trended.

Rita Moreno

Rita Moreno, Puerto Rico/US


Very few performers gain EGOT status – a term for the superlative achievement of winning an Emmy, Grammy, Oscar, and Tony Award – but Rita Moreno is one of them. The Puerto Rican actress, singer and dancer made her Broadway debut aged 13 and has had an illustrious career spanning seven decades.

She appeared in Singin’ in the Rain and The King and I, but it was her Anita in the original West Side Story that made her the first Latina to ever win an Oscar. Steven Spielberg had an entirely new character written into his acclaimed remake especially for Moreno, now in her 90s.

Salima Rhadia Mukansanga

Salima Rhadia Mukansanga, Rwanda


In a historic moment for international football, Salima Rhadia Mukansanga was picked by Fifa as one of the first three women referees to officiate at a men’s World Cup, in Qatar 2022 - the first time the tournament had women in the role in its 92 years.

Last January, she became the first woman to referee a match at the men's Africa Cup of Nations, and she also officiated at the Olympic Games in Tokyo. She has already presided over games at the highest level in international women's football. Before working in sport, she trained as a midwife.

Alla Pugacheva

Alla Pugacheva, Russia


Performer and composer Alla Pugacheva has sold more than 250 million records. With a repertoire of over 500 songs and 100 albums, the ‘tsarina of Russian pop’ is a cultural icon, well-known for her clear mezzo-soprano voice, even though she has now retired from performing.

She has been repeatedly honoured by Russia for her music, yet Pugacheva has spoken out against the government on a number of occasions. She recently posted a message to her 3.6 million followers on Instagram denouncing the war in Ukraine, with reactions ranging from praise to accusations of treason.

The world has seen significant progress in the fight for women's access to education and financial independence. However, domestic violence is still a big issue in many countries.

Alla Pugacheva

Elnaz Rekabi

Elnaz Rekabi, Iran


At the Asian Championships that took place in South Korea in October, Iranian climber Elnaz Rekabi competed without a headscarf, amid protests against the mandatory hijab in her home country. She came fourth in the championships, but gained popularity among Iranian protesters. Many people greeted her at a Tehran airport when she returned home, and she was praised on social media.

A post on her Instagram page later said her hijab fell off “inadvertently” and she apologised to the Iranian people in a State TV interview for the “confusion and concerns”. However, a source told BBC Persian that her interview was a forced confession.

Yulimar Rojas

Yulimar Rojas, Venezuela


An Olympic medallist (gold and silver) and three-time world champion, Yulimar Rojas became the world record holder in the women’s triple jump when she recorded 15.74m at the World Athletics Indoor Championships in March. She has now set her sights on an even bigger achievement – jumping 16m.

Born in Caracas, Venezuela, and raised in a poor area on the Caribbean coast, she has credited her humble beginnings with helping her to succeed. Currently part of the Barcelona FC athletics team, Rojas has achieved hero status in her country. She is openly lesbian and a vocal advocate for LGBTQ+ issues.

We women must not be intimidated. There are no impossibles for us, it is already clear that we can be underestimated but we have already shown with great pride what we are capable of.

Yulimar Rojas

Sally Scales

Sally Scales, Australia


In 2022, art consultant Sally Scales was appointed to the group working with the Australian government ahead of a referendum known as ‘Voice to Parliament’ - a historic consultation which, if successful, would see indigenous people permanently represented in parliamentary processes.

A respected cultural leader and artist, Scales is a Pitjantjatjara woman from Pipalyatjara in the far west of the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands, in remote South Australia. She is the second woman to hold the position of APY chairperson, and is a spokesperson for the APY Art Centre Collective, a group of indigenous-owned cultural enterprises.

Julia Gillard

Nominated by 2018 100 Women laureate, former politician Julia Gillard

“Sally is a creator of both wonderful art and human understanding. By enlightening and enthusing others, she catalyses the many changes needed to end the pernicious combination of racism and sexism.”

Nana Darkoa Sekyiamah

Nana Darkoa Sekyiamah, Ghana


Her book The Sex Lives of African Women has been described as "an astonishing report on the quest for sexual liberation", in a dazzling review by Publishers Weekly. It was listed by The Economist as one of the best books of the year, reflecting a diverse range of voices from across the continent and global diaspora.

Writer and feminist activist Nana Darkoa Sekyiamah is also co-founder of Adventures from the Bedrooms of African Women - a website, podcast and festival that creates content to recount the experiences of African women around sex, sexualities, and pleasure.

Feminists have succeeded in creating space for all women to be themselves. But we are facing a backlash, which is the result of our gains - and this backlash particularly affects gender diverse and gender non-conforming people.

Nana Darkoa Sekyiamah

Geetanjali Shree

Geetanjali Shree, India


Novelist and writer Geetanjali Shree made history this year when she became the first Hindi writer to win the International Booker Prize for Tomb of the Sand, the English translation of her novel Ret Samadhi. The French translation of the book was also shortlisted for the Emile Guimet Prize.

Shree writes fiction in Hindi and non-fiction in Hindi and English. Marked by innovative use of language and structure, her works have been translated into many Indian and foreign languages. She also works on theatrical scripts in collaboration with the theatre group Vivadi, of which she is a founding member.

Women have always negotiated their spaces. There has been marked progress for them in all spheres of life, even if unevenly across cultures and classes.

Geetanjali Shree

Alexandra Skochilenko

Alexandra Skochilenko, Russia


St Petersburg artist Alexandra Skochilenko was detained for replacing supermarket price tags with messages about the war in Ukraine, including information on the potential number of casualties in the Mariupol theatre airstrike carried out by Russian forces. After being reported by another shopper, she was charged under a law banning ‘disinformation’ about Russia’s armed forces.

Currently in a pre-trial detention centre awaiting sentencing, she considers herself a prisoner of conscience and faces up to 10 years in prison.

Skochilenko has written comic books focusing on mental health, including Notes on Depression and What Is Mania? Her girlfriend has reported concerns for Skochilenko’s health in detention.

Velia Vidal

Velia Vidal, Colombia


A storyteller and promoter of culture from Colombia’s El Chocó region, Velia Vidal is a lover of shared readings. She is the founder of Motete, an organisation that promotes practicing and literacy, as well as Chocó’s unique culture. She also organises the Chocó practicing and writing festival, seeing literature as a tool to fight inequality and racism in one of Colombia’s most deprived region.

Her exact book, Aguas de Estuario, was the first winner of a publication grant for Afro-Colombian authors from the Colombian Ministry of Culture. She is a researcher for the Afluentes project, a joint initiative with the British Museum.

We are now more aware of the historical oppression of women and the need to remedy it, but we fail to recognise how racism deepens these oppressions on Afro and indigenous people.

Velia Vidal

Esraa Warda

Esraa Warda, Algeria/US


A child of the Algerian diaspora, Esraa Warda is a cultural warrior who has taken traditional Algerian dance from the living room to the classroom. She advocates for the preservation of North African women-led dance traditions, with a particular focus on raï, a grassroots genre historically associated with social protest.

She is a mentee of Cheikha Rabia, one of few female masters of traditional raï in the diaspora. Warda is a touring artist and educator and her performances and workshops have made their way around the world, from Washington DC to London.

Lina Abu Akleh

Lina Abu Akleh, Palestinian Territories

Human rights campaigner

Palestinian-Armenian human rights advocate Lina Abu Akleh is the niece of Palestinian-American journalist Shireen Abu Akleh, an Al Jazeera correspondent who was killed in May while covering a raid by Israeli forces in the occupied West Bank. The Israeli military has said there is a "high probability" one of its soldiers killed her "by mistake".

Lina has now become the face of a campaign for justice and accountability for her aunt’s killing. She holds a master’s in international studies focusing on human rights. She was named as one of the 2022 TIME100 Next emerging leaders for her advocacy.

We need to pick up where my aunt Shireen Abu Akleh left off and continue to amplify women’s perspectives so we can ensure that the stories we’re telling and the information we’re gathering is equitable, accurate and whole - without women, that’s not possible.

Lina Abu Akleh

Velmariri Bambari

Velmariri Bambari, Indonesia


Working in a remote area of Indonesia, Velmariri Bambari has been fighting for victims of sexual violence in Central Sulawesi. She has persuaded members of the local council to break with customary law and not impose fines on survivors of sexual abuse.

In customary law, the sanction of “washing the village” establishes that perpetrators who are thought to have polluted traditional values should pay a fine. This rule is also applied to victims. Because of her campaigning, Bambari is often the first person contacted by the police when sexual violence is reported. She has dealt with several cases this year.

Even though I am physically disabled I want to devote all the energy I have to empower women in my surroundings, by creating opportunities that allow them to have financial independence.

Velmariri Bambari

Tarana Burke

Tarana Burke, US


The #MeToo hashtag went viral five years ago, when millions of people around the world shared their experiences of sexual harassment. But the movement was started by survivor and activist Tarana Burke back in 2006. She coined the phrase to raise awareness of abuse and violence against women.

When a 2017 tweet by actress Alyssa Milano amplified #MeToo, it sparked a global conversation about how women are treated, and gave survivors a powerful voice. Burke remains committed to advocating for survivors of abuse as she continues to fight for cultural and structural change.

Sanjida Islam Choya

Sanjida Islam Choya, Bangladesh


Bangladesh has one of the highest rates of child marriage in the world, but Sanjida Islam Choya is trying to change that. Her own mother was married at a young age, but after Choya was inspired by a school presentation on the effects of child marriage, she decided to act.

She and her friends, teachers and collaborators call themselves Ghashforing (Grasshoppers) and report incidents of child marriage to the police. Now at university, Choya’s work with Ghashforing hasn’t stopped and she mentors new members of the group. So far they have reportedly prevented 50 child marriages.

Heidi Crowter

Heidi Crowter, UK

Disability campaigner

Heidi Crowter has campaigned to change perceptions of people with Down's syndrome. She took the UK government to court over legislation allowing foetuses with the condition to be aborted up until birth, saying it was discriminatory. The High Court ruled against her challenge and said the law aims to strike a balance between the rights of the unborn child and of women. In November, Crowter lost her appeal, but said she and her team plan to “keep fighting” and take the case to the Supreme Court.

She is a patron of Positive About Down Syndrome and founding officer of the National Down Syndrome Policy Group. Her book, I’m Just Heidi, was published in August.

I want pregnant women to have the right information about Down syndrome. I want people to keep up with the times and see us for who we really are!

Heidi Crowter

Sandya Eknaligoda

Sandya Eknaligoda, Sri Lanka

Human rights activist

A human rights activist and campaigner, Sandya Eknaligoda is helping thousands of mothers and wives who lost loved ones during Sri Lanka's civil war. Her husband, Prageeth Eknaligoda, a prominent investigative journalist and cartoonist, went missing in January 2010. He was a strong critic of the government and investigated alleged abuses against Tamil Tiger separatists.

Since his disappearance, the mother of two has been seeking justice. She accuses the supporters of Mahinda Rajapaksa, the former president of Sri Lanka, of being responsible for her husband's abduction. While suspects have been identified, they have all been acquitted.

I am a woman who fights on behalf of others at every opportunity, engages in creative struggle, and overcomes challenges amidst insults and slander, through dedication and sacrifice.

Sandya Eknaligoda

Gohar Eshghi

Gohar Eshghi, Iran

Civil activist

Gohar Eshghi has become a symbol of endurance and persistence in Iran. Her son, Sattar Beheshti, was a blogger who died in custody a decade ago and Eshghi has been calling for justice ever since, accusing Iranian authorities of torture and murder.

She is one of the Iranian Complainant Mothers, a group seeking justice for their children’s killings. Holding Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Iran’s Supreme Leader, personally responsible for her son’s death, she was one of the signatories of a letter in 2019, calling for his resignation. During this year’s protests, following the death of Mahsa Amini, Eshghi removed her headscarf in solidarity with protesters.

Ceci Flores

Ceci Flores, Mexico


Armed men took Ceci Flores’ 21-year-old son Alejandro in 2015. Four years later, another of her sons, Marco Antonio, 31, was kidnapped by a criminal group. Flores says her activism is driven by the fear of dying without finding out what happened to her children, victims of forced disappearances in Mexico.

This year, the country hit a grim milestone, with 100,000 people now listed as missing in what the UN has called "a tragedy of enormous proportions". Under Flores’ leadership, the Madres Buscadoras de Sonora collective (Sonora’s Searching Mothers) have helped locate more than 1,000 disappeared persons in clandestine graves.

Geraldina Guerra Garcés

Geraldina Guerra Garcés, Ecuador

Femicide activist

A defender of women's rights for over 17 years, Geraldina Guerra Garcés works to protect female victims of violence in Ecuador. She specialises in gathering information to increase the visibility of femicides - the murder of women because of their gender.

She is behind the Cartographies of Memory initiative, which seeks to create "life maps" of victims of femicide, keeping their memory alive to help spark a cultural shift in attitudes. Guerra tracks and maps cases for the Feminist Alliance and the Latin American Network Against Gender Violence. She also represents the Aldea Foundation and the country’s network of women’s shelters.

If there is no strong action to prevent femicides, there will be no progress for anyone. Despite new legislation coming into effect, we are still being killed, and that has to change.

Geraldina Guerra Garcés

Moud Goba

Moud Goba, UK

LGBTQ+ activist

As a refugee herself, Moud Goba has worked for almost two decades with grassroots organisations that promote the integration of refugees. She is currently a national manager for Micro Rainbow, which provides safe shelter to LGBTQ+ asylum seekers and refugees. She leads their housing project, which provides 25,000 bed-nights a year to the homeless, and is also involved in their employability programme.

Recently Goba has managed the integration process of LGBTQ+ people who arrived in the UK from Afghanistan. She is one of the founding members of UK Black Pride and current chair of their board of trustees.

Gehad Hamdy

Gehad Hamdy, Egypt

Dentist and humanitarian

Dentist Gehad Hamdy is also the founder and manager of Speak Up, an Egyptian feminist initiative that uses its social media platform to shine a spotlight on the perpetrators of gender-based violence and sexual harassment. There has been a series of violent crimes against women across Egypt in 2022, bringing the issue into focus.

The organisation encourages women to speak out about abuse, while also providing legal and emotional support and putting pressure on authorities to act. Hamdy’s campaign has been recognised on numerous occasions, including winning the equal rights and non-discrimination award at the World Justice Forum 2022.

There’s a long way to go; we’re nowhere near the end. In fact, we’ve barely begun.

Gehad Hamdy

Judith Heumann

Judith Heumann, US

Disability rights advocate

Judith Heumann has dedicated her life to fighting for the rights of disabled people. After contracting polio as a child, she became the first wheelchair user to work as a teacher in New York City.

She is an internationally recognised leader of the disability rights movement, and her activism – including her involvement in the longest ever US federal building sit-in – has seen her play a significant role in the implementation of major legislation. Heumann served in both the Clinton and Obama administrations, and has 20 years of non-profit experience.

Nominated by 2020 100 Women laureate, disability activist Shani Dhanda

“I've been genuinely inspired by Judith, who, for more than 30 years, has worked to advance the human rights of disabled people globally. She remains a tireless advocate and has been part of pivotal moments in the disability rights movement.”

Jebina Yasmin Islam

Jebina Yasmin Islam, UK


The sister of primary school teacher Sabina Nessa, who was murdered in a London park in September 2021, Jebina Yasmin Islam has become an outspoken advocate for women’s street safety in the UK. She has campaigned for changes to the law, so defendants need to appear in court for sentencing.

After her sister’s killing, Islam criticised the British government’s lack of support, saying it was indicative of how little importance was placed on male violence. She also spoke out about racial discrimination - they would have received better treatment, she said, if their family had been a "normal British white family". Islam describes her sister as an "amazing role model" who was "powerful, fearless, and bright".

“Love yourself more than anyone on the planet.”

Sabina Nessa

A message from Sabina Nessa's journal, shared by her sister Jebina


Layli, Iran


One of the iconic images of the current protests in Iran was of a young woman, filmed from behind, putting her hair in a ponytail, and preparing to continue protesting on the streets. Her photo became a symbol of the bravery of protesters, but her identity was mistaken for Hadis Najafi, a 22-year-old woman killed during the ongoing demonstrations.

Speaking to BBC Persian, Layli (not her real name) said she would "fight for people like Hadis Najafi and Mahsa Amini". The Iranian regime, she said, "do not scare us with the threat of death. We have hope for Iran’s freedom."

Hadizatou Mani

Hadizatou Mani, Niger

Anti-slavery campaigner

Sold off to become a ‘fifth wife’ aged 12, Hadizatou Mani was enslaved under the wahaya practice, which involves an influential man taking an unofficial wife to serve his four legal wives. After being legally freed in 2005, Mani remarried, but her former master accused her of bigamy and sued her. She was found guilty and sentenced to six months in prison.

Mani challenged the ruling and Niger’s Supreme Court overturned her conviction in 2019, banning the wahaya practice as a result. She is now an anti-slavery advocate and uses her platform to help other women to escape.

Oleksandra Matviichuk

Oleksandra Matviichuk, Ukraine

Human rights lawyer

For 15 years, Oleksandra Matviichuk has led the Center for Civil Liberties (CCL), which was jointly awarded the 2022 Nobel Peace Prize for its work in documenting Russian war crimes after the invasion of Ukraine.

The CCL is carrying the legacy of the Ukrainian dissidents of the 1960s, focusing on human rights. In 2014, the Center was the first human rights organisation to go to Crimea, Luhansk, and Donetsk to document war crimes. Now they are calling for an international tribunal to investigate Russia over alleged violations of human rights committed in Chechnya, Moldova, Georgia, Syria, Mali, and Ukraine.

Bravery has no gender.

Oleksandra Matviichuk

Narges Mohammadi

Narges Mohammadi, Iran

Human rights campaigner

Journalist and Nobel Peace Prize nominee Narges Mohammadi is vice-president of the Defenders of Human Rights Center in Iran and has tirelessly campaigned for the abolition of the death penalty. During the most exact demonstrations in Iran, she sent a letter from Evin Prison, asking the UN to stop the Iranian government from issuing the death penalty to protesters.

In 2010 Mohammadi was sentenced to 11 years in prison - later increased to 16 years after she gave a speech, while on bail, criticising the treatment of inmates at Evin. Her documentary White Torture examines solitary confinement, based on interviews with 16 former prisoners. Her two children live in exile with her husband, political activist Taghi Rahmani.

Tamana Zaryab Paryani

Tamana Zaryab Paryani, Afghanistan


Days after taking part in a January rally calling for the right to education and work, Tamana Zaryab Paryani and her sisters were seen being forcibly taken from their home by armed men. Amid international condemnation and calls for their release, the Taliban denied involvement.

She managed to film her reactions to the arrest and posted it online. Paryani’s viral video brought attention to female activists who were disappearing. She spent three weeks in custody before being set free. She is now living in Germany and, in solidarity with the women of Afghanistan, she burnt her headscarf, a move that was seen as controversial by many Afghan women.

Whilst the women of the world are progressing, the women of Afghanistan have been pushed back 20 years. Twenty years of women's achievements have been taken away from them.

Tamana Zaryab Paryani

Alice Pataxó

Alice Pataxó, Brazil

Indigenous activist

Climate campaigner, journalist and influencer, Alice Pataxó aims to raise awareness about how the Brazilian government’s exact environmental and agricultural policies threaten indigenous land rights. As a voice for the Pataxó people, she wants to challenge colonial views about indigenous communities and shed light on the murders of environmental activists.

She is a journalist for Colabora and creates content for her YouTube channel Nuhé, a term referring to the resilience of indigenous people in Brazil.

Malala Yousafzai

Nominated by 100 Women 2021 laureate, education activist Malala Yousafzai

“I'm so proud to nominate Alice Pataxó for this year's BBC 100 Women list. Alice's unwavering commitment to fighting for climate action, gender equality, and indigenous rights give me hope that a sustainable and more equal world is within reach.”

Roya Piraei

Roya Piraei, Iran


In September, an image of Roya Piraei went viral. Her mother, 62-year-old Minoo Majidi, had been protesting in Kermanshah, the largest Kurdish-speaking city in Iran, when she was shot and killed by security forces. Piraei stood at her mother’s graveside with her head shaven, holding her cut hair in her hands and staring defiantly at the camera.

She has become one of the faces that made headlines internationally after anti-government protests spread in Iran, following the death of Mahsa Amini, a 22-year-old Kurdish woman. Piraei has since met French President Emmanuel Macron to get international support for the ongoing protests.

Yuliia Sachuk

Yuliia Sachuk, Ukraine

Disability leader

Ukrainian human rights defender Yuliia Sachuk is head of Fight for Right, an organisation led by women with disabilities. She launched an emergency response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, working around the clock to coordinate evacuation plans with international organisations to save the lives of thousands of Ukrainians with disabilities.

Sachuk is passionate about empowering girls and women with disabilities to participate in decision making. She participates in the Obama Foundation’s Leader Europe program, was laureate of the National Human Rights Award 2020, and is a candidate for Ukraine on the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

Suvada Selimović

Suvada Selimović, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Peace campaigner

It is 30 years since war devastated Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Suvada Selimović now lives in a village which she helped to rebuild, together with other displaced women who returned home. A widow and mother to small children, Selimovic founded Anima, an organisation for peace activism and female empowerment.

After her husband’s remains were found in a mass grave in 2008, she testified at the war crimes court and encouraged other women to do the same. Today, Anima hosts workshops for women dealing with war trauma, and sets up opportunities for them to sell products they make.

Efrat Tilma

Efrat Tilma, Israel


As the first transgender volunteer in the Israeli Police, activist Efrat Tilma answers emergency calls and works to Boost the relationship between police forces and the LGBTQ+ community. Tilma fled Israel as a teenager and moved to Europe - after being rejected by her family and experiencing police harassment. She underwent gender reassignment surgery in 1969 in Casablanca, when the procedure was largely banned in Europe.

She went on to be a flight attendant in Berlin and got married. She returned to Israel in 2005, after her divorce, and found it a more welcoming place for sexual minorities, which encouraged her to volunteer with the police.

Zhou Xiaoxuan

Zhou Xiaoxuan, China

Feminist activist

As the face of China’s MeToo movement, Zhou Xiaoxuan’s case was followed by feminists in China and audiences globally. In 2018, she sued Zhu Jun, a star presenter at the state-owned CCTV broadcaster, accusing him of groping and forcibly kissing her during a 2014 internship. He denied the charges and sued her for defamation.

Her case was dismissed for insufficient evidence and this year her appeal was rejected in what some foreign media called a blow to China’s MeToo movement. Zhou Xiaoxuan now supports women who have been sexually harassed and is involved in highlighting feminist issues in China.

Woman cutting her hair

Woman cutting her hair, Iran


Widespread protests erupted in Iran this year, following the death of Mahsa Amini, a 22-year-old Kurdish woman arrested by morality police in Tehran on 13 September for allegedly violating Iran's strict rules requiring women to cover their hair with a hijab, or headscarf.

This year we wanted to recognise the role women have played in the protests, fighting for their freedoms and against the compulsory hijab.

Haircutting has become one of the symbols of a movement that has spread to celebrities, politicians and campaigners across the world. It is seen by some communities in Iran as a traditional sign of mourning.

Aye Nyein Thu

Aye Nyein Thu, Myanmar

Medical doctor

Aye Nyein Thu is a front-line volunteer in crisis areas of Myanmar, focusing on the remote and poor Chin State. She built a makeshift hospital with a small operating theatre in November 2021 and has since been treating sick and injured people.

In her spare time, she travels to other regions where medical treatment is mostly unavailable, to support local patients including internally displaced persons. In the course of her work, she has had charges of ‘causing incitement to violence’ brought against her by the Myanmar military, who accused her of supporting local anti-government militia groups known as People's Defence Forces.

Sirisha Bandla

Sirisha Bandla, India

Aeronautical engineer

Sirisha Bandla went to the edge of space as part of the historic 2021 Unity 22 mission, Virgin Galactic’s first fully crewed sub-orbital spaceflight – making her the second woman born in India to go to space.

Developing an interest in space at an early age, Bandla went on to study aeronautical engineering in the US. She is now Vice President of Government Affairs and Research Operations for Virgin Galactic, a role that includes working with research customers to fly science and technology experiments on board VG’s SpaceShip.

Sunny Leone

Nominated by 2016 100 Women laureate, actress Sunny Leone

“In a male-dominated industry, for Sirisha to overcome everything and push through based on just her hard work and dedication makes her an inspiration to me and, more importantly, to all young girls out there with similar dreams.”

Victoria Baptiste

Victoria Baptiste, US

Nurse and vaccine educator

A nurse in the US state of Maryland, Victoria Baptiste educates people about vaccines. She understands why the black community might be suspicious of medical interventions: Baptiste is a descendant of Henrietta Lacks, a black woman who died of cervical cancer in 1951 whose cells, taken without her consent, were the first to be grown in a lab.

Known as HeLa cells, they have been used in medical research ever since, but the family did not know for decades. Now part of the Henrietta Lacks Foundation, Baptiste is also a WHO Goodwill Ambassador for cervical cancer elimination.

Niloufar Bayani

Niloufar Bayani, Iran


Conservationist Niloufar Bayani was one of several environmentalists detained in Iran in 2018 after using cameras to track endangered species. They were accused of collecting classified information about strategically sensitive areas, and Bayani was sentenced to 10 years in prison.

Bayani was the programme manager of the Persian Wildlife Heritage Foundation, dedicated to saving the Asiatic cheetah and other species. In a document obtained by BBC Persian, she said Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps subjected her to “the most severe mental, emotional and physical torture and sexual threats for at least 1,200 hours”. The Iranian authorities deny these allegations.

Sandy Cabrera Arteaga

Sandy Cabrera Arteaga, Honduras

Reproductive rights advocate

Philosophy student, writer and feminist activist, Sandy Cabrera Arteaga is a defender of sexual and reproductive rights. She teaches workshops about the morning-after pill and is a spokesperson for ‘Hablemos lo que es’ (Let’s talk about what it is) - an educational campaign and digital platform about emergency contraception.

She also works for Acción Joven (Youth Action) which focuses on young people’s human, sexual and reproductive rights. She is fluent in Honduran sign language and, as the only daughter of a single mother who is deaf, she is proud of her inclusive upbringing.

Samrawit Fikru

Samrawit Fikru, Ethiopia

Tech entrepreneur

Although she hadn’t ever used a computer until she was 17, programmer Samrawit Fikru is a founder of Hybrid Designs, one of the companies behind Ethiopia’s taxi app RIDE.

Her own experience feeling unsafe taking taxis after work and having to haggle with drivers who wanted to charge her extra led her to create the app, which she started with less than $2,000 (around £1,700). Her company went on to employ a majority female staff. There are few women in Ethiopia’s tech industry and Fikru wants to inspire the next generation of young female entrepreneurs.

Women-owned business are growing in number; now we need more young girls to access the finances to make their creative ideas happen.

Samrawit Fikru

Wegahta Gebreyohannes Abera

Wegahta Gebreyohannes Abera, Tigray, Ethiopia

Humanitarian aid worker

A humanitarian aid worker, Wegahta Gebreyohannes Abera is also the founder of Hdrina, a non-profit organisation that aims to eradicate malnutrition caused by the war in Tigray. Hdrina has a number of projects to help war-affected women and children, including an emergency feeding programme in a camp for internally displaced people (IDP) and an urban gardening project.

The organisation also runs a female empowerment project for survivors of conflict-related sexual violence and women who, as a result of poverty caused by the war, have turned to commercial sex work.

Dilek Gürsoy

Dilek Gürsoy, Germany

Heart surgeon

Born in Germany to Turkish migrant parents, Dr Dilek Gürsoy is a leading heart surgeon and artificial heart specialist. She made the cover of Forbes magazine in Germany, which lauded her for being the first female surgeon in Europe to implant an artificial heart.

She has been at the forefront of artificial heart research for more than a decade, working on the development of an alternative to heart transplantation given the low rates of organ donation, with a special focus on female anatomy. She has written an autobiography and is now in the process of starting her own heart clinic.

Sofía Heinonen

Sofía Heinonen, Argentina


Committed to protecting biodiversity, biologist Sofía Heinonen led the first efforts to reverse the extinction crisis in South America, with the rewilding of the Esteros del Iberá, the main wetland ecosystem in Argentina and one of the world’s largest. She has spent more than 30 years contributing to the creation of protected areas.

Under her leadership, the Rewilding Argentina project is active in four main ecoregions, including the Patagonian steppe, under a model that looks at turning private land into protected national parks and reintroducing native species to restore ecosystems and build sustainable ecotourism.

Kimiko Hirata

Kimiko Hirata, Japan

Climate campaigner

A fierce opponent of coal power, Kimiko Hirata has spent nearly half her life fighting to wean Japan off its dependence on fossil fuels – by far the largest contributors to climate change. Her grassroots campaign resulted in the cancellation of 17 planned coal power plants. She is the first Japanese woman to win the Goldman Environmental Prize.

Hirata quit her job at a publishing house to become a climate activist in the 1990s after practicing Al Gore’s book Earth in the Balance. She’s now executive director of the independent organisation Climate Integrate, established in January 2022, which is tackling decarbonisation.

Judy Kihumba

Judy Kihumba, Kenya

Sign language interpreter

As an advocate of maternal mental health and wellness of deaf nursing mums, Judy Kihumba intervened to make healthcare information available to all women when she realised that some hospitals in Kenya didn’t have sign language interpreters.

She is the founder of Talking Hands, Listening Eyes on Postpartum Depression (THLEP) and helps women with impaired hearing in the journey of motherhood. Kihumba created the organisation after experiencing postpartum depression herself in 2019. This year they organised the first group baby shower, which brought together 78 deaf mothers with healthcare practitioners and counsellors.

Marie Christina Kolo

Marie Christina Kolo, Madagascar

Climate entrepreneur

Green social entrepreneur and ecofeminist, Marie Christina Kolo was part of Madagascar’s official delegation to COP27. She advocates on the human rights and gender aspects of climate change, as her country endures consecutive droughts that challenge access to food for millions. The UN has called it the world’s first climate change-induced famine.

Kolo is regional director of the NGO People Power Inclusion, which aims to fight poverty through the green economy. Her social enterprise, Green’N’Kool, is a leading national platform for climate justice. As a survivor of gender-based violence, she founded the movement Women Break the Silence, which fights against rape culture.

We don't want to be seen only as poor victims of climate impact, patriarchy and violence. I feel so optimistic and proud when I see that we women can be resilient, despite all the difficulties.

Marie Christina Kolo

Iryna Kondratova

Iryna Kondratova, Ukraine


Despite coming under heavy shelling, Dr Iryna Kondratova and her team continued to care tirelessly for pregnant women, newborns and mothers at the Kharkiv Regional Perinatal Centre. They set up a labour ward in the basement of the hospital, and risked their lives to stay with intensive care babies who couldn’t be moved, even as air raid sirens sounded.

As head of the centre, Dr Kondratova took over David Beckham’s Instagram in March, to highlight the challenges they face. Her team has provided medical and psychological support to more than 3,000 women from Luhansk and Donetsk since 2014.

Destroyed are our homes, roads, power stations, hospitals - and lives. But our dreams, our hopes and our faith are alive and stronger than ever.

Iryna Kondratova

Asonele Kotu

Asonele Kotu, South Africa

Tech entrepreneur

The idea for her business was born after Asonele Kotu wanted her own contraceptive implant removed, but couldn’t find anyone to help her. She then founded FemConnect, a start-up that provides technology solutions to alleviate period poverty and reduce teenage pregnancies.

The platform allows users to access sexual and reproductive telemedicine with no stigma or discrimination, as well as feminine hygiene products and contraceptives - and all the same way you would order food online. Kotu is passionate about eradicating period poverty and improving access to quality healthcare, especially for at-risk youth and those in marginalised and underserved communities.

It has been beautiful to watch the determination of young people to create solutions to problems, to ensure that the next generation does not experience the same struggles our parents did.

Asonele Kotu

Erika Liriano

Erika Liriano, Dominican Republic

Cocoa entrepreneur

Aiming to reimagine the cocoa supply chain, Erika Liriano runs a profit-sharing export start-up in the Dominican Republic. Liriano co-founded INARU with her sister, Janett, with the aim of making the production and distribution of cocoa fairer and more sustainable. This year, their start-up got seed funding.

Historically, the cocoa industry has been exploitative for smallholder farmers but their company ensures ethical sourcing and fair wages for Dominican producers. Born in New York, the sisters come from a family of farmers and entrepreneurs in the Dominican Republic. They now partner with women-run farms, co-operatives and suppliers across the country.

The power to determine your own path is something that all humans should have the right to, and that includes a woman’s power to choose what type of life she wants for herself.

Erika Liriano

Naja Lyberth

Naja Lyberth, Greenland


Trauma therapist Naja Lyberth was only 13 when she was involuntarily fitted with an intrauterine device (IUD), commonly known as a coil, as part of a birth control campaign carried out on Inuit Greenlanders by Danish doctors during the 1960s and 70s. This year Denmark and Greenland formally agreed to launch an investigation into these practices, which may have affected around 4,500 women and girls.

Lyberth campaigns to help these women, including those who suspect the coil is to blame for their fertility issues. She has set up a Facebook group for women to connect and support each other.

More and more women who are survivors are becoming role models for other women. Speaking out often makes the fear disappear, when you discover that you will not be judged. We cannot be controlled by our fears.

Naja Lyberth

Nigar Marf

Nigar Marf, Iraq


As head nurse in the main burns unit in Iraqi Kurdistan, Nigar Marf’s work includes treating women who have self-immolated, the act of setting oneself on fire. This practice is still common among young women in the region, as a form of protest.

Marf has worked in hospitals for around 25 years, both in paediatric burns and intensive care. In her ward she also treats patients who have sustained accidental burns. Many of the women she treats suffered mental and physical abuse before setting themselves on fire; some of them were as young as 16.

Monica Musonda

Monica Musonda, Zambia


A corporate lawyer-turned-entrepreneur, Monica Musonda is the founder and CEO of Java Foods, a Zambian-based food processing company and instant noodle manufacturer in the southern African region. Her vision is to produce affordable food products by taking advantage of Zambia’s strong wheat yields, as well as the demand for more convenience foods and changing consumption patterns.

Musonda, who is a nutrition advocate, mentors several other female entrepreneurs and speaks out on issues affecting women in business. She has won numerous awards, and has been recognised for her work to strengthen Africa's agricultural and food systems.

Ifeoma Ozoma

Ifeoma Ozoma, US

Public policy and tech specialist

After breaching her own non-disclosure agreement (NDA) to accuse her former employer Pinterest of gender and race discrimination, Ifeoma Ozoma is determined to help employees fight mistreatment at work. She became the co-sponsor of the Silenced No More Act, which allows every worker in California to share information about discrimination or harassment regardless of signing an NDA. Pinterest carried out a workplace review following Ozoma’s allegations and said it supports the legislation.

Ozoma also created The Tech Worker Handbook, a collection of resources to help employees speak out, and founded Earthseed, which advises organisations on equity in the tech industry.

Yuliia Paievska

Yuliia Paievska, Ukraine


A decorated Ukrainian civilian paramedic, and founder of Taira’s Angels, a volunteer medical unit credited with saving hundreds of wounded civilians and military personnel. Yuliia Paievska, better known as Taira, was captured by Russian forces in March while helping to evacuate civilians from Mariupol.

She had been using a body camera to document her team’s work in the besieged city, and the footage was given to the media. Upon her release three months later, Paievska spoke about the harsh conditions and brutal treatment she faced while in captivity, describing her detention as "hell".

Jane Rigby

Jane Rigby, US

Astronomer and astrophysicist

Nasa astrophysicist Dr Jane Rigby studies how galaxies evolve over cosmic time. She was one of the key scientists in the international team that launched and deployed the James Webb, the world's largest space telescope. In July, the first full-colour pictures taken by the Webb became the most detailed infrared view of the Universe to date.

Rigby has published more than 100 peer-reviewed scientific papers and has won multiple awards for her research. She is also an advocate for equity and inclusion in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics).

When I was a student, I wasn't aware of any LGBTQ role models. I hope I'm part of the last generation who grew up without queer role models to follow.

Jane Rigby

Ainura Sagyn

Ainura Sagyn, Kyrgyzstan


As a computer engineer, ecofeminist, and CEO of a start-up, Ainura Sagyn has been applying her skills to build technology-based solutions to environmental problems. She founded Tazar, an app which connects waste producers - everyone from households and individuals to restaurants, factories and construction sites - with recyclers. The app aims to reduce the waste that winds up in landfills and eventually tackle the problem of sustainability in Central Asian countries.

She has also led workshops in coding and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) for over 2,000 schoolgirls in different regions of Kyrgyzstan.

Without women’s leadership and participation in climate responses today, it is unlikely that solutions for a sustainable planet and a gender-equal tomorrow will be realised.

Ainura Sagyn

Monica Simpson

Monica Simpson, US

Reproductive justice activist

As executive director of SisterSong, a women-of-colour collective working for reproductive justice in the southern US states, Monica Simpson focuses on fighting for sexual and reproductive freedom. The issue returned to the spotlight this year after the US Supreme Court overturned the Roe v Wade ruling that made access to legal abortion a right throughout the country.

Simpson is also a singer and spoken word artist, fusing her activism with her art. She is a certified doula and founding board member of the Black Mamas Matter Alliance, working to advance black maternal health.

Maryna Viazovska

Maryna Viazovska, Ukraine


The Ukrainian mathematician who earlier this year became only the second woman in history to win the prestigious Fields Medal - often described as the Nobel Prize of mathematics and given out every four years. Maryna Viazovska won the award for her work on a 400-year-old puzzle, solving the problem of how to pack spheres in the most efficient way into a space with eight dimensions.

Based at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), Viazovska is a professor and Chair of Number Theory at the Institute of Mathematics.

Yana Zinkevych

Yana Zinkevych, Ukraine

Politician and front-line medical volunteer

Saving lives on the front line of the war, the Hospitallers is a volunteer paramedic organisation. Led by Yana Zinkevych, they work to evacuate people from the battlefield. Zinkevych became a medical volunteer after leaving school, and founded the battalion in 2014 at the start of the hostilities in Ukraine.

She has personally carried 200 wounded soldiers to safety. Her team continues to provide first aid to injured soldiers and civilians, conducts medical training, and has performed around 6,000 evacuations. The 27-year-old is also one of the youngest members of the Ukrainian parliament and is head of the military medicine subcommittee.

100 Women - BBC World Service

What is 100 Women?

BBC 100 Women names 100 influential and inspiring women around the world every year. We create documentaries, features and interviews about their lives - stories that put women at the centre.

Follow BBC 100 Women on Instagram, Facebook and Twitter. Join the conversation using #BBC100Women.

How were the 100 Women chosen?

The BBC's 100 Women team drew up a shortlist based on names they gathered and those suggested by the BBC's network of World Service Languages teams, as well as BBC Media Action. We were looking for candidates who had made headlines or influenced important stories over the past 12 months, as well as those who have inspiring stories to tell, or have achieved something significant or influenced their societies in ways that wouldn't necessarily make the news. The pool of names was then assessed against this year's theme – progress that has been made across different areas over the past decade.

We explored Topics that split opinion, such as reproductive rights where one woman’s progress could be another’s regression, and nominated women who have created their own change. The list was also measured for regional representation and due impartiality, before the final names were chosen.

Some of the women on the list appear anonymously or without a surname in order to protect them and their families, with their consent and following all BBC Editorial Policy and safety guidelines.

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